Alejandro Magno

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Alejandro Magno
Basileus de Macedonia

Alexander lucha contra el rey persa Darío III . De Mosaico Alexander , Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Nápoles
Reinado 336-323 a. C.
Nombre y apellidos Alejandro III de Macedonia
Griego ????? ?????????? iii [>] (Megas Alexandros, Alejandro Magno)
?????????? ? ????? (Alexandros ho megas, Alejandro Magno)
Títulos Rey de Macedonia , Hegemón de la Liga Helénica , Shahanshah de Persia , Faraón de Egipto y el Señor de Asia
Nacido 20 o 21 de julio 356 a. C.
Lugar de nacimiento Pella , Macedonia
Murió 10 o 11 de junio el año 323 aC (32 años)
Lugar de la muerte Babilonia
Predecesor Filipo II de Macedonia
Sucesor Alejandro IV de Macedonia
Felipe III de Macedonia
Esposas Roxana de Bactria
Stateira II de Persia
Parysatis II de Persia
Hijos Alejandro IV de Macedonia
Dinastía Argead dinastía
Padre Filipo II de Macedonia
Madre Olimpia de Epiro
Las creencias religiosas Politeísmo griego

Alejandro III de Macedonia (20/21 julio 356 - 10 / 11 junio 323 aC), comúnmente conocido como Alejandro Magno ( griego : ????? ??????????, Megas Alexandros), fue un rey de Macedonia ( griego : ???????? ?????????), un estado en el la región del noreste de Grecia , y por la edad de treinta años fue el creador de uno de los mayores imperios de la historia antigua , que se extiende desde el mar Jónico al Himalaya . Él se mantuvo invicto en la batalla y es considerado uno de los comandantes más exitosos de todos los tiempos. [1] Nacido en Pella en el año 356 aC, Alejandro fue educado por el famoso filósofo Aristóteles . En el 336 aC sucedió a su padre Filipo II de Macedonia al trono después de que Philip fue asesinado. Felipe había traído la mayoría de los estados-ciudad de la Grecia continental en Macedonia la hegemonía , utilizando los medios militares y diplomáticos.

Tras la muerte de Felipe, Alejandro heredó un reino fuerte y un ejército experimentado. Tuvo éxito en ser galardonado con el generalato de Grecia y, con su autoridad firmemente establecido, puesto en marcha los planes militares para la expansión de la izquierda por su padre. En el año 334 antes de Cristo invadió Persia gobernada por Asia Menor, y comenzó una serie de campañas que duran de diez años. Alexander se rompió el poder de Persia en una serie de decisivas batallas , sobre todo las batallas de Isos y Gaugamela . Posteriormente derrotó al rey persa Darío III y conquistó la totalidad de la Imperio Persa . i [>] El imperio macedónico ahora se extendía desde el mar Adriático con el río Indo .

Después de su deseo de alcanzar el "fin del mundo y el Gran Mar Exterior", que invadieron la India en el 326 aC, pero se vio obligado a volver por el motín de cerca de sus tropas. Alejandro murió en Babilonia en el 323 aC, sin darse cuenta de una serie de campañas planificadas que han comenzado con una invasión de Arabia . En los años siguientes la muerte de Alejandro de una serie de guerras civiles, rompió su imperio, aparte que dio lugar a la formación de un número de estados gobernados por el diádocos - superviviente generales de Alejandro. A pesar de que es sobre todo recordado por su gran conquista, legado de Alejandro no era su reinado, pero la difusión de la cultura engendra sus conquistas.

Alexander asentamiento de colonos y la cultura griega en el este como resultado un nuevo helenística la cultura, aspectos que aún eran evidentes en las tradiciones del Imperio Bizantino hasta mediados del siglo 15. Alexander se convirtió en leyenda como un héroe clásico en el molde de Aquiles , y ocupa un lugar destacado en la historia y el mito de las culturas griega y no griego. Se convirtió en la medida en contra de los generales, ni siquiera para el día de hoy, compare a sí mismos ya las academias militares de todo el mundo siguen enseñando sus hazañas tácticas. [1] ii [>]

Contenido

Primeros años de vida

Linaje y de la infancia

Alexander nació el 20 (o 21) de julio 356 a. C., [2] [3] en Pella , la capital del griego antiguo reino de Macedonia . Él era el hijo de Felipe II , el rey de Macedonia . Su madre fue la cuarta mujer de Felipe Olimpia , la hija de Neoptólemo I , el rey de Epiro . [4] [5] [6] [7] Aunque Felipe había siete u ocho mujeres, Olimpia fue su esposa principal por un tiempo, probablemente como resultado de dar a luz a Alejandro. [8]

Como miembro de la dinastía Argead , Alexander afirmó descendencia patrilineal de Heracles a través Caranus de Macedonia . iv [>] Desde el lado de su madre y la Aeacids , que se decía descendiente de Neoptólemo , hijo de Aquiles ; v [>] Alexander era un primo segundo del célebre general Pirro de Epiro , que fue clasificado por Aníbal como, dependiendo de la fuente, ya sea el mejor [9] o el segundo mejor (después de que Alexander) [10] el comandante del mundo jamás había visto.

De acuerdo con el antiguo biógrafo griego Plutarco , Olimpia, en la víspera de la consumación de su matrimonio con Felipe, soñó que su vientre fue golpeado por un rayo trueno, causando un fuego que se extendió "por todas partes" antes de morir lejos. Algún tiempo después de la boda, Felipe se dice que se ve, en un sueño, sellando el vientre de su esposa con un sello en el que estaba grabada la imagen de un león. [4] Plutarco ofrece una variedad de interpretaciones de estos sueños: Olimpia estaba embarazada antes de casarse, indica el cierre de su vientre, y el padre de Alejandro fue Zeus. Comentaristas antiguos estaban divididos en cuanto a si el Olimpia ambicioso promulgó la historia de la filiación divina de Alejandro, algunos afirman que ella le dijo a Alexander, y otros que se desestimó la sugerencia como impío. [4]

El día en que nació Alejandro, Felipe se estaba preparando para su asedio a la ciudad de Potidea en la península de Chalcidike. El mismo día, Felipe recibió la noticia de que su general Parmenio había derrotado al combinado de Iliria y Paeonian ejércitos, y que sus caballos habían ganado en los Juegos Olímpicos . También se dijo que en este día, el Templo de Artemisa en Efeso , una de las Siete Maravillas del Mundo por quemado, lo que lleva Hegesias de Magnesia decir que se quemó porque Artemis estaba asistiendo al nacimiento de Alexander. [2] [6] [11]

Alexander luchando contra un león asiático con su amigo Crátero (detalle). Siglo tercero antes de Cristo mosaico , Pella Museo.

