Anglicanismo

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Anglicanismo es una tradición dentro de la cristiandad que comprende iglesias con conexiones históricas de la Iglesia de Inglaterra o las mismas creencias, el culto y las estructuras de la iglesia. [1] La palabra tiene su origen en Anglicana Ecclesia Anglicana, una frase latina medieval que data de al menos 1.246 significado de la Iglesia Inglés. Los partidarios del anglicanismo se llaman los anglicanos. La gran mayoría de los anglicanos son miembros de iglesias que forman parte de la comunidad internacional de la Comunión Anglicana . [2] Hay, sin embargo, una serie de iglesias fuera de la Comunión Anglicana, que también se consideran en la tradición anglicana, especialmente los contemplados como Continuando Anglicana iglesias. [3]

La fe de los anglicanos se basa en las Escrituras, la tradición de la iglesia apostólica, la sucesión apostólica - "episcopado histórico" y los Padres de la Iglesia primitiva. [1] anglicanismo constituye una de las ramas de la cristiandad occidental , que definitivamente declaró su independencia de el Romano Pontífice en el momento de la liquidación isabelina religioso , en lo que se ha llamado de otra manera el monaquismo británico. [4] [5] Muchos de los nuevos formularios Anglicana de mediados del siglo 16 corresponden estrechamente a los de la actual Reforma protestante , pero por Al final del siglo, la retención en el anglicanismo de muchas formas litúrgicas tradicionales y del episcopado fue visto ya como inaceptables por los promotores de los principios protestantes más desarrollados. En la primera mitad del siglo 17 la Iglesia de Inglaterra y asociados episcopal iglesias en Irlanda y en las colonias americanas de Inglaterra fueron presentados por algunos teólogos anglicanos que comprende una tradición cristiana distinta, con las teologías, las estructuras y formas de adoración que representa un punto medio, o a través de los medios de comunicación, entre el protestantismo reformado y el catolicismo romano;. el punto de vista que llegó a ser una gran influencia en posteriores teorías de la identidad anglicana, y se expresa en la descripción de "católica y reformada" [6] Después de la Revolución Americana , las congregaciones anglicanas en los Estados Unidos y Canadá se reconstituye en cada una iglesia independiente con sus propios obispos y las estructuras de autogobierno, lo que, a través de la expansión del Imperio Británico y la actividad de las misiones cristianas , fue adoptado como modelo para muchas iglesias de reciente creación, especialmente en África , Australia y las regiones del Pacífico . En el siglo 19 el anglicanismo término fue acuñado para describir la tradición religiosa común de estas iglesias, como también la de la Iglesia Episcopal Escocesa , que, aunque de origen anterior dentro de la Iglesia de Escocia , había llegado a ser reconocido como el intercambio de esta identidad común.

El grado de distinción entre reformados y católicos dentro de las tendencias occidentales de la tradición anglicana es habitualmente objeto de debate, tanto dentro de las iglesias anglicanas específicas y en toda la Comunión Anglicana . Único en el anglicanismo es el Libro de Oración Común , el conjunto de servicios que los fieles en la mayoría de las iglesias anglicanas utilizado durante siglos. A pesar de que desde entonces ha sufrido muchas revisiones y las iglesias anglicanas en los diferentes países han desarrollado otros libros de servicios, el Libro de Oración sigue siendo reconocido como uno de los lazos que unen a la Comunión Anglicana juntos. No hay una sola Iglesia Anglicana con la autoridad jurídica universal, ya que cada iglesia nacional o regional tiene plena autonomía. Como el nombre sugiere, las Iglesias de la Comunión Anglicana están unidas por el afecto y la lealtad común. Ellos están en plena comunión con la ver de Canterbury y por lo tanto el arzobispo de Canterbury , en su persona, es un enfoque único de la unidad anglicana. Él llama a la Conferencia una vez a la década de Lambeth, preside la reunión de los primates, y es Presidente del Consejo Consultivo Anglicano [7] [8] Con más de ochenta [2] millones de miembros de la Comunión Anglicana es la tercera más grande de la comunión cristiana en la mundo, después de la Iglesia Católica Romana y la Iglesia Ortodoxa Oriental .

Contenido

[ editar ] Terminología

El anglicanismo es una palabra neologismo del siglo 19;. construido a partir de la palabra más antigua Anglicana [8] La palabra se refiere a las enseñanzas y ritos de los cristianos en todo el mundo en comunión con el ver de Canterbury . Se ha llegado a ser utilizado para referirse a la denuncia de estas iglesias a una tradición única religiosa y teológica, aparte de todas las demás iglesias cristianas, ya sean ortodoxos, católicos o protestantes , y es totalmente distinto de la lealtad de algunas de estas iglesias a la Corona británica . [8]

La palabra "Anglicana" se origina en Ecclesia Anglicana, un latín medieval frase que data de por lo menos 1246 que significa el " Inglés Iglesia ". [9] Como adjetivo, "Anglicana" se utiliza para describir a las personas, instituciones e iglesias, así como las tradiciones litúrgicas y conceptos teológicos, desarrollado por la Iglesia de Inglaterra . [8] Como sustantivo, un anglicano es un miembro de una iglesia en la Comunión Anglicana . La palabra también se utiliza por los seguidores de los grupos separados que han dejado la comunión o haber sido fundado por separado de ella, aunque esto a veces se considera como un mal uso. [10]

Aunque el término "Anglicana" se encuentra referencia a la Iglesia de Inglaterra ya en el siglo 16, su uso no se generalizó hasta la segunda mitad del siglo 19. En la legislación parlamentaria británica se refiere a la Inglés Iglesia oficial , que se describe como la "Iglesia Episcopal Protestante", lo que la distingue de su contraparte establecidos " protestante Iglesia Presbiteriana "en Escocia. eclesiásticos de alto , que se opuso al término "protestante", en un principio promovió el término "Iglesia Reformada Episcopal", y se da el caso de que la palabra " episcopal "es el preferido en el título de la Iglesia Episcopal (la provincia de la Comunión Anglicana, que cubre los Estados Unidos) y la Iglesia Episcopal Escocesa . Fuera de las islas británicas, sin embargo, el término "Iglesia Anglicana" llegó a ser preferido, ya que distingue estas iglesias de los demás que se cobró una forma de gobierno episcopal , aunque algunas iglesias, en particular la Iglesia Episcopal Escocesa, la Iglesia de Irlanda y la Iglesia en Gales siguen utilizando el término sólo con reservas.

[ editar ] Definición

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Anglicanismo, en sus estructuras, la teología y las formas de adoración, que comúnmente se entiende como una tradición cristiana distinta que representa un término medio entre lo que son percibidos como los extremos de los reclamos de siglo 16 el catolicismo y el calvinismo de la época contemporánea y sus derivados y, como tal, se refiere a menudo como un medio de comunicación a través de (o "camino del medio") entre estas tradiciones. La fe de los anglicanos se basa en la Biblia y el Evangelio , la tradición de la Sede Apostólica la Iglesia, el episcopado histórico , los primeros siete concilios ecuménicos y los primeros Padres de la Iglesia . Anglicanos entender el Antiguo y Nuevo Testamento como "contiene todo lo necesario para la salvación", y como la regla y última norma de fe. Anglicanos entender el Credo de los Apóstoles como el símbolo bautismal y el Credo de Nicea como suficiente la declaración de la fe cristiana .

Jesús representado en una vidriera de la catedral de Rochester , Kent.

Los anglicanos creen que la fe católica y apostólica, se revela en la Sagrada Escritura y los credos católicos e interpretar estos a la luz de la tradición cristiana de la iglesia histórica, la erudición, la razón y la experiencia.