En sus primeros años, Alexander fue criado por su enfermera, Lanike , la hermana del futuro amigo de Alejandro y en general Clito el Negro . Más tarde en su niñez, Alexander fue educado por el estricto Leónidas , pariente de su madre, y por Lisímaco . [12] [13] Alexander fue planteada a la manera de los jóvenes nobles macedonios, aprender a leer, tocar la lira, el paseo , lucha, y la caza. [14]

Cuando Alejandro tenía diez años, un comerciante de caballos de Tesalia traído un caballo de Felipe, que ofreció a la venta de trece talentos . El caballo se negó a ser montado por nadie, y Felipe le ordenó que se le quitará. Alexander, sin embargo, que se detectó el miedo de los caballos de su propia sombra y pidió un turno para domar a los caballos, que finalmente logró. [15] Según Plutarco, Felipe, encantado con esta demostración de coraje y ambición, lo besó con lágrimas, declarando : "Hijo mío, tienes que encontrar un gran reino suficiente para sus ambiciones Macedonia es demasiado pequeña para usted.", y compró el caballo para él. [16] Alexander sería el nombre del caballo Bucephalas , que significa "cabeza de buey". Bucephalas sería la compañera de Alejandro a lo largo de sus viajes hasta la India. Cuando murió Bucephalas (debido a la vejez, según Plutarco, porque ya tenía treinta), Alexander nombre de una ciudad después de él, Bucephala . [17] [18] [19]

La adolescencia y la educación

Aristóteles tutoría Alexander

Cuando Alejandro tenía trece años, Felipe comenzó a buscar un tutor . Mucha gente se pasó como Isócrates y Espeusipo , el último de los cuales fue Platón el sucesor de 's en la Academia y que ofreció su renuncia a ocupar el puesto. Al final, Felipe le ofreció el puesto a Aristóteles , quien aceptó, y Felipe siempre y cuando el templo de las ninfas en Mieza , como un salón de clases. A cambio de la enseñanza de Alexander, Felipe accedió a la reconstrucción de la ciudad natal de Aristóteles de Stageira , que Felipe había arrasado, y su repoblación por la compra y la liberación de los ciudadanos ex-que eran esclavos, o perdonando a los que estaban en el exilio. [20] [21] [22] [23]

Mieza era como un internado para Alexander y los hijos de los nobles macedonios, como Ptolomeo , Hefestión , y Casandro . Muchos de los que estudian por parte de Alejandro se convertiría en su amigo y futuro de los generales, y son a menudo conocido como el 'Compañeros'. En Mieza, Aristóteles enseñó Alexander y sus compañeros acerca de la medicina, la filosofía, la moral, la religión, la lógica y el arte. Bajo la tutela de Aristóteles, Alexander desarrolló una pasión por las obras de Homero , y en particular la Ilíada ;. Aristóteles le dio una copia anotada, que Alejandro iba a tener en sus campañas [24] [25] [26] [27]

Heredero de Felipe

Regency y el ascenso de Macedonia

Un busto que representa Filipo II de Macedonia , padre de Alejandro

Cuando Alejandro se convirtió en dieciséis años, su tutela en Aristóteles llegó a su fin. Felipe, el rey, se fue a la guerra contra Bizancio , y Alejandro se quedó a cargo como regente y heredero del reino. [15] Durante la ausencia de Felipe, el tracio Maedi rebelaron contra el gobierno de Macedonia. Alejandro respondió rápidamente, aplastó a la insurgencia Maedi, expulsándolos de su territorio, colonizado con los griegos, y fundó una ciudad llamada Alexandrópolis . [28] [29] [30] [31]

Tras el regreso de Felipe de Bizancio, envió a Alexander con una pequeña fuerza para someter a ciertas revueltas en el sur de Tracia . En otra campaña en contra de la ciudad griega de Perinthus , Alexander se ha ahorrado la vida de su padre. Mientras tanto, la ciudad de Anfisa comenzó a trabajar tierras que eran sagrados para Apolo cerca de Delphi , un sacrilegio que dio Felipe la oportunidad de intervenir más en los asuntos de Grecia. Todavía ocupado en Tracia, Felipe ordenó a Alejandro para comenzar a reunir un ejército para una campaña en Grecia. Preocupado por la posibilidad de otros estados griegos intervenir, Alexander hizo parecer como si estuviera preparando un ataque a Illyria en su lugar. Durante esta crisis, los ilirios aprovechó la oportunidad para invadir Macedonia, pero Alexander repelió a los invasores. [32]

Felipe se unió a Alejandro con su ejército en el 338 aC, y se marchó hacia el sur a través de las Termópilas , que tuvo después de la tenaz resistencia de la guarnición de Tebas. Pasaron a ocupar la ciudad de Elatea , unos pocos días de marzo de Atenas y Tebas. Mientras tanto, los atenienses, dirigidos por Demóstenes , votó a favor de buscar una alianza con Tebas en la guerra contra Macedonia. Atenas y Felipe envió a las embajadas para tratar de ganar el favor de Tebas, con los atenienses finalmente sucedería. [33] [34] [35] Philip marcharon en Anfisa (teóricamente actuar a solicitud de la Liga Amphicytonic), capturó a los mercenarios enviados allí por Demóstenes, y aceptó la rendición de la ciudad. Felipe regresó a Elatea y envió una última oferta de paz a Atenas y Tebas, que fue rechazada. [36] [37] [38]

Estatua de Alejandro en el Museo Arqueológico de Estambul

Como Felipe marchó hacia el sur, fue bloqueada cerca de Queronea , Beocia por las fuerzas de Atenas y Tebas. Durante los siguientes batalla de Queronea , Filipo ordenó a la derecha, y Alejandro el ala izquierda, acompañado por un grupo de generales de confianza de Felipe. Según las fuentes antiguas, los dos bandos lucharon duramente durante mucho tiempo. Philip deliberadamente ordenó a las tropas en su ala derecha a Retroceda, contando con los hoplitas atenienses probado a seguir, rompiendo así su línea. A la izquierda, Alexander fue el primero en entrar en las líneas de Tebas, seguido por los generales Felipe. Después de haber logrado una brecha en la cohesión del enemigo, Felipe ordenó a sus tropas a seguir adelante y rápidamente se deshizo de su enemigo. Con la derrota de los atenienses, los tebanos se quedaron a luchar solo, rodeado por el enemigo victorioso, fueron aplastados. [39]

Después de la victoria en Queronea, Filipo y Alejandro marchó sin oposición en el Peloponeso, bien recibida por todas las ciudades, sin embargo, cuando llegaron a Esparta ., que se negaron fueron, y dejaron sólo [40] En Corinto , Philip estableció una "Alianza Helénica" (el modelo en la antigua alianza anti-persa de las guerras greco-persas ), con la excepción de Esparta. Felipe fue nombrado entonces Hegemón (a menudo traducido como "Supreme Commander") de esta liga (conocido por los historiadores modernos como la Liga de Corinto). A continuación, anunció sus planes para una guerra de venganza contra el Imperio Persa , que él mando. [41] [42]

El exilio y el retorno

Después de regresar a Pella, Felipe se enamoró y se casó con Cleopatra Eurydice , la sobrina de uno de sus generales, Atalo . [43] Esta unión hizo que la posición de Alejandro como heredero de la corona es menos seguro, ya que si Cleopatra Eurydice dio Felipe un hijo, habría un heredero totalmente Macedonia, mientras que Alexander era sólo la mitad de Macedonia. [44] Durante el banquete de bodas, un borracho Atalo hizo un discurso rogando a los dioses que la unión sería un heredero legítimo al trono de Macedonia. [43]

En las bodas de Cleopatra, a quien Felipe se enamoró y se casó, y siendo ella demasiado joven para él, su tío Átalo en su bebida deseada a los macedonios que implorar a los dioses para darles un sucesor legítimo del reino de su sobrina. Esta tan irritado Alexander, que tirar una de las copas en la cabeza, "Usted villano", dijo, "lo que, entonces yo soy un hijo de puta?" Entonces Felipe, tomando parte Atalo, la levantó y se han ejecutado a su hijo a través de, pero por suerte para ambos, ya sea su furia apresurada, o el vino que había bebido, hizo su deslizamiento del pie, por lo que cayó en el suelo. En tono de reproche que Alexander insultado por él: "Mira allí", dijo, "anuló el hombre que hace los preparativos para pasar de Europa a Asia, al pasar de un asiento a otro."

-. Plutarco, que describe la pelea en la boda de Felipe [28]

Alexander huyó de Macedonia, teniendo a su madre con él, [45] quien dejó a su hermano en Dodona , capital de Epiro. Él llevó a Illyria, [45] donde se había refugiado con el rey de Iliria y fue tratado como un invitado por los ilirios, a pesar de haber derrotado en la batalla unos años antes. Sin embargo, parece que Felipe nunca tuvo la intención de repudiar a su hijo militar y políticamente formado, [45] y Alejandro regresó a Macedonia después de seis meses en el exilio debido a los esfuerzos de un amigo de la familia, Demarato de Corinto , que medió entre las dos partes. [ 28] [46] [47]

Al año siguiente, el persa sátrapa (gobernador) de Caria , Pixodarus , ofreció la mano de su hija mayor a la de Alejandro medio hermano, Felipe Arrideo . [45] Olimpia y varios de los amigos de Alejandro sugirió a Alexander que esta acción demostró que Felipe pretende para hacer Arrideo su heredero. [45] Alejandro reaccionó enviando un actor, Tesalo de Corinto, a decir Pixodarus que no debe ofrecer la mano de su hija a un hijo ilegítimo, pero en lugar de Alexander. Cuando Felipe se enteró, dejó las negociaciones y regañó a Alexander por querer casarse con la hija de un cario, explicándole que quería una novia mejor para él. [45] Felipe tenía cuatro de los amigos de Alejandro, Harpalus , Nearco , Ptolomeo y Erigyius exilio, y que los corintios llevar Tesalo a él en las cadenas. [44] [48] [49]

Rey de Macedonia

Adhesión

El Reino de Macedonia en el 336 aC

En el 336 aC, mientras que en Egas , asistir a la boda de su hija Olimpia, Cleopatra , con el hermano de Olimpia, el Alejandro I de Epiro , Philip fue asesinado por el capitán de su guardia personal , Pausanias . vi [>] Como Pausanias trató de escapar, tropezó con una vid y fue asesinado por sus perseguidores, entre ellos dos de los compañeros de Alejandro, Pérdicas y Leonato . Alejandro fue proclamado rey por el ejército de Macedonia y por los nobles macedonios, a la edad de 20 años. [50] [51] [52]

Poder de consolidación

Alexander comenzó su reinado por la eliminación de cualquier posible rival para el trono. Él tenía su primo, el ex- IV Amintas , ejecutados, [53] , así como tener dos príncipes de Macedonia de la región de Lyncestis muertos, mientras que un tercero, Alexander Lincestes , se salvó. Olimpia había Cleopatra Eurydice y su hija de Felipe, Europa, quemados vivos. Cuando Alejandro se enteró de esto, se puso furioso con su madre. Alexander también ordenó el asesinato de Atalo, [53] quien estaba al mando de la vanguardia del ejército en Asia Menor. Atalo fue en el momento en correspondencia con Demóstenes, sobre la posibilidad de desertar a Atenas. Independientemente de que Atalo que realmente se refiere a un defecto, que tenía ya gravemente insultado Alexander, y que sólo tuvo a su hija Atalo y nietos de asesinados, Alexander probablemente se sintió Atalo era demasiado peligroso salir con vida. [54] Alejandro salvó la vida de Arrideo, que por todas las cuentas de personas con discapacidad mental, posiblemente como resultado de la intoxicación por Olimpia. [50] [55] [56] [57]

La noticia de la muerte de Felipe despertó muchos estados en rebelión, incluyendo Tebas, Atenas, Tesalia, y las tribus de Tracia en el norte de Macedonia. Cuando las noticias de las revueltas en Grecia llegó a Alexander, él respondió rápidamente. A pesar de sus asesores le aconsejaron que usar la diplomacia, Alexander reunió la caballería macedonia de 3.000 hombres y se dirigió al sur, hacia Tesalia, vecino de Macedonia al sur. Cuando se encontró con el ejército de Tesalia ocupando el paso entre el monte Olimpo y Ossa de montaje , que había recorrido los hombres en el monte Ossa. Cuando los tesalios se despertó al día siguiente, se encontraron con Alexander en su parte trasera, y rápidamente se rindió, y añadió a su caballería a la fuerza de Alejandro, mientras se dirigía hacia el Peloponeso . [58] [59] [60] [61]

Alejandro se detuvo en las Termópilas, donde fue reconocido como el líder de la Liga Anfictiónico , antes de dirigirse al sur de Corinto. Atenas pidió la paz y Alexander recibió al enviado y perdonó a las personas implicadas en el levantamiento. En Corinto, donde ocurrió el famoso encuentro con Diógenes el Cínico , que le pedirá que permanezca un poco de lado cuando estaba bloqueando el sol, [62] Alexander fue dado el título de Hegemón, y como Felipe, comandante designado de la guerra futura contra Persia . Mientras que en Corinto, escuchó la noticia de la Tracia el aumento en el norte. [59] [63]

Balcanes campaña

Antes de cruzar a Asia, Alejandro quería salvaguardar su frontera norte, y, en la primavera del 335 aC, avanzó a suprimir varias revueltas aparente. A partir de Anfípolis , que por primera vez este en el país de la "tracios Independiente", y en el monte Hemo , atacaron al ejército macedonio y derrotó a un ejército de Tracia dotación de las alturas. [64] Los macedonios marcharon en el país de la Triballi , y procedió a derrotar a los Triballian ejército cerca del río Lyginus [65] (un afluente del Danubio ). Alexander luego avanzó por tres días en el Danubio , el encuentro con los getas tribu en la orilla opuesta. Sorprendiendo a los getas, cruzando el río por la noche, obligó a los getas ejército a retirarse después de la caballería primera escaramuza , dejando a su pueblo en el ejército macedonio. [66] [67] Noticias de entonces llegó a Alejandro que Clito , el rey de Iliria, y el rey Glaukias de la Taulanti estaban en abierta rebeldía contra la autoridad de Macedonia. Marchando hacia el oeste en Iliria, Alejandro derrotó a cada uno de ellos, obligando a Clito y Glaukias a huir con sus ejércitos, dejando a la frontera norte de Alexander es seguro. [68] [69]

Mientras estaba haciendo campaña triunfal hacia el norte, los tebanos y atenienses se rebelaron una vez más. Alexander inmediatamente interrumpido su campaña y se dirigió al sur con su ejército, [70] , pero, mientras que las otras ciudades, una vez más vaciló, Tebas decidieron resistir con la máxima energía. Sin embargo, la resistencia no fue efectivo, y la ciudad fue arrasada hasta los cimientos en medio de gran derramamiento de sangre, y su territorio fue dividido entre las ciudades de Beocia otros. El fin de Tebas intimidar a Atenas en la presentación, dejando a todos los de Grecia, al menos exteriormente en paz con Alejandro. [70] Alexander entonces emprendió su campaña de Asia, dejando a Antípatro como regente de Macedonia. [71]