Anglicanos celebrar los sacramentos tradicionales, con énfasis especial atención a la Sagrada Eucaristía , también llamada la Santa Comunión, la Cena del Señor o la Misa . La Eucaristía es el centro de culto para la mayoría de los anglicanos como una ofrenda comunitaria de oración y alabanza en el que la vida, muerte y resurrección de Jesucristo es proclamada a través de la oración, la lectura de la Biblia, el canto y la ofrenda del pan y del vino, dando gracias a Dios por encima de ellos para los innumerables beneficios obtenidos a través de la pasión de Cristo, la fracción del pan, y la recepción del Cuerpo y la Sangre de Cristo tal como fue instituido en la Última Cena . Mientras que muchos anglicanos celebrar la Eucaristía de manera similar a la tradición católica occidental predominante, en un grado considerable de libertad litúrgica está permitido, y la adoración estilos van desde lo simple a lo elaborado.

Único en el anglicanismo es el Libro de Oración Común (BCP), el conjunto de servicios que los fieles en la mayoría de las iglesias anglicanas utilizado durante siglos. Se llamó la oración en común, ya que originalmente fue diseñado para ser utilizado en todas las iglesias de la Iglesia de Inglaterra que había seguido con anterioridad diferentes liturgias locales. El término se mantuvo cuando la iglesia se convirtió en internacional porque todos los anglicanos utilizado para compartir en su uso en todo el mundo. En 1549, el primer Libro de Oración Común fue compilado por Thomas Cranmer , quien era entonces arzobispo de Canterbury . Aunque desde entonces ha sufrido muchas revisiones y las iglesias anglicanas en los diferentes países han desarrollado otros libros de servicios, el Libro de Oración es aún reconocido como uno de los lazos que unen a la Comunión Anglicana juntos.

[ editar ] identidad anglicana

[ editar ] Desarrollo

Por el Arreglo isabelina , las Iglesias de Inglaterra e Irlanda se ha establecido a través de la legislación en sus respectivos Parlamentos , y supone la lealtad y la lealtad a la Corona Británica en todos sus miembros. Sin embargo, desde el principio, la Iglesia isabelina comenzó a desarrollar distintas tradiciones religiosas, la asimilación de algunos de la teología de las iglesias reformadas con los servicios en el Libro de Oración Común , bajo la dirección y organización de un episcopado continua; [11] y sobre la años, estas tradiciones se llegó al comando de la adhesión y lealtad. Potencialmente esto crearía una crisis de identidad, se lealtades seculares y religiosos a los conflictos - y una crisis en efecto ocurrió en 1776 con la Declaración de Independencia americana ., la mayoría de cuyos firmantes fueron, al menos nominalmente, Anglicana [12] Para estos americanos patriotas, incluso las formas de los servicios anglicanos estaban en duda, ya que los ritos del Libro de Oración de maitines , vísperas y la Sagrada Comunión, incluidas todas las oraciones específicas para la familia real británica. En consecuencia, la conclusión de la Guerra de la Independencia dio lugar a la creación de dos nuevas iglesias Anglicana, la Iglesia Episcopal en los Estados Unidos de América en los Estados que habían alcanzado la independencia, y La Iglesia de Inglaterra en Canadá en las colonias norteamericanas que permanecen bajo el control británico y al que muchos clérigos leales habían emigrado. A regañadientes, la legislación fue aprobada en el Parlamento británico (la Consagración de los Obispos en el Extranjero Ley 1786) para permitir que los obispos sean consagrados para una iglesia americana fuera de lealtad a la Corona británica (mientras que no obispados había sido establecido en la antiguas colonias americanas). [13] Tanto en los Estados Unidos y en Canadá, las iglesias anglicanas nuevo desarrollado nuevos modelos de auto-gobierno, el financiamiento colectivo de toma de decisiones, y auto-apoyo, que sería coherente con la separación de las identidades religiosas y seculares. [14]

En el siglo siguiente, otros dos factores que actuaron para acelerar el desarrollo de una identidad anglicana distintas. A partir de 1828 y 1829, los disidentes y los católicos romanos podrían ser elegidos para la Cámara de los Comunes , [15] que por lo tanto dejó de ser un cuerpo dibujado exclusivamente de las iglesias establecidas de Escocia, Inglaterra e Irlanda, pero que, sin embargo, durante los siguientes diez años , dedicada a la reforma de una amplia legislación que afecta los intereses de la establecida Iglesia Unida de Inglaterra e Irlanda. La conveniencia de esta legislación fue impugnada amargamente por el Movimiento de Oxford (Tractarianos), [16] , que en respuesta se desarrolló una visión del anglicanismo como la tradición religiosa derivan en última instancia, de los Concilios Ecuménicos de la Iglesia patrística. Dentro de la Iglesia de Inglaterra se opuso a la Tractarianos, así como a sus prácticas rituales revivido, introdujo una corriente de proyectos de ley destinados a controlar las innovaciones en la adoración, [17] , pero esto sólo hizo que el dilema más grave, con la consiguiente litigio continua en la secular y los tribunales eclesiásticos.

Durante el mismo período iglesias anglicanas comprometidos con fuerza en las misiones cristianas , lo que resulta en la creación, a finales del siglo, de más de noventa obispados coloniales, [18] que poco a poco se unieron en nuevas iglesias autónomas en los modelos de Canadá y Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, el caso de John William Colenso obispo de Natal , restablecido en 1865 por el Inglés Comité Judicial del Consejo Privado sobre las cabezas de la Iglesia en Sudáfrica, [19] ha demostrado agudamente que la extensión del episcopado tuvo que ser acompañado por un eclesiología anglicana reconocieron la autoridad eclesiástica, distinto del poder secular.

En consecuencia, a instancias de los obispos de Canadá y Sudáfrica, la primera Conferencia de Lambeth fue llamado en 1867, [20] a seguir por otras conferencias en 1878 y 1888, y posteriormente en intervalos de diez años. Los diversos documentos y declaraciones de las sucesivas Conferencias de Lambeth, han servido para enmarcar el debate continuo sobre la identidad Anglicana, especialmente en lo relativo a la posibilidad de que el debate ecuménico con otras iglesias. Esta aspiración ecuménica se hizo mucho más de una posibilidad, como otros grupos confesionales rápidamente siguieron el ejemplo de la Comunión Anglicana en la fundación de su propia alianzas transnacionales: la Alianza de Iglesias Reformadas , el Concilio Ecuménico Metodista , el Consejo Internacional de la Congregación , y la Alianza Mundial Bautista .

[ editar ] Teorías

En su rechazo de la autoridad parlamentaria absoluta, el Tractarianos y, en particular, John Henry Newman - miró hacia atrás a los escritos de teólogos anglicanos del siglo 17, encontrando en estos textos la idea de la iglesia de Inglés como a través de los medios de comunicación entre las tradiciones católica y protestante. [ 21] Esta visión se asocia - especialmente en los escritos de Edward Pusey Bouverie - con la teoría del anglicanismo como una de las tres " ramas "(junto a las iglesias católicas y ortodoxas) históricamente se deriven de la común tradición de los primeros Concilios Ecuménicos . Newman se rechazó, posteriormente, la teoría de los medios de comunicación a través, esencialmente historicista y estática, y por lo tanto, incapaz de adaptarse a cualquier desarrollo dinámico dentro de la iglesia. [21] Sin embargo, la aspiración a la tierra la identidad Anglicana en los escritos de los teólogos del siglo 17, y en la fidelidad a las tradiciones de los Padres de la Iglesia refleja un tema recurrente de la eclesiología anglicana, y más recientemente en los escritos de Henry Robert McAdoo . [22]