La conquista del Imperio Persa

Asia Menor

Mapa del imperio de Alejandro y los caminos que tomó

El ejército de Alejandro cruzó el Helesponto en el 334 aC, con aproximadamente 48.100 soldados, caballería 6100 y una flota de 120 barcos con tripulaciones de numeración 38000, [70] procedentes de Macedonia y varias ciudades-estado griegas, mercenarios y feudal levantó soldados de Tracia , Paionia , y Illyria . [72] Después de una primera victoria contra las fuerzas persas en la batalla de Gránico , Alejandro aceptó la rendición de la capital de la provincia persa y el tesoro de Sardis y procedió por el Jónico costa. [73] En Halicarnaso , Alexander éxito libró la primero de muchos sitios , finalmente, obligaron a sus oponentes, el capitán mercenario Memnon de Rodas y el persa sátrapa de Caria , Orontobates , a retirar por el mar. [74] Alexander dejó el gobierno de Caria a Ada , quien adoptó a Alejandro como su hijo. [ 75]

De Halicarnaso, Alexander procedió a montañoso Licia y el Pamphylian normal, afirmar el control sobre todas las ciudades costeras con el fin de negar las bases navales persas. De adelante Panfilia, la costa no tenía ningún principales puertos y por lo tanto Alexander se trasladó hacia el interior. En Termessos , Alexander humillado, pero no la tormenta de Pisidia ciudad. [76] En la antigua capital de Frigia de Gordium , Alexander "deshizo" de la hasta ahora sin solución del nudo gordiano , un hecho, dijo que esperan en el futuro "rey de Asia ". [77] Según la historia, Alejandro proclamó que no importa lo que el nudo se deshizo, y se las corta aparte con su espada. [78]

El Levante y Siria

Mosaico de Alejandro, que muestra la batalla de Issos , de la Casa del Fauno , Pompeya

Después de pasar la campaña de invierno en Asia Menor, el ejército de Alejandro cruzó el Puertas de Cilicia en el año 333 aC, y derrotaron al ejército persa principal bajo el mando de Darío III en la batalla de Isos , en noviembre. [79] Darío huyó de la batalla, haciendo que su ejército de romper, y dejó a su esposa, sus dos hijas, su madre Sisygambis , y una cantidad fabulosa de un tesoro. [80] Él después ofreció un tratado de paz con Alejandro, la concesión de las tierras que habían conquistado, y un rescate de 10.000 talentos para su familia. Alexander dijo que desde que era ahora el rey de Asia, que estaba solo, que decidió divisiones territoriales. [81]

Alexander procedió a tomar posesión de Siria, y la mayor parte de la costa del Levante . [82] Sin embargo, al año siguiente, 332 aC, se vio obligado a atacar a Tiro , la que finalmente capturado después de un famoso sitio . [83] [84 ] Después de la captura de Tiro, Alejandro masacraron a todos los hombres en edad militar, y vendieron a las mujeres y niños como esclavos. [85]

Egipto

Nombre de Alejandro Magno en jeroglíficos (escrito de derecha a izquierda), alrededor del año 330 aC, Egipto. Museo del Louvre .

Cuando Alejandro destruyó Tiro, la mayoría de las ciudades en la ruta a Egipto pronto capituló, con la excepción de Gaza. La fortaleza en Gaza se construyó en una colina y se fortaleció en gran medida. [86] En el comienzo de la Batalla de Gaza , Alexander utilizó los motores que había empleado contra Tiro. Después de tres ataques sin éxito, la fortaleza fue tomada finalmente por la fuerza, pero no antes de que Alejandro recibió una herida en el hombro graves. Al igual que en los neumáticos, la población masculina fue puesto a la espada y las mujeres y niños fueron vendidos como esclavos. [87]

Jerusalén, por su parte, abrió sus puertas en señal de rendición, y de acuerdo con Josefo, Alexander se mostró el libro de la profecía de Daniel, probablemente el capítulo 8, donde un rey griego poderoso que someter y conquistar el Imperio Persa. Entonces, Alejandro salvó Jerusalén y empujó hacia el sur en Egipto. [88] [89]

Alexander avanzada en Egipto en el 332 aC después, donde fue considerado como un libertador. [90] Fue declarado el nuevo "amo del universo" y el hijo de la deidad de Amón en el Oracle de Oasis de Siwa , en la Libia del desierto. [ 91] A partir de entonces, Alexander a menudo se refiere a Zeus-Amón como su verdadero padre, y la moneda posteriores representado lo adornaban con cuernos de carnero, como símbolo de su divinidad. [92] [93] Durante su estancia en Egipto, fundó Alejandría por Egipto , que se convertiría en la próspera capital del reino de Ptolomeo después de su muerte. [94]

Asiria y Babilonia

Disposiciones iniciales y los movimientos de apertura en la batalla de Gaugamela , 331 antes de Cristo.

La salida de Egipto en el 331 aC, Alejandro marchó hacia el este en Mesopotamia (actual norte de Irak ) y derrotó a Darío, una vez más en la batalla de Gaugamela . [95] Una vez más, Darío se vio obligado a abandonar el campo, y Alejandro lo persiguió hasta Arbela . Gaugamela resultaría ser el encuentro final y decisivo entre Darío y Alejandro. Darío huyó a las montañas de Ecbatana (moderna Hamedan ), y Alejandro marcharon y capturaron a Babilonia . [96]

Persia

De Babilonia, Alexander fue a Susa , uno de los aqueménidas capitales, y capturó a su tesoro legendario. [96] El envío del grueso de su ejército a la capital persa ceremonial de Persépolis, a través del Camino Real , el mismo Alejandro tomó las tropas seleccionado en la ruta directa a la ciudad. Alejandro tuvo que asaltar el paso de los Gates Pérsico (en el moderno Montes Zagros ), que había sido bloqueado por un ejército persa bajo Ariobarzanes y luego echó a correr hacia Persépolis antes de su guarnición podía saquear el tesoro. [97] Al entrar en Persépolis Alexander permitido a sus tropas a saquear la ciudad, antes de finalmente poner un alto a la misma. [98] Alejandro se quedó en Persépolis durante cinco meses. [99] Durante la estancia de Alejandro en la capital se produjo un incendio en el palacio oriental de Jerjes y se extendió al resto de la ciudad. Las teorías abundan en cuanto a si este fue el resultado de un accidente borracho, o un acto deliberado de venganza por la quema de la Acrópolis de Atenas durante la Segunda Guerra del Pérsico . [100] Arriano , en una de sus críticas frecuentes de Alejandro, los estados " Yo tampoco creo que Alejandro mostró el buen sentido de esta acción, ni que podía castigar a los persas de una época pasada de largo. " [101]

Caída del Imperio y del Este

Alexander luego salió en busca de Darío otra vez, por primera vez en los medios de comunicación, a continuación, los partos. [102] El rey persa ya no estaba en control de su destino, después de haber sido tomado prisionero por Besos , su bactriano sátrapa y pariente. [103] Como Alexander se acercó, Besos a sus hombres fatalmente apuñalar al Gran Rey y luego se declaró Darío sucesor Artajerjes V, antes de retirarse a Asia Central para lanzar una guerrilla campaña en contra de Alexander. [104] Darío restos fueron enterrados por Alejandro junto a su aqueménida predecesores en un funeral real completo. [105] Alexander afirmó que, al morir, Darío lo había nombrado como su sucesor en el trono aqueménida. [106] El Imperio Aqueménida que normalmente se considera que han caído con la muerte de Darío. [107]