La formulación Tractarian de la teoría de los medios de comunicación a través de la plataforma era esencialmente un partido, y no es aceptable para los anglicanos fuera de los confines del Movimiento de Oxford . Sin embargo, la teoría de los medios de comunicación a través de fue vuelto a trabajar en los escritos eclesiológicos de Frederick Denison Maurice , en una forma más dinámica que se hizo muy influyente. Tanto Maurice Newman y vio a la Iglesia de Inglaterra de su época como muy deficiente en la fe, pero mientras que Newman había visto a un pasado lejano, cuando la luz de la fe podría haber aparecido a quemar más brillante, Maurice espera con interés la posibilidad de una revelación más brillante de la fe en el futuro. Maurice vio los hilos protestantes y católicos dentro de la Iglesia de Inglaterra como en contra, pero complementarios, ambos elementos el mantenimiento de la iglesia verdadera, pero incompleto sin el otro;. De tal manera que una verdadera iglesia católica y evangélica podría llegar a ser una unión de los opuestos [ 23] Centro de la perspectiva de Mauricio, es su creencia de que los elementos colectivos de la familia, la nación y la Iglesia representan un orden divino de las estructuras a través del cual Dios revela su continua labor de creación. Por lo tanto, de Maurice, la tradición protestante ha mantenido los elementos de la distinción nacional que se encuentran entre las marcas de la verdadera Iglesia Universal, pero que se han perdido dentro del catolicismo romano en el internacionalismo de la autoridad papal centralizado. Dentro de la iglesia universal que viene Maurice había previsto, las iglesias nacionales se mantienen cada uno de los seis signos de la catolicidad: el bautismo, la eucaristía, los credos, las Escrituras, un ministerio episcopal ordenó, y una liturgia fija (que podría tener una variedad de formas, de acuerdo con la divinidad distinciones ordenado en las características nacionales). [21] No es sorprendente que esta visión de una Iglesia cada vez más universal, como una congregación de autónomos iglesias nacionales, resultó muy agradable en los círculos anglicanos, y seis de Maurice señales se han adaptado para formar el Cuadrilátero Chicago-Lambeth de 1888 . [24]

En las últimas décadas del siglo 20, la teoría de Maurice, y las distintas corrientes del pensamiento anglicano que derivan de ella, han sido criticados por Stephen Sykes , [25] quien sostiene que los términos de protestantes y católicos que se utiliza en estos enfoques son construcciones sintéticas que denota la identidad eclesial inaceptable para aquellos a los que las etiquetas se aplican. Por lo tanto, la Iglesia Católica Romana no se considera como una de las partes o de hebra dentro de la Iglesia universal -, sino que se identifica como la Iglesia universal. Además, critica la propuesta de Sykes, implícita en las teorías de los medios de comunicación a través, que no hay cuerpo distintivo de la doctrina anglicana, que no sean las de la Iglesia universal, acusando a este de ser una excusa para no llevar a cabo la doctrina sistemática a todos. [26] Por el contrario , Sykes señala un alto grado de uniformidad en las formas litúrgicas anglicanas, y en la comprensión doctrinal expresada en las liturgias. Se propone que la identidad anglicana y no puede ser encontrado dentro de un patrón común consistente de las liturgias de prescripción, establecida y mantenida a través de la ley canónica, y que contiene tanto un depósito histórico de las declaraciones formales de la doctrina, y también la elaboración de la lectura regular y la proclamación de las Escrituras. [27 ] Sykes, sin embargo está de acuerdo con los herederos de Maurice que hacen hincapié en el carácter incompleto del anglicanismo como una característica positiva, y se cita con aprobación calificado las palabras de Michael Ramsay :

Mientras que para la Iglesia Anglicana es justificada por su lugar en la historia, con un testigo sorprendentemente equilibrado Evangelio y la Iglesia y el aprendizaje de sonido, su reivindicación de una mayor radica en su señalando a través de su propia historia a algo de lo que se trata de un fragmento. Sus credenciales son su carácter incompleto, con la tensión y la angustia de su alma. Es torpe y desordenado, que desconcierta a la pulcritud y la lógica. Para que no se envía a sí mismo encomiendo como "el mejor tipo de cristianismo", sino por su quebrantamiento muy a punto para la Iglesia universal en el que todos han muerto.
- [28]

[ editar ] Doctrina

[ editar ] católica y reformada

En el momento de Henry VIII de la naturaleza del anglicanismo, se basó en cuestiones de competencia - en concreto, la creencia de la Corona que las iglesias nacionales debe ser autónomo - en lugar de desacuerdo teológico. El esfuerzo fue la creación de una iglesia nacional en la continuidad jurídica, con sus tradiciones, pero que incluye ciertas creencias doctrinales y litúrgicas de los reformadores . El resultado ha sido un movimiento con una distintiva imagen de sí mismo entre los movimientos cristianos. La pregunta que se plantea es si la Comunión Anglicana debe ser identificado como un protestante o católica iglesia, o tal vez como una rama distinta de la cristiandad.

La distinción entre reformados y católicos, y la coherencia de los dos, es habitualmente objeto de debate tanto dentro específicos iglesias anglicanas ya lo largo de la Comunión Anglicana por los propios miembros. Desde el Movimiento de Oxford de mediados del siglo 19, muchas Iglesias de la Comunión, que habéis revivido y extendido las prácticas litúrgicas y pastorales similar a la teología católica romana. Esto va más allá de la ceremonia de la Alta Iglesia de servicios al territorio aún más teológicamente importantes, como la teología sacramental (ver sacramentos anglicanos ). Mientras que Anglo-Católica prácticas, particularmente las litúrgicas, han reaparecido y se vuelven más comunes dentro de la tradición en el último siglo, aún quedan muchos lugares donde las prácticas y creencias permanecen en el lado más reformados o evangélicos (ver Sidney anglicanismo ).

[ editar ] Los principios rectores

Richard Hooker (1554-1600), una de las figuras más influyentes en la formación de la teología anglicana y la propia identidad.

Para los anglicanos "High Church", la doctrina no es establecida por un magisterio , ni se deriva de la teología de un epónimo fundador (como el calvinismo ), ni resumirse en una confesión de fe más allá de la ecuménica credos (como la luterana Libro de Concordia ). Para ellos, los primeros documentos teológicos anglicanos son sus libros de oraciones, que ven como los productos de una profunda reflexión teológica, el compromiso y la síntesis. Hacen hincapié en el Libro de Oración Común como una expresión clave de la doctrina anglicana. El principio de mirar a los libros de la oración como una guía para los parámetros de la creencia y la práctica se le llama por el nombre en latín lex orandi, lex credendi ("la ley de la oración es la ley de la fe"). Dentro de los libros de oración son los fundamentos de la doctrina anglicana: la de los Apóstoles y Credo Niceno , el Credo de Atanasio (rara vez se recita en la actualidad), las escrituras (a través del leccionario), los sacramentos, la oración diaria, el catecismo , y la sucesión apostólica en el contexto de la histórica triple ministerio. Para los anglicanos alguna "iglesia baja", la del siglo 16 reformada Treinta y nueve artículos forman la base de la doctrina.

Creencias específicas Anglicana

El treinta y nueve artículos inicialmente desempeñado un papel importante en la doctrina anglicana y en la práctica. Tras la aprobación de los cánones 1604, todo el clero anglicano debía suscribir formalmente en el articulado. Hoy, sin embargo, los artículos ya no son vinculantes, pero son vistos como un documento histórico que ha desempeñado un papel importante en la formación de la identidad anglicana. El grado en que cada uno de los artículos se ha mantenido influencia varía. En la doctrina de la justificación , por ejemplo, hay una gran variedad de creencias dentro de la Comunión Anglicana , y algunos católicos anglo- argumentando a favor de una fe con buenas obras y los sacramentos. Al mismo tiempo, sin embargo, algunos evangélicos anglicanos atribuyen a la reformada énfasis en la fe Sola en su doctrina de la justificación (ver Sidney anglicanismo .) Sin embargo, los anglicanos otros adoptan una visión matizada de la justificación, tomando elementos de los primeros Padres de la Iglesia , el catolicismo , el protestantismo , la teología liberal y latitudinarias pensamiento. Sin duda, el más influyente de los artículos originales ha sido el artículo VI de la suficiencia de la Escritura, que dice que containeth Escritura todas las cosas necesarias para la salvación: para que todo lo que no se lee en el mismo, ni podrán ser probados por lo tanto, no es que se requiere de cualquier hombre, que debe ser creído, como un artículo de la fe, o ser considerado requisito necesario para la salvación. En este artículo se ha informado a anglicanos bíblicos exégesis y hermenéutica desde la antigüedad.

Anglicanos buscar la autoridad en sus "teólogos estándar" (ver abajo). Históricamente, el más influyente de estos - aparte de Cranmer - ha sido el clérigo del siglo 16 y teólogo Richard Hooker , que después de 1660 fue presentado cada vez más como el padre fundador del anglicanismo. Descripción de la puta de la autoridad anglicana como se deriva principalmente de la Sagrada Escritura, informada por la razón (el intelecto y la experiencia de Dios) y la tradición (las prácticas y creencias de la iglesia histórica), ha influido Anglicana propia identidad doctrinal y reflexión tal vez con más fuerza que cualquier otra fórmula. La analogía de los "tres patas" de las Escrituras , la razón y la tradición a menudo se atribuye erróneamente a Hooker. Más bien la descripción de Hooker es una jerarquía de autoridad, con la escritura como fundamental, y la razón y la tradición como de vital importancia, pero las autoridades secundaria,.

Finalmente, la extensión del anglicanismo en la no-Inglés culturas, la diversidad creciente de libros de oración, y el creciente interés en el diálogo ecuménico, ha dado lugar a una mayor reflexión sobre los parámetros de la identidad anglicana. Muchos anglicanos mirar hacia el Cuadrilátero Chicago-Lambeth de 1888 como el "sine qua non" de la identidad comunal. [29] En resumen, cuatro el Cuadrilátero de puntos son las Sagradas Escrituras, ya que contiene todo lo necesario para la salvación, los credos (en concreto, los Apóstoles y el Credo de Nicea), como declaración suficiente de la fe cristiana, los sacramentos dominicales del Bautismo y la Santa Comunión , y el histórico episcopado . [29]

[ editar ] teólogos anglicanos

Dentro de la tradición anglicana, teólogos son los escritores teológicos cuyas obras han sido consideradas como normas de fe, doctrina, culto y espiritualidad. Aunque no existe una lista autorizada de estos teólogos anglicanos, hay algunos cuyos nombres probablemente se encuentren en la mayoría de las listas - a los que se conmemoran en menor medida las fiestas de la Iglesia, y aquellos cuyas obras son con frecuencia antologías . [30]

El corpus producido por teólogos anglicanos es diversa. Lo que tienen en común es un compromiso con la fe se manifiesta en las Escrituras y el Libro de Oración Común, por lo que respecto a la oración y la teología de una manera similar a la de los Padres de la Iglesia . [31] En los teólogos de todo, ver el Anglicana a través de media of Anglicanism, not as a compromise, but "a positive position, witnessing to the universality of God and God's kingdom working through the fallible, earthly ecclesia Anglicana ." [ 32 ] These theologians regard Scripture as interpreted through tradition and reason as authoritative in matters concerning salvation. Reason and tradition, indeed, is extant in and presupposed by Scripture, thus implying co-operation between God and humanity, God and nature, and between the sacred and secular. Faith is thus regarded as incarnational , and authority as dispersed.

Among the early Anglican divines of the 16th and 17th centuries, the names of Thomas Cranmer , John Jewel , Matthew Parker , Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes , and Jeremy Taylor predominate. The influential character of Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity cannot be overestimated. Published in 1593 and subsequently, Hooker's eight volume work is primarily a treatise on Church-state relations, but it deals comprehensively with issues of biblical interpretation , soteriology , ethics , and sanctification . Throughout the work, Hooker makes clear that theology involves prayer and is concerned with ultimate issues, and that theology is relevant to the social mission of the church.

The 18th century saw the rise of two important movements in Anglicanism: Cambridge Platonism , with its mystical understanding of reason as the "candle of the Lord," and the Evangelical Revival , with its emphasis on the personal experience of the Holy Spirit . The Cambridge Platonist movement evolved into a school called Latitudinarianism , which emphasised reason as the barometer of discernment and took a stance of indifference towards doctrinal and ecclesiological differences. The Evangelical Revival, influenced by such figures as John Wesley and Charles Simeon , re-emphasised the importance of justification through faith and the consequent importance of personal conversion. Some in this movement, such as Wesley and George Whitefield , took the message to the United States , influencing the First Great Awakening , and created an Anglo-American movement called Methodism that would eventually break away, structurally, from the Anglican churches after the American Revolution.

By the 19th century, there was a renewed interest in pre-Reformation English religious thought and practice: Theologians such as John Keble , Edward Bouverie Pusey , and John Henry Newman had widespread influence in the realm of polemics, homiletics, and theological and devotional works, not least because they largely repudiated the Old High Church tradition and replaced it with a dynamic appeal to antiquity which looked beyond the Reformers and Anglican formularies. [ 33 ] Their work is largely credited with the development of the Oxford Movement , which sought to reassert Catholic identity and practice in the Anglican Church. [ 34 ] In contrast to this movement, such churchmen as the Bishop of Liverpool, John Charles Ryle sought to uphold the distinctly Protestant identity of the Church of England. He was not a servant of the status quo, but argued for a lively religion which emphasized grace, holy and charitable living, and for the plain use of the 1662 Common Prayer without additional rituals. Frederick Denison Maurice , through such works as The Kingdom of Christ , played a pivotal role in inaugurating another movement, Christian socialism . In this, Maurice transformed Hooker's emphasis on the incarnational nature of Anglican spirituality to an imperative for social justice. In the 19th century, Anglican biblical scholarship began to assume a distinct character, represented by the so-called "Cambridge triumvirate" of Joseph Lightfoot , FJA Hort , and Brooke Foss Westcott . Their orientation is best summed up by Lightfoot's observation that "Life which Christ is and which Christ communicates, the life which fills our whole beings as we realise its capacities, is active fellowship with God."

The 20th century is marked by figures such as Charles Gore , with his emphasis on natural revelation, William Temple 's focus on Christianity and society, JAT Robinson 's provocative discussions of deism and theism, Darwell Stone's and EL Mascall 's Thomism and defence of Catholic orthodoxy, and Kenneth Kirk 's Moral Theology. [ 35 ] Outside England, one sees such figures as William Porcher DuBose , William Meade , and Charles Henry Brent in the United States. More recently, theologians such as Henry Chadwick , John Macquarrie and Don Cupitt , who rejected all the doctrines of historic Christianity in favour of a "Christian Buddhism", [ 36 ] Jeffrey John , NT Wright , and Rowan Williams have added to the mix.

[ edit ] Churchmanship

An eastward-facing Solemn High Mass , a Catholic liturgical phenomenon which re-emerged in Anglicanism following the Catholic Revival of the nineteenth century.

"Churchmanship" can be defined as the manifestation of theology in the realms of liturgy, piety and, to some extent, spirituality. Anglican diversity in this respect has tended to reflect the diversity in the tradition's Reformed and Catholic identity. Different individuals, groups, parishes, dioceses and provinces may identify more closely with one or the other, or some mixture of the two.

The range of Anglican belief and practice became particularly divisive during the 19th century when some clergy were disciplined and even imprisoned on charges of ritual heresy while, at the same time, others were criticised for engaging in public worship services with ministers of Reformed churches. Resistance to the growing acceptance and restoration of traditional Catholic ceremonial by the mainstream of Anglicanism ultimately led to the formation of small breakaway churches such as the Free Church of England in England (1844) and the Reformed Episcopal Church in North America (1873). [ 37 ] [ 38 ]

Anglo-Catholic (and some Broad Church) Anglicans celebrate public liturgy in ways that understand worship to be something very special and of utmost importance. Vestments are worn by the clergy, sung settings are often used and incense may be used. Nowadays, in most Anglican churches, the Eucharist is celebrated in a manner similar to the usage of Roman Catholics and some Lutherans though, in many churches, more traditional, "pre-Vatican II", models of worship are common, (eg an "eastward orientation" at the altar). Whilst many Anglo-Catholics derive much of their liturgical practice from that of the pre-Reformation English church, others more closely follow traditional Roman Catholic practices. The Eucharist may be sometimes be celebrated, in the form known as High Mass , with a priest, deacon and subdeacon dressed in traditional vestments, with incense and sanctus bells and with prayers adapted from the Roman missal or other sources by the celebrant. Such churches may also have forms of Eucharistic adoration such as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. In terms of personal piety some Anglicans may recite the rosary and angelus , be involved in a devotional society dedicated to "Our Lady" (the Blessed Virgin Mary ) and seek the intercession of the saints.