Moneda de plata de Alejandro, Museo Británico

Alexander, ahora se considera el legítimo sucesor de Darío, considerado como un usurpador Besos al trono aqueménida, y se dispuso a derrotarlo. Esta campaña, en un principio en contra de Besos, se convirtió en una gran gira por Asia Central, con Alejandro fundó una serie de nuevas ciudades, todas las llamadas Alejandría, incluidos los modernos Kandahar en Afganistán, y Alejandría Eschate ("más lejos") en la actual Tayikistán . La campaña se llevó a Alexander a través de los medios de comunicación , Partia , Aria (oeste de Afganistán), Drangiana , Arachosia (sur y centro de Afganistán), Bactriana (norte y centro de Afganistán), y Escitia . [108]

Besos fue entregado en el año 329 aC por Spitamenes , que tenía una posición definida en la satrapía de Sogdiana. Spitamenes entregado Besos a Ptolomeo , uno de los compañeros de confianza de Alejandro, y Besos fue ejecutado. [109] Sin embargo, cuando, en algún momento más tarde, Alexander estaba en el Jaxartes trata de una incursión de un ejército de nómadas a caballo, Spitamenes planteado Sogdiana en rebelión . Alexander personalmente derrotó a los escitas en la Batalla de Jaxartes e inmediatamente lanzó una campaña contra Spitamenes y lo derrotó en la Batalla de Gabai ;. después de la derrota, Spitamenes fue asesinado por sus propios hombres, que luego pidió la paz [110]

Los problemas y las parcelas

Durante este tiempo, Alejandro se llevó el título persa "Rey de Reyes" (Shahanshah) y adoptó algunos de los elementos de la vestimenta y las costumbres persas en su corte, en particular, la costumbre de proskynesis , ya sea un beso simbólico de la mano, o postrarse en el suelo, que los persas atención a sus superiores sociales. [111] [112] Los griegos consideraban el gesto como la provincia de deidades y se cree que Alejandro se pretende divinizar por lo requieran. Esto le costó mucho en la simpatía de muchos de sus compatriotas, [112] y que finalmente lo abandonaron. [113] Un complot contra su vida fue revelado, y uno de sus oficiales, Filotas , fue ejecutado por no llevar la trama a su atención. The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion , who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana , was assassinated by command of Alexander, so he might not make attempts at vengeance. Most infamously, Alexander personally slew the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black , during a drunken argument at Maracanda . [ 114 ] Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages . His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus (who had fallen out of favor with the king by leading the opposition to his attempt to introduce proskynesis ), was accused of being implicated in the plot; however, there has never been consensus among historians regarding his involvement in the conspiracy. [ 115 ]

Macedon in Alexander's absence

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater , an experienced military and political leader and part of the "Old Guard" that had served under Philip II, in charge of Macedon. [ 71 ] Alexander's sacking of Thebes ensured that Greece remained quiet during his absence. [ 71 ] The one exception was a call to arms by the Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in battle at Megalopolis the following year. [ 71 ] He then referred the punishment of the Spartans to Alexander, who chose to pardon them. [ 116 ] There was also considerable friction between Antipater and Alexander's mother Olympias, and both wrote to Alexander complaining about the other. [ 117 ] In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. [ 118 ] Alexander also sent back vast sums from his conquest, which helped stimulate the economy and increased trade between the new areas of his empire. [ 119 ] However, Alexander's constant demands for troops and the migrations of numerous Macedonians to the various parts of his empire depleted Macedonian power, greatly weakening it in the years after his death, ultimately leading to its defeat and subjugation by Rome. [ 120 ]

Indian campaign

Invasion of the Indian subcontinent

Silver "Victory coin" of Alexander the Great, minted in Babylon c.322 BC, following his campaigns in India .
Obv : Alexander being crowned by Nike .
Rev : Alexander attacking King Porus on his elephant. British Museum .

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Roshanak in Bactrian ) to cement his relations with his new Central Asian satrapies, Alexander turned his attention to the Indian subcontinent . Alexander invited all the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara , in the north of what is now Pakistan , to come to him and submit to his authority. Omphis , ruler of Taxila , whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes , complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit. [ 121 ]

In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally led a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys , the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys. [ 122 ] A fierce contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart but eventually the Aspasioi lost the fight. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought put up stubborn resistance to Alexander in the strongholds of Massaga , Ora and Aornos . [ 121 ] The fort of Massaga could only be reduced after several days of bloody fighting in which Alexander himself was wounded seriously in the ankle. According to Curtius , "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubbles". [ 123 ] A similar slaughter then followed at Ora, another stronghold of the Assakenoi. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos . Alexander followed close behind their heels and captured the strategic hill-fort after the fourth day of a bloody fight. [ 121 ]

After Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and won an epic battle against a local Punjabi ruler Porus , who ruled a region in the Punjab , in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. [ 124 ] Alexander was greatly impressed by Porus for his bravery in battle, and therefore made an alliance with him and appointed him as satrap of his own kingdom, even adding land he did not own before. Additional reasons were probably political since, to control lands so distant from Greece required local assistance and co-operation. [ 125 ] Alexander named one of the two new cities that he founded on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river, Bucephala , in honor of the horse that had brought him to India, and had died during the battle [ 126 ] and the other Nicaea (Victory) at the site of modern day Mong . [ 127 ] [ 128 ]

Revolt of the army

Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent

East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River , was the powerful Nanda Empire of Magadha and Gangaridai Empire of Bengal . Fearing the prospects of facing other powerful Indian armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River , refusing to march further east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests. [ 129 ] [ 130 ]

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants . [ 129 ]

Alexander spoke to his army and tried to persuade them to march further into India but Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return, the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland". Alexander, seeing the unwillingness of his men, eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus . Along the way his army conquered the Malli clans (in modern day Multan ), and other Indian tribes. [ 131 ]

Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran ) with his general Craterus , and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus , while he led the rest of his forces back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran (now part of southern Iran and Pakistan). [ 132 ] Alexander reached Susa in 324 BC, but not before losing a large number of men to the harsh conditions of the desert. [ 133 ]

Last years in Persia

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed a number of them as examples, on his way to Susa . [ 134 ] [ 135 ] As a gesture of thanks, he paid off the debts of his soldiers, and announced that he would send those over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedon under Craterus. But, his troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis , refusing to be sent away and bitterly criticizing his adoption of Persian customs and dress, and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units. [ 136 ] After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, he began to give select Persians command posts in the army and Macedonian military titles were conferred upon Persian units. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and that evening he held a great banquet which was attended by several thousands of his men at which they ate together. [ 137 ] In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, he held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen at Susa, but few of those marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year. [ 135 ] Meanwhile, upon his return, Alexander learned some men had desecrated the tomb of Cyrus the Great , and swiftly executed them, because they were put in charge of guarding the tomb Alexander held in honor. [ 138 ]

After Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion , died of an illness, or possibly of poisoning. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] Arrian finds great diversity and casts doubts on the accounts of Alexander's displays of grief, although he says that they all agree that Hephaestion's death devastated him, and that he ordered the preparation of an expensive funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for the observance of a public mourning. [ 139 ]

Back in Babylon, Alexander planned a series of new campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Arabia, but he would not have a chance to realize them, as he died shortly after his return to Babylon. [ 141 ]

Death and succession

A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander ( British Museum , London)

On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II , in Babylon at the age of 32. [ 142 ] Details of the death differ slightly – Plutarch 's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained his admiral Nearchus , and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa . [ 143 ] He developed a fever, which grew steadily worse, until he was unable to speak, and the common soldiers, anxious about his health, demanded and were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. [ 144 ] Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck down with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Hercules , and died after some agony, [ 145 ] which is also mentioned as an alternative by Arrian, but Plutarch specifically denies this claim. [ 143 ]

Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination, [ 146 ] allegations of foul play have been made about the death of Alexander. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mention the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Plutarch dismisses it as a fabrication, [ 55 ] while both Diodorus and Arrian say that they only mention it for the sake of completeness. [ 145 ] [ 147 ] The accounts are nevertheless fairly consistent in designating Antipater , recently removed from the position of Macedonian viceroy, and at odds with Olympias, as the head of the alleged plot. Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence in waiting, [ 148 ] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas, [ 149 ] Antipater arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer. [ 55 ] [ 147 ] [ 149 ] There is even a suggestion that Aristotle may have had a hand in the plot. [ 55 ] [ 147 ] Conversely, the strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days had passed between the start of his illness and his death; in the ancient world, such long-acting poisons were probably not available. [ 150 ] In 2010, however, a theory was proposed that indicated that the circumstances of his death are compatible with poisoning by water of the river Styx ( Mavroneri ) that contained calicheamicin , a dangerous compound produced by bacteria present in its waters. [ 151 ]

Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested as the cause of Alexander's death; malaria or typhoid fever are obvious candidates. A 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis, [ 152 ] whereas another recent analysis has suggested pyrogenic spondylitis or meningitis as the cause. [ 153 ] Other illnesses could have also been the culprit, including acute pancreatitis or the West Nile virus . [ 154 ] [ 155 ] Natural-cause theories also tend to emphasise that Alexander's health may have been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and his suffering severe wounds (including one in India that nearly claimed his life). Furthermore, the anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion 's death may have contributed to his declining health. [ 152 ]

Another possible cause of Alexander's death is an overdose of medication containing hellebore , which is deadly in large doses. [ 156 ] [ 157 ]

Fate after death

Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus

Alexander's body was placed in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus , which was in turn placed in a second gold casket. [ 158 ] According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to rest "would be happy and unvanquishable forever". [ 159 ] Perhaps more likely, the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy (it was a royal prerogative to bury the previous king). [ 160 ] At any rate, Ptolemy stole the funeral cortege, and took it to Memphis. [ 158 ] [ 159 ] His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus , transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it remained until at least Late Antiquity . Ptolemy IX Lathyros , one of the last successors of Ptolemy I, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could melt the original down for issues of his coinage. [ 161 ] Pompey , Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, the latter allegedly accidentally knocking the nose off the body. Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. En c. AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexander's tomb to the public. His son and successor, Caracalla , was a great admirer of Alexander, and visited the tomb in his own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are sketchy. [ 161 ]

The so-called " Alexander Sarcophagus ", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum , is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions hunting and in battle with the Persians. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331. [ 162 ] [ 163 ] [ 164 ] However, more recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymus' death. [ 165 ]

Division of the empire

Bust of Seleucus I Nicator , who succeeded to Alexander's eastern conquests

Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. [ 71 ] Alexander had no obvious or legitimate heir, his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexander's death. This left the huge question as to who would rule the newly conquered, and barely pacified empire. [ 166 ] According to Diodorus, Alexander's companions asked him when he was on his deathbed to whom he bequeathed his kingdom; his laconic reply was "tôi kratistôi"—"to the strongest". [ 145 ] Given that Arrian and Plutarch have Alexander speechless by this point, it is possible that this is an apocryphal story. [ 167 ] Diodorus, Curtius and Justin also have the more plausible story of Alexander passing his signet ring to Perdiccas , one of his bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby possibly nominating Perdiccas as his successor. [ 145 ] [ 166 ]

In any event, Perdiccas initially avoided explicitly claiming power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus , Leonnatus and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager , rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings of the Empire—albeit in name only. [ 168 ]

It was not long, however, before dissension and rivalry began to afflict the Macedonians. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general could use to launch his own bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, all semblance of Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years of war between "The Successors" ( Diadochi ) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocks: the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, the Seleucid Empire in the east, the Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor, and Macedon. In the process, both Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered. [ 169 ]

Testament

Diodorus relates that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. [ 170 ] Although Craterus had already started to carry out some of Alexander's commands, the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds they were impractical and extravagant. [ 170 ] Nevertheless, Alexander's will was read out to his troops by Perdiccas upon Alexander's death. [ 71 ] The testament called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations. Its contents included:

Carácter

Generalship

The Battle of the Granicus , 334 BC
The Battle of Issus , 333 BC

Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. [ 70 ] He is known to have never lost a battle, despite being constantly outnumbered in the many battles he fought. [ 70 ] This success was due to a successful use of terrain, mastery of phalanx and cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and particularly the ability to inspire fierce loyalty among his troops. [ 172 ] [ 173 ] The Macedonian phalanx, armed with the sarissa , a spear six meters in length, had been developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training, [ 173 ] and Alexander used its speed and maneuverability to great effect against the larger but more disparate Persian forces. [ 173 ] Alexander also recognized the potential for disunity among his diverse army, which had different language and weapons, and overcame it by being personally involved in the action, [ 174 ] in the manner of a Macedonian king. [ 172 ] [ 173 ]

In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small portion of his strength, perhaps 13,000 infantry with 5,000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40,000. Alexander placed the phalanx at the center and cavalry and archers on the wings, so that his line was the same length as that of the Persian cavalry line he faced, about 3 km (1.86 mi) (by contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind the cavalry). This ensured that he would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the scimitars and javelins of the Persians, and Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. [ 175 ]

At Issus in 333 BC, his first confrontation with Darius, he used the same deployment, and again the phalanx at the center pushed through with the advantage of its long pikes. [ 175 ] This enabled Alexander to personally lead the charge in the center against Darius, causing him to flee and his army to rout. [ 172 ] At the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela, Darius had equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to break up the phalanx and his cavalry with pikes. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming. The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. [ 175 ]

When faced with opponents who used fighting techniques he was unfamiliar with, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander was quick to adapt his forces to his opponents fighting style. Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana , Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center. [ 172 ] In India, when confronted by Porus' elephant corps, the Macedonians were victorious by opening their ranks to envelop the elephants and using their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the elephants' handlers. [ 137 ]

Physical appearance

Roman copy of a statue by Lysippos , Louvre Museum . Plutarch felt sculptures by Lysippos were the most faithful.