In recent years the prayer books of several provinces have, out of deference to a greater agreement with Eastern Conciliarism (and a perceived greater respect accorded Anglicanism by Eastern Orthodoxy than by Roman Catholicism), instituted a number of historically Eastern and Oriental Orthodox elements in their liturgies, including introduction of the Trisagion and deletion of the filioque clause from the Nicene Creed .

For their part, those Evangelical (and some Broad Church) Anglicans who emphasise the more Protestant aspects of the Church stress the Reformation theme of salvation by grace through faith. They emphasise the two dominical sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, viewing the other five as "lesser rites". Some Evangelical Anglicans may even tend to take the inerrancy of Scripture literally, adopting the view of Article VI that it contains all things necessary to salvation in an explicit sense. Worship in churches influenced by these principles tends to be significantly less elaborate, with greater emphasis on the Liturgy of the Word (the reading of the scriptures, the sermon and the intercessory prayers). The Order for Holy Communion may be celebrated bi-weekly or monthly (in preference to the daily offices ), by priests attired in choir habit , or more regular clothes, rather than Eucharistic vestments. Ceremony may be in keeping with their view of the provisions of the 17th century Puritans – being a Reformed interpretation of the Ornaments Rubric – no candles, no incense, no bells and a minimum of manual actions by the presiding celebrant (such as touching the elements at the Words of Institution ).

In recent decades there has been a growth of charismatic worship among Anglicans. Both Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals have been affected by this movement such that it is not uncommon to find typically charismatic postures, music, and other themes evident during the services of otherwise Anglo-Catholic or Evangelical parishes.

The spectrum of Anglican beliefs and practice is too large to be fit into these labels. Many Anglicans locate themselves somewhere in the spectrum of the Broad Church tradition and consider themselves an amalgam of Evangelical and Catholic. Such Anglicans stress that Anglicanism is the " via media " (middle way) between the two major strains of Western Christianity and that Anglicanism is like a "bridge" between the two strains.

[ edit ] Sacramental doctrine and practice

As befits its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity , Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as being both a church in the Catholic tradition as well as a church of the Reformation . With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic heritage is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace , sanctification and salvation as expressed in the church's liturgy and doctrine.

Of the seven sacraments, Anglicans recognise Baptism and the Holy Eucharist as being directly instituted by Christ. The other five— Confession and absolution , Holy Matrimony , Confirmation , Holy Orders (also called Ordination), and Anointing of the Sick (also called Unction)— are regarded variously as full sacraments by Anglo-Catholics , many High Church , and some Broad Church Anglicans, but merely as "sacramental rites" by other Broad Church and Low Church Anglicans, and Evangelicals , such as Reform UK and the Diocese of Sydney .

[ edit ] Eucharistic theology

Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. Some Low Church Anglicans take a strictly memorialist ( Zwinglian ) view of the sacrament. In other words, they see Holy Communion as a memorial to Christ's suffering, and participation in the Eucharist as both a re-enactment of the Last Supper and a foreshadowing of the heavenly banquet – the fulfilment of the Eucharistic promise. Other Low Church Anglicans believe in the Real Presence but deny that the presence of Christ is carnal or is necessarily localised in the bread and wine. Despite explicit criticism in the Thirty-Nine Articles , many High Church or Anglo-Catholic Anglicans hold, more or less, the Roman Catholic view of the Real Presence, as expressed in the doctrine of transubstantiation , seeing the Eucharist as a liturgical representation of Christ's atoning sacrifice with the elements actually transformed into Christ's Body and Blood.

Most Anglicans, however, implicitly or explicitly adopt the eucharistic theology of consubstantiation , first articulated by the Lollards, or "Sacramental Union" first articulated by Martin Luther. [ citation needed ] Luther's analogy of Christ's presence was that of the heat of a horseshoe thrust into a fire until it is glowing. In the same way, Christ is present in the bread and the wine. Some [ who? ] though see it as an unknowable and describe it as a holy mystery .

The classical Anglican aphorism regarding Christ's presence in the sacrament is found in a poem by John Donne :

He was the Word that spake it;
He took the bread and brake it;
and what that Word did make it;
I do believe and take it. [ 39 ]

An Anglican position on the eucharistic sacrifice ("Sacrifice of the Mass") was expressed in the response Saepius Officio of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York to Pope Leo XIII 's Papal Encyclical Apostolicae curae . Anglican and Roman Catholic representatives declared that they had "substantial agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist" in the Windsor Statement on Eucharistic Doctrine from the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Consultation [ dead link ] and the Elucidation of the ARCIC Windsor Statement . Despite this agreement, other ecclesiological differences between the two churches prevent full intercommunion.

[ edit ] Practices

In Anglicanism there is a distinction between liturgy, which is the formal public and communal worship of the Church, and personal prayer and devotion which may be public or private. Liturgy is regulated by the prayer books and consists of the Holy Eucharist (some call it Holy Communion or Mass), the other six Sacraments, and the Divine Office or Liturgy of the Hours.

[ edit ] Book of Common Prayer

The 1596 Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the foundational prayer book of Anglicanism. The original book of 1549 (revised 1552) was one of the instruments of the English Reformation , replacing the various 'uses' or rites in Latin that had been used in different parts of the country with a single compact volume in the language of the people, so that "now from henceforth all the Realm shall have but one use". Suppressed under Queen Mary I , it was revised in 1559, and then again in 1662, after the Restoration of Charles II . This version was made mandatory in England and Wales by the Act of Uniformity and was in standard use until the mid 20th century.

With British colonial expansion from the 17th century onwards, the Anglican church was planted around the globe. These churches at first used and then revised the Book of Common Prayer, until they, like their parent church, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the 19th and 20th centuries, which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement .

[ edit ] Worship

Anglican worship services are open to all visitors. Anglican worship originates principally in the reforms of Thomas Cranmer , who aimed to create a set order of service like that of the pre-Reformation church but less complex in its seasonal variety and said in English rather than Latin . This use of a set order of service is not unlike the Roman Catholic tradition. Traditionally the pattern was that laid out in the Book of Common Prayer . Although many Anglican churches now use a wide range of modern service books written in the local language, the structures of the Book of Common Prayer are largely retained. Churches which call themselves Anglican will have identified themselves so because they use some form or variant of the Book of Common Prayer in the shaping of their worship.

Anglican worship, however, is as diverse as Anglican theology. A contemporary " low church " or Evangelical service may differ little from the worship of many mainstream Protestant churches. The service is constructed around a sermon focused on Biblical exposition and opened with one or more Bible readings and closed by a series of prayers (both set and extemporised) and hymns or songs. A " high church " or Anglo-Catholic service, by contrast, is usually a more formal liturgy celebrated by clergy in distinctive vestments and may be almost indistinguishable from a Roman Catholic service, often resembling the "pre-Vatican II" Tridentine rite . Between these extremes are a variety of styles of worship, often involving a robed choir and the use of the organ to accompany the singing and to provide music before and after the service. Anglican churches tend to have pews or chairs and it is usual for the congregation to kneel for some prayers but to stand for hymns and other parts of the service such as the Gloria, Collect, Gospel reading, Creed and either the Preface or all of the Eucharistic Prayer. High Anglicans may genuflect or cross themselves in the same way as Roman Catholics.

Until the mid-20th century the main Sunday service was typically morning prayer , but the Eucharist has once again become the standard form of Sunday worship in many Anglican churches; this again is similar to Roman Catholic practice. Other common Sunday services include an early morning Eucharist without music, an abbreviated Eucharist following a service of morning prayer and a service of evening prayer , sometimes in the form of sung Evensong , usually celebrated between 3 and 6 pm The late-evening service of Compline was revived in parish use in the early 20th century. Many Anglican churches will also have daily morning and evening prayer and some have midweek or even daily celebration of the Eucharist.