Greek biographer Plutarch (ca. 45–120 AD) describes Alexander appearance as:

1 The outward appearance of Alexander is best represented by the statues of him which Lysippus made, and it was by this artist alone that Alexander himself thought it fit that he should be modelled. 2 For those peculiarities which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of the neck, which was bent slightly to the left, and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist has accurately observed. 3 Apelles, however, in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt, did not reproduce his complexion, but made it too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face. 4 Moreover, that a very pleasant odour exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled with it, this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus . [ 176 ]

Another Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' ca. 86 – 160) described Alexander as:

[T]he strong, handsome commander with one eye dark as the night and one blue as the sky . [ 177 ]

Many statues portray Alexander in a curved body posture, with the gaze looking upward and outward, so some historians consider these signs of physical deformities, but it is also a traditional art concept of Contrapposto that ancient and modern sculptors often use to signify grace, elegance and social dominance. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] [ 180 ] [ 181 ] It was suggested by these historians that Alexander's father, Philip II, and his brother, Philip Arrhidaeus, may have suffered from physical deformities, which had led to the conclusion that Alexander had a congenital scoliotic disorder (familial neck and spinal deformity).

For example, modern British historian Peter Green (born 1924) provides a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of the statues and some ancient documents:

Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes ( one blue, one brown ) revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. [ 182 ]

It has even been suggested by medical surgeon Hutan Ashrafian that this scoliosis may have contributed to Alexander's death, [ 153 ] however ancient Greek author Arrian of Nicomedia stated that the king died of fever. [ 183 ]

Ancient authors record that Alexander the Great was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he decreed no other sculptor would make his image. [ 184 ] Lysippos had often used the Contrapposto sculptural scheme to portray Alexander and other characters like Apoxyomenos , Hermes and Eros . [ 180 ] [ 185 ] [ 186 ] Lysippos' sculpture, famous for its lifelike naturalism, as opposed to a stiffer, more static pose, is thought to be the most faithful depiction of Alexander. [ 187 ]

Personalidad

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. [ 182 ] His mother had huge ambitions for Alexander, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire. [ 182 ] Indeed, Olympias may have gone to the extent of poisoning Philip Arrhidaeus so as to disable him, and prevent him being a rival for Alexander. [ 55 ] Olympias's influence instilled huge ambition and a sense of destiny in Alexander, [ 188 ] and Plutarch tells us that his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years". [ 189 ] Alexander's relationship with his father generated the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to out-do his father, as his reckless nature in battle suggests. [ 182 ] While Alexander worried that his father would leave him "no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world", [ 13 ] he still attempted to downplay his father's achievements to his companions. [ 182 ]

Head of young Alexander the Great by Lysippos, from Pella, Greece, 3rd century BC

Alexander's most evident personality traits were his violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [ 189 ] [ 190 ] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions during his life. [ 182 ] Plutarch thought that this particular personality trait caused his weakness for alcohol. [ 189 ] Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond well to orders from his father, he was easier to persuade by reasoned debate. [ 20 ] Indeed, set beside his fiery temperament, there was a calmer side to Alexander; perceptive, logical, and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. [ 25 ] This was no doubt in part due to his tutelage by Aristotle; Alexander was intelligent and quick to learn. [ 20 ] [ 182 ] The tale of his "solving" the Gordian knot neatly demonstrates this. The intelligent and rational side to Alexander is amply demonstrated by his ability and success as a general. [ 190 ] He had great self-restraint in "pleasures of the body", contrasting with his lack of self control with alcohol. [ 189 ] [ 191 ]

Alexander was undoubtedly erudite, and was a patron to both the arts and sciences. [ 25 ] [ 189 ] However, he had little interest in sports, or the Olympic games (unlike his father), seeking only the Homeric ideals of glory and fame. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] He had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics, which made him a great leader. [ 166 ] [ 190 ] This is further emphasised by the inability of any of his generals to unite the Macedonians and retain the Empire after his death – only Alexander had the personality to do so. [ 166 ]

Megalomania

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. [ 148 ] His extraordinary achievements, coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, may have combined to produce this effect. [ 192 ] His delusions of grandeur are readily visible in the testament that he ordered Craterus to fulfil, and in his desire to conquer the known world. [ 148 ]

He seems to have come to believe himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself. [ 148 ] Olympias always insisted to him that he was the son of Zeus, [ 2 ] a theory apparently confirmed to him by the oracle of Amun at Siwa . [ 92 ] He began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon. [ 92 ] Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis , a practice of which the Macedonians disapproved, and were loath to perform. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] Such behaviour cost him much in the sympathies of many of his countrymen. [ 112 ]

Personal relationships

A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC. The couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.

The greatest emotional relationship of Alexander's life was with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble. [ 139 ] [ 182 ] [ 193 ] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander, sending him into a period of grieving. [ 139 ] [ 194 ] This event may have contributed to Alexander's failing health, and detached mental state during his final months. [ 148 ] [ 152 ] Alexander married twice: Roxana , daughter of the Bactrian nobleman Oxyartes , out of love; [ 195 ] and Stateira II , a Persian princess and daughter of Darius III of Persia, as a matter of political interest. [ 196 ] He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon of Roxana and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine; and lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon. [ 197 ] [ 198 ]

Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy. [ 199 ] Nowhere in the ancient sources is it stated that Alexander had homosexual relationships, or that Alexander's relationship with Hephaestion was sexual. Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter riddling that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles". [ 200 ] Noting that the word eromenos (ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning, Alexander may indeed have been bisexual, which in his time was not controversial. [ 201 ] [ 202 ]

Green argues that there is little evidence in the ancient sources Alexander had much interest in women, particularly since he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life. [ 182 ] However, he was relatively young when he died, and Ogden suggests that Alexander's matrimonial record is more impressive than his father's at the same age. [ 203 ] Apart from wives, Alexander had many more female companions. Alexander had accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings but he used it rather sparingly; [ 204 ] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body". [ 191 ] It is possible that Alexander was simply not a highly sexed person. Nevertheless, Plutarch describes how Alexander was infatuated by Roxanne while complimenting him on not forcing himself on her. [ 205 ] Green suggests that, in the context of the period, Alexander formed quite strong friendships with women, including Ada of Caria , who adopted Alexander, and even Darius's mother Sisygambis, who supposedly died from grief when Alexander died. [ 182 ]

Legacy

Hellenistic kingdoms

The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors. [ 206 ]

Alexander's most obvious legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. Many of these areas would remain in Macedonian hands or under Greek influence for the next 200–300 years. The successor states that emerged were, at least initially, dominant forces during this epoch, and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic period . [ 207 ]

The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime. [ 166 ] However, the power vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history. Taking advantage of the neglect shown to this region by the successors, Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in European sources as Sandrokotto), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and then with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire of northern India. [ 208 ] In 305 BC Seleucus , one of the successors, marched to India to reclaim the territory; instead he ceded the area to Chandragupta in return for 500 war elephants. These in turn played a pivotal role in the Battle of Ipsus the result of which did much to settle the division of the Empire. [ 208 ]

Hellenization

Hellenization is a term coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest. [ 207 ] That this export took place is undoubted, and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria (one of around twenty towns founded by Alexander [ 209 ] ), Antioch [ 210 ] and Seleucia (south of modern Baghdad ). [ 211 ] However, exactly how widespread and deeply permeating this was, and to what extent it was a deliberate policy, is debatable. Alexander certainly made deliberate efforts to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and in some instances he attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture, culminating in his aspiration to homogenise the populations of Asia and Europe. However, the successors explicitly rejected such policies after his death. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, and moreover, was accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the Successor states. [ 210 ] [ 212 ]

Coin of Alexander bearing an Aramaic language inscription

The core of Hellenistic culture was essentially Athenian by origin. [ 210 ] [ 213 ] The Athenian koine dialect had been adopted long before Philip II for official use and was thus spread throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua franca through Alexander's conquests. Furthermore, town planning , education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals, evolving though into distinct new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic. [ 210 ] Aspects of the Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire up until the mid-15th century. [ 214 ] [ 215 ]

The Buddha , in Greco-Buddhist style , 1st–2nd century AD, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). Tokyo National Museum .