An Anglican service (whether or not a Eucharist) will include readings from the Bible that are generally taken from a standardised lectionary , which provides for much of the Bible (and some passages from the Apocrypha ) to be read out loud in the church over a three year cycle. The sermon (or homily ) is typically about ten to twenty minutes in length, though it may be much longer in Evangelical churches. Even in the most informal Evangelical services it is common for set prayers such as the weekly Collect to be read. There are also set forms for intercessory prayer , though this is now more often extemporaneous. In high and Anglo-Catholic churches there are generally prayers for the dead.

Although Anglican public worship is usually ordered according to the canonically approved services, in practice many Anglican churches use forms of service outside these norms. Many Evangelical churches sit lightly to the set forms of morning and evening prayer, though generally respecting the canonical order of Holy Communion. Liberal churches may use freely structured or experimental forms of worship, including patterns borrowed from ecumenical traditions such as those of Taizé Community or the Iona Community .

Anglo-Catholic parishes might use the modern Roman Catholic liturgy of the Mass or more traditional forms, such as the Tridentine Mass (which is translated into English in the English Missal ), the Anglican Missal , or, less commonly, the Sarum Rite . Traditional Catholic devotions such as the Rosary , Angelus and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament are also common among Anglo-Catholics.

[ edit ] Eucharistic discipline

Only baptised persons are eligible to receive communion, [ 40 ] although in many churches communion is restricted to those who have not only been baptised but also confirmed . In many Anglican provinces, however, all baptised Christians are now often invited to receive communion and some dioceses have regularised a system for admitting baptised young people to communion before they are confirmed.

The discipline of fasting before communion is practised by some Anglicans. Most Anglican priests require the presence of at least one other person for the celebration of the Eucharist (referring back to Christ's statement in Math 18:20 "When two or more are gathered in my name, I will be in the midst of them"), though some Anglo-Catholic priests (like Roman Catholic priests) may say private Masses. As in the Roman Catholic Church, it is a canonical requirement to use fermented wine for the Communion; unlike in mainstream Roman Catholicism, however, the consecrated bread and wine are always offered together to the congregation in a Eucharistic service ("Communion in Both Kinds"). This practice is gradually being adopted in the Roman Catholic Church too, especially through the Neocatechumenal Way . In some churches the sacrament is reserved in a tabernacle or aumbry with a lighted candle or lamp nearby. Only a priest or a bishop may be the celebrant at the Eucharist, though Sydney Anglicans may soon authorise lay people to celebrate the Eucharist (or Lord's Supper).

[ edit ] Divine office

Evensong at York Minster

All Anglican prayer books contain offices for Morning Prayer (Matins) and Evening Prayer (Evensong). In the original Book of Common Prayer these were derived from combinations of the ancient monastic offices of Matins and Lauds ; and Vespers and Compline respectively. The prayer offices have an important place in Anglican history. Prior to the Catholic revival of the 19th century, which eventually restored the Holy Eucharist as the principal Sunday liturgy, and especially during the 18th century, a morning service combining Matins, the Litany and ante-Communion comprised the usual expression of common worship; while Matins and Evensong were sung daily in cathedrals and some collegiate chapels. This nurtured a tradition of distinctive Anglican chant applied to the canticles and psalms used at the offices (although plainsong is often used as well).

In some official and many unofficial Anglican service books these offices are supplemented by other offices such as the Little Hours of Prime and prayer during the day such as ( Terce , Sext , None and Compline ). Some Anglican monastic communities have a Daily Office based on that of the Book of Common Prayer but with additional antiphons and canticles, etc. for specific days of the week, specific psalms, etc. See, for example, Order of the Holy Cross [ 41 ] and Order of St Helena, editors, A Monastic Breviary (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1976). The All Saints Sisters of the Poor, [ 42 ] with convents in Catonsville, Maryland and elsewhere use an elaborated version of the Anglican Daily Office. The Society of St. Francis publishes Celebrating Common Prayer which has become especially popular for use among Anglicans.

In England, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and some other Anglican provinces the modern prayer books contain four offices:

In addition, most prayer books include a section of prayers and devotions for family use. In the US, these offices are further supplemented by an "Order of Worship for the Evening", a prelude to or an abbreviated form of Evensong, partly derived from Orthodox prayers. In the United Kingdom, the publication of Daily Prayer , the third volume of Common Worship was published in 2005. It retains the services for Morning and Evening Prayer and Compline and includes a section entitled "Prayer during the Day". 'A New Zealand Prayer Book' of 1989 provides different outlines for Matins and Evensong on each day of the week, as well as "Midday Prayer", "Night Prayer" and "Family Prayer".

Some Anglicans who pray the office on daily basis use the present Divine Office of the Roman Catholic Church. In many cities, especially in England, Anglican and Roman Catholic priests and lay people often meet several times a week to pray the office in common. A small but enthusiastic minority use the Anglican Breviary , or other translations and adaptations of the Pre-Vatican II Roman Rite and Sarum Rite , along with supplemental material from cognate western sources, to provide such things as a common of Octaves, a common of Holy Women and other additional material. Others may privately use idiosyncratic forms borrowed from a wide range of Christian traditions.

[ edit ] "Quires and Places where they sing"

In the late medieval period, many English cathedrals and monasteries had established small choirs of trained lay clerks and boy choristers to perform polyphonic settings of the Mass in their Lady Chapels . Although these "Lady Masses" were discontinued at the Reformation, the associated musical tradition was maintained in the Elizabethan Settlement through the establishment of choral foundations for daily singing of the Divine Office by expanded choirs of men and boys. This resulted from an explicit addition by Elizabeth herself to the injunctions accompanying the 1559 Book of Common Prayer (that had itself made no mention of choral worship) by which existing choral foundations and choir schools were instructed to be continued, and their endowments secured. Consequently, some thirty-four cathedrals, collegiate churches and royal chapels maintained paid establishments of lay singing men and choristers in the late 16th century. [ 43 ] All save four of these have – with an interruption during the Commonwealth – continued daily choral prayer and praise to this day. In the Offices of Matins and Evensong in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, these choral establishments are specified as "Quires and Places where they sing".

For nearly three centuries, this round of daily professional choral worship represented a tradition entirely distinct from that embodied in the intoning of Parish Clerks , and the singing of " west gallery choirs " which commonly accompanied weekly worship in English parish churches. However, in 1841, the rebuilt Leeds Parish Church established a surpliced choir to accompany parish services; drawing explicitly on the musical traditions of the ancient choral foundations; and over the next century, the Leeds example proved immensely popular and influential for choirs in cathedrals, parish churches and schools throughout the Anglican communion. [ 44 ] More or less extensively adapted, this choral tradition also became the direct inspiration for robed choirs leading congregational worship in a wide range of Christian denominations.

In 1719 the cathedral choirs of Gloucester , Hereford and Worcester combined to establish the annual Three Choirs Festival , the precursor for the multitude of summer music festivals since. By the 20th century, the choral tradition had become for many the most accessible face of worldwide Anglicanism – especially as promoted through the regular broadcasting of choral evensong by the BBC ; and also in the annual televising of the festival of Nine lessons and carols from King's College, Cambridge . Composers closely concerned with this tradition include Edward Elgar , Ralph Vaughan Williams , Gustav Holst , Charles Villiers Stanford and Benjamin Britten . A number of important 20th century works by non-Anglican composers were originally commissioned for the Anglican choral tradition – for example the Chichester Psalms of Leonard Bernstein , and the Nunc dimittis of Arvo Pärt .

[ edit ] Organization of the Anglican Communion

[ edit ] Principles of governance

Contrary to popular misconception, the British monarch is not the constitutional "Head" but in law "The Supreme Governor" of the Church of England, nor does he or she have any role in provinces outside England. The role of the crown in the Church of England is practically limited to the appointment of bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, and even this role is limited, as the Church presents the government with a short list of candidates to choose from. This process is accomplished through collaboration with and consent of ecclesial representatives (see Ecclesiastical Commissioners ) . The monarch has no constitutional role in Anglican churches in other parts of the world, although the prayer books of several countries where she is head of state maintain prayers for her as sovereign.