Some of the most unusual effects of Hellenization can be seen in India, in the region of the relatively late-arising Indo-Greek kingdoms . [ 216 ] There, isolated from Europe, Greek culture apparently hybridised with Indian, and especially Buddhist, influences. The first realistic portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time; they are modelled on Greek statues of Apollo . [ 216 ] Several Buddhist traditions may have been influenced by the ancient Greek religion : the concept of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes, [ 217 ] and some Mahayana ceremonial practices (burning incense, gifts of flowers, and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced by the ancient Greeks. Zen Buddhism draws in part on the ideas of Greek stoics , such as Zeno . [ 218 ] One Greek king, Menander I , probably became Buddhist, and is immortalized in Buddhist literature as 'Milinda'. [ 216 ]

Influence on Rome

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements. Polybius started his Histories by reminding Romans of his role, and thereafter subsequent Roman leaders saw him as their inspirational role model. Julius Caesar reportedly wept in Spain at the sight of Alexander's statue, because he thought he had achieved so little by the same age that Alexander had conquered the world. [ 219 ] Pompey the Great searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's 260-year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness. In his zeal to honor Alexander, Augustus accidentally broke the nose off the Macedonian's mummified corpse while laying a wreath at Alexander's tomb in Alexandria. The Macriani, a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus briefly ascended to the imperial throne, kept images of Alexander on their persons, either on jewelry, or embroidered into their clothes. [ 220 ]

In the summer of 1995, a statue of Alexander was recovered in an excavation of a Roman house in Alexandria, which was richly decorated with mosaic and marble pavements and probably was constructed in the 1st century AD and occupied until the 3rd century. [ 221 ]

The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, took over Alexander's legacy in the east by again invading India in 180 BC, and establishing the Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BC–10 AD).

Leyenda

There are many legendary accounts surrounding the life of Alexander the Great, with a relatively large number deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself. His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in proskynesis . Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus , went so far as to invent a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris , queen of the mythical Amazons . When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time." [ 222 ]

The major Hellenistic realms; the Ptolemaic kingdom (dark blue) and the Seleucid empire (yellow).

In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the more legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance , later falsely ascribed to the historian Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes . This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages . [ 223 ]

In Persian literature

In Pre-Islamic middle Persian texts, Aleskandar is always accompanied by the title Gojastak or Gojaste which means damned. He is said to have originated from Arum which generally refers to the Byzantine empire or ancient Greece. In Bundahishn he is mentioned as Aleksandar Kaisar who defeated Dara and burned the holy book of the Zoroastrians, Avesta . The rule of Iranians on Iran was considered to be revived many years later by Ardashir and as such Alexander was thought to be first in line of the Parthian kings.

However, after the Islamic conquests there is a change in this stance and as early as the time Shahnameh was written, he was considered to be a legitimate Persian king, one who was son of Darab the Persian king and Nahid (Lydia) daughter of Philqus . Due to her bad breath, Darab sent back the girl to her homeland and there she bore a child named Eskandar , who later rose to power and waged war with Iran. Dara was another son of Darab, who was eventually killed by his men and the Iranians accepted Eskandar as their new king and praised him. Some literature critiques believe that this change in the reputation was due to the use of a specific source by ferdowsi which no longer exists. [ 224 ]

Later it is mentioned that the name Eskandar was given because of the remedy it provided for his mother. Arab historians then referred to him as al-Iskandar. Based on that same source or other sources available, Nezami composed a Persian epic poem about Eskandar which is considered to be completely fictional and marks the finally evolved figure of Alexander which remained popular in Iran. In this poem Alexander is first a conqueror, then he searches unsuccessfully for the fountain of life and gradually becomes a man of wisdom, has debates with Greek and Indian philosophers and eventually becomes a prophet. [ 225 ]

In ancient and modern culture

Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been preserved and depicted in many ways. Alexander has figured in works of both high and popular culture from his own era to the modern day. In the Middle Ages he was created a member of the Nine Worthies , a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry .

In Punjab, the land of his final conquest, the name "Secunder" is commonly given to children even today. This is both due to respect and admiration for Alexander and also as a memento to the fact that fighting the people of Punjab fatigued his army to the point that they revolted against him.

A common proverb in the Punjab reads jit jit key jung, secunder jay haar , in translation, "Alexander wins so many battles that he loses the war". It is used to address anyone who is good at winning but never takes advantage of those wins. [ 226 ]

Historiography

Texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander are all lost apart from a few inscriptions and fragments. [ 14 ] Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life include Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes ; Alexander's generals Ptolemy and Nearchus ; Aristobulus , a junior officer on the campaigns; and Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman. These works have been lost, but later works based on these original sources survive. The five main surviving accounts are by Arrian , Curtius , Plutarch , Diodorus , and Justin . [ 227 ]

Ancestry

Véase también

Notas

^ i: By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire , adding it to Macedon's European territories; according to some modern writers, this was most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks (the ' Ecumene '). [ 228 ] [ 229 ] An approximate view of the world known to Alexander can be seen in Hecataeus of Miletus 's map, see Hecataeus world map .
^ ii: For instance, Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general; [ 230 ] Julius Caesar wept on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had achieved so little by the same age; [ 219 ] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander'; [ 231 ] the young Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander. [ 232 ]
^ iii: The name ?????????? derives from the Greek verb "?????" (alex?), "to ward off, to avert, to defend" [ 233 ] and the noun "??????" (andros), genitive of "????" (an?r), "man" [ 234 ] and means "protector of men." [ 235 ]
^ iv: "In the early 5th century the royal house of Macedon, the Temenidae, was recognised as Greek by the Presidents of the Olympic Games. Their verdict was and is decisive. It is certain that the Kings considered themselves to be of Greek descent from Heracles son of Zeus." [ 236 ]
^ v: "AEACIDS Descendants of Aeacus, son of Zeus and the nymph Aegina, eponymous (see the term) to the island of that name. His son was Peleus, father of Achilles, whose descendants (real or supposed) called themselves Aeacids: thus Pyrrhus and Alexander the Great." [ 237 ]
^ vi: There have been, since the time, many suspicions that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip. Suspicion has fallen upon Alexander, Olympias and even the newly crowned Persian Emperor, Darius III. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered. [ 238 ]

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Fuentes

Las fuentes primarias

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Enlaces externos

Alejandro Magno
Argead dynasty
Born: 356 BC Died: 323 BC
Títulos de reinado
Precedido por
Philip II
King of Macedon
336–323 BC
Sucedido por
Philip III & Alexander IV
Precedido por
Darius III
Great King (Shah) of Persia
330–323 BC
Pharaoh of Egypt
332–323 BC
New creation King of Asia
331–323 BC


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