A characteristic of Anglicanism is that it has no international juridical authority. All thirty-nine provinces of the Anglican Communion are independent, each with their own primate and governing structure. These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, Central Africa, or South Asia), or geographical regions (such as Vanuatu and Solomon Islands) etc. Within these Communion provinces may exist subdivisions called ecclesiastical provinces , under the jurisdiction of a metropolitan archbishop. All provinces of the Anglican Communion consist of dioceses , each under the jurisdiction of a bishop . In the Anglican tradition, bishops must be consecrated according to the strictures of apostolic succession , which Anglicans consider one of the marks of catholicity . Apart from bishops, there are two other orders of ordained ministry: deacon and priest . No requirement is made for clerical celibacy , though many Anglo-Catholic priests have traditionally been bachelors. Because of innovations that occurred at various points after the latter half of the 20th century, women may be ordained as deacons in almost all provinces, as priests in some, and as bishops in a few provinces. Anglican religious orders and communities, suppressed in England during the Reformation, have re-emerged, especially since the mid-19th century, and now have an international presence and influence.

Government in the Anglican Communion is synodical , consisting of three houses of laity (usually elected parish representatives), clergy , and bishops. National, provincial, and diocesan synods maintain different scopes of authority, depending on their canons and constitutions . Anglicanism is not congregational in its polity: It is the diocese, not the parish church, which is the smallest unit of authority in the church, and diocesan bishops must give their assent to resolutions passed by synods. (See Episcopal polity ).

[ edit ] Archbishop of Canterbury

Arms of the See of Canterbury

The Archbishop of Canterbury has a precedence of honour over the other primates of the Anglican Communion, and for a province to be considered a part of the Communion means specifically to be in full communion with the See of Canterbury . The Archbishop is, therefore, recognised as primus inter pares , or first amongst equals even though he does not exercise any direct authority in any province outside England, of which he is chief primate. Rowan Williams , the Archbishop of Canterbury since 2003, was the first archbishop appointed from outside the Church of England since the Reformation: he was formerly the Archbishop of Wales .

As "spiritual head" of the Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury maintains a certain moral authority, and has the right to determine which churches will be in communion with his See . He hosts and chairs the Lambeth Conferences of Anglican Communion bishops, and decides who will be invited to them. He also hosts and chairs the Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting and is responsible for the invitations to it. He acts as president of the secretariat of the Anglican Communion Office, and its deliberative body, the Anglican Consultative Council .

[ edit ] Conferences

The Anglican Communion has no international juridical organisation. All international bodies are consultative and collaborative, and their resolutions are not legally binding on the independent provinces of the Communion. There are three international bodies of note.

[ edit ] Ordained ministry

Priest in Eucharistic vestments

Like the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, the Anglican Communion maintains the threefold ministry of deacons, priests and bishops.

[ edit ] Episcopate

Bishops , who possess the fullness of Christian priesthood, are the successors of the Apostles . Primates, archbishops and metropolitans are all bishops and members of the historical episcopate who derive their authority through apostolic succession – an unbroken line of bishops that can be traced back to the 12 apostles of Jesus .

[ editar ] Sacerdocio

Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons . Most ordained ministers in the Anglican Communion are priests , who usually work in parishes within a diocese . Priests are in charge of the spiritual life of parishes are usually called the rector or vicar . A curate (or, more correctly, an 'assistant curate') is a term often used for a priest or deacon who assists the parish priest. Non-parochial priests may earn their living by any vocation, although employment by educational institutions or charitable organizations is most common. Priests also serve as chaplains of hospitals, schools, prisons, and in the armed forces.

An archdeacon is a priest or deacon responsible for administration of an archdeaconry , which is often the name given to the principal subdivisions of a diocese . An archdeacon represents the diocesan bishop in his or her archdeaconry. In the Church of England the position of archdeacon can only be held by someone in priestly orders who has been ordained for at least six years. In some other parts of the Anglican Communion the position can also be held by deacons. In parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be ordained as priests or bishops but can be ordained as deacons, the position of archdeacon is effectively the most senior office an ordained woman can be appointed to.

A dean is a priest who is chief resident cleric of a cathedral or other collegiate church and the head of the chapter of canons. If the cathedral or collegiate church has its own parish, the dean is usually also rector of the parish. However, in the Church of Ireland the roles are often separated, and most cathedrals in the Church of England do not have associated parishes. In the Church in Wales, however, most cathedrals are parish churches, and their deans are now also vicars of their parishes.

The Anglican Communion recognizes Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox ordinations as valid. Outside the Anglican Communion, Anglican ordinations (at least of male priests) are recognized by the Old Catholic Church and various Independent Catholic churches.

[ edit ] Diaconate

The vestments of a deacon, including a stole over his left shoulder

In Anglican churches, deacons often work directly in ministry to the marginalised inside and outside the church: the poor, the sick, the hungry, the imprisoned. Unlike Orthodox and Roman Catholic deacons who may be married only before ordination, deacons are permitted to marry freely both before and after ordination, as are priests. Most deacons are preparing for priesthood, and usually only remain as deacons for about a year before being ordained priests. However, there are some deacons who remain deacons. Many provinces of the Anglican Communion ordain both women and men as deacons. Many of those provinces that ordain women to the priesthood previously allowed them to be ordained only to the diaconate. The effect of this was the creation of a large and overwhelmingly female diaconate for a time, as most men proceeded to be ordained priest after a short time as a deacon.

Deacons may baptize and in some dioceses are granted licences to solemnize matrimony , usually under the instruction of their parish priest and bishop . They sometimes officiate at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament , in the churches that have this service. Deacons are not permitted to preside at the Eucharist (but can lead worship with the distribution of already-consecrated Communion where this is permitted), absolve sins or pronounce a blessing in the name of the Church, [ 45 ] (however, these last two are sometimes permitted in an indirect form). It is the prohibition against deacons pronouncing a blessing in the Church's name that leads some in the church to believe that a deacon cannot properly solemnize matrimony. In most cases, deacons minister alongside other clergy.

[ edit ] Laity

All baptised members of the church are called Christian faithful , truly equal in dignity and in the work to build the church. Some non-ordained people also have a formal public ministry, often on a full-time and life-long basis – such as lay readers (also known as readers), churchwardens , vergers and sextons . Other lay positions include acolytes (male or female, often children), lay eucharistic ministers (also known as chalice bearers) and lay eucharistic visitors (who deliver consecrated bread and wine to "shut-ins" or members of the parish who are unable to leave home or hospital to attend the eucharist). Lay people also serve on the parish altar guild (preparing the altar and caring for its candles, linens, flowers, etc.), in the choir and as cantors, as ushers and greeters and on the church council (called the "vestry" in some countries) which is the governing body of a parish.

[ edit ] Religious life

A small yet influential aspect of Anglicanism is its religious orders and communities. Shortly after the beginning of the Catholic Revival in the Church of England, there was a renewal of interest in re-establishing religious and monastic orders and communities. One of Henry VIII's earliest acts was their dissolution and seizure of their assets. In 1841 Marian Rebecca Hughes became the first woman to take the vows of religion in communion with the Province of Canterbury since the Reformation. In 1848, Priscilla Lydia Sellon became the superior of the Society of the Most Holy Trinity at Devonport, Plymouth, the first organised religious order. Sellon is called "the restorer, after three centuries, of the religious life in the Church of England." [ 46 ] For the next one hundred years, religious orders for both men and women proliferated throughout the world, becoming a numerically small but disproportionately influential feature of global Anglicanism.

Anglican religious life at one time boasted hundreds of orders and communities, and thousands of religious . An important aspect of Anglican religious life is that most communities of both men and women lived their lives consecrated to God under the vows of poverty , chastity and obedience (or in Benedictine communities, Stability, Conversion of Life, and Obedience) by practicing a mixed life of reciting the full eight services of the Breviary in choir, along with a daily Eucharist , plus service to the poor. The mixed life, combining aspects of the contemplative orders and the active orders remains to this day a hallmark of Anglican religious life. Another distinctive feature of Anglican religious life is the existence of some mixed-gender communities.

Since the 1960s there has been a sharp decline in the number of professed religious in most parts of the Anglican Communion, especially in North America, Europe, and Australia. Many once large and international communities have been reduced to a single convent or monastery with memberships of elderly men or women. In the last few decades of the 20th century, novices have for most communities been few and far between. Some orders and communities have already become extinct. There are however, still thousands of Anglican religious working today in approximately 200 communities around the world, and religious life in many parts of the Communion – especially in developing nations – flourishes.

The most significant growth has been in the Melanesian countries of the Solomon Islands , Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea . The Melanesian Brotherhood , founded at Tabalia , Guadalcanal , in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, is now the largest Anglican Community in the world with over 450 brothers in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. The Sisters of the Church , started by Mother Emily Ayckbowm in England in 1870, has more sisters in the Solomons than all their other communities. The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia , started in 1980 by Sister Nesta Tiboe , is a growing community of women throughout the Solomon Islands. The Society of Saint Francis , founded as a union of various Franciscan orders in the 1920s, has experienced great growth in the Solomon Islands. Other communities of religious have been started by Anglicans in Papua New Guinea and in Vanuatu. Most Melanesian Anglican religious are in their early to mid 20s – vows may be temporary and it is generally assumed that brothers, at least, will leave and marry in due course – making the average age 40 to 50 years younger than their brothers and sisters in other countries. Growth of religious orders, especially for women, is marked in certain parts of Africa .

[ edit ] Worldwide distribution

A world map showing the Provinces of the Anglican Communion (Blue). Shown are the Churches in full communion with the Anglican Church: The Nordic Lutheran churches of the Porvoo Communion (Green), and the Old Catholic Churches in the Utrecht Union (Red).

Anglicanism represents the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches . The number of Anglicans in the world is slightly over 77 million. [ 47 ] The 11 provinces in Africa saw explosive growth in the last two decades. They now include 36.7 million members, more Anglicans than there are in England. England remains the largest single Anglican province, with 26 million members. In most industrialised countries, church attendance has decreased since the 19th century. Anglicanism's presence in the rest of the world is due to large-scale emigration, the establishment of expatriate communities or the work of missionaries.

The Church of England has been a church of missionaries since the 17th century when the Church first left English shores with colonists who founded what would become the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa and established Anglican churches. For example, an Anglican chaplain, Robert Wolfall , with Martin Frobisher 's Arctic expedition celebrated the Eucharist in 1578 in Frobisher Bay .

CSI St. Mary's Church , Chennai . This is the first Anglican Church in India . [ 48 ]

The first Anglican church in the Americas was built at Jamestown, Virginia , in 1607. By the 18th century, missionaries worked to establish Anglican churches in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The great Church of England missionary societies were founded; for example the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in 1698. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) in 1701, and the Church Mission Society (CMS) in 1799. The 19th century saw the founding and expansion of social oriented evangelism with societies such as the Church Pastoral Aid Society (CPAS) in 1836, Mission to Seafarers in 1856, Mothers' Union in 1876 and Church Army in 1882 all carrying out a personal form of evangelism. The 20th century saw the Church of England developing new forms of evangelism such as the Alpha course in 1990 which was developed and propagated from Holy Trinity Brompton Church in London . In the 21st century, there has been renewed effort to reach children and youth. Fresh expressions is a Church of England missionary initiative to youth begun in 2005, and has ministries at a skate park [ 49 ] through the efforts of St George's Church, Benfleet , EssexDiocese of Chelmsford – or youth groups with evocative names, like the CLAW (Christ Little Angels – Whatever!) youth group at Coventry Cathedral . And for the unchurched who do not actually wish to visit a bricks and mortar church there are Internet ministries such as the Diocese of Oxford 's online Anglican i-Church which appeared on the web in 2005.

[ edit ] Ecumenism

Anglican interest in ecumenical dialogue can be traced back to the time of the Reformation and dialogues with both Orthodox and Lutheran churches in the 16th century. In the 19th century, with the rise of the Oxford Movement, there arose greater concern for reunion of the churches of "Catholic confession." This desire to work towards full communion with other denominations led to the development of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral , approved by the Third Lambeth Conference of 1888. The four points (the sufficiency of scripture, the historic creeds, the two dominical sacraments, and the historic episcopate) were proposed as a basis for discussion, although they have frequently been taken as a non-negotiable bottom-line for any form of reunion.

[ edit ] Theological diversity

Anglicanism in general has always sought a balance between the emphases of Catholicism and Protestantism , while tolerating a range of expressions of evangelicalism and ceremony. Clergy and laity from all Anglican churchmanship traditions have been active in the formation of the Continuing movement.

While there are high church , broad church , and low church Continuing Anglicans, many Continuing churches are Anglo-Catholic with highly ceremonial liturgical practices. Others belong to a more Evangelical or low church tradition and tend to support the Thirty-nine Articles and simpler worship services. Morning Prayer , for instance, is often used instead of the Holy Eucharist for Sunday worship services, although this is not necessarily true of all low church parishes.

Most Continuing churches in the United States reject the 1979 revision of the Book of Common Prayer by the Episcopal Church and use the 1928 version for their services instead. In addition, Anglo-Catholic bodies may use the Anglican Missal or English Missal in celebrating the Eucharist.

[ edit ] Basis for Unity

In 2008 various jurisdictions made attempts at overcoming the movement's divisions. The Anglican Catholic Church , the Anglican Province of Christ the King , and the United Episcopal Church of North America entered into discussions about possible organic unity. In January 2009 one bishop from each jurisdiction consecrated three suffragan bishops in St. Louis, just a few miles from where the Congress of St. Louis first met. The three new bishops will serve all three jurisdictions.

In addition, the Anglican Episcopal Church and the Diocese of the Great Lakes formed the North American Anglican Conference for mutual assistance between Evangelical Anglican churches. A suffragan bishop was consecrated for the Anglican Episcopal Church in late 2008 by its presiding bishop and three bishops of the Diocese of the Great Lakes.

The principles of the Affirmation of St. Louis and, to a lesser extent, the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, provide some basis for unity in the movement, but the jurisdictions are numerous, usually quite small in membership and often splinter and recombine. Reports put the number of jurisdictions at somewhere between 20 and 40, mostly in North America, but fewer than a dozen of the churches popularly called Continuing churches can be traced back to the meeting in St. Louis.

[ edit ] Role in civilisation

Anglican concern with broader issues of social justice can be traced to its earliest divines. Richard Hooker, for instance, wrote that "God hath created nothing simply for itself, but each thing in all things, and of every thing each part in other have such interest, that in the whole world nothing is found whereunto any thing created can say, 'I need thee not.'" This, and related statements, reflect the deep thread of incarnational theology running through Anglican social thought – a theology which sees God, nature, and humanity in dynamic interaction, and the interpenetration of the secular and the sacred in the make-up of the cosmos. Such theology is informed by a traditional English spiritual ethos, rooted in Celtic Christianity and reinforced by Anglicanism's origins as an established church , bound up by its structure in the life and interests of civil society.

Repeatedly, throughout Anglican history, this principle has reasserted itself in movements of social justice. For instance, in the 18th century the influential Evangelical Anglican William Wilberforce , along with others, campaigned against the slave trade. In the 19th century, the dominant issues concerned the adverse effects of industrialisation. The usual Anglican response was to focus on education and give support to 'The National Society for the Education of the Children of the Poor in the principles of the Church of England'. [ 50 ] Lord Shaftesbury, a devout Evangelical, campaigned to improve the conditions in factories, in mines, for chimney sweeps, and for the education of the very poor. For years he was chairman of the Ragged School Board. Frederick Denison Maurice was a leading figure advocating reform, founding so-called "producer's co-operatives" and the Working Men's College . His work was instrumental in the establishment of the Christian socialist movement, although he himself was not in any real sense a socialist but, "a Tory paternalist with the unusual desire to theories his acceptance of the traditional obligation to help the poor", [ 51 ] influenced Anglo-Catholics such as Charles Gore, who wrote that, "the principle of the incarnation is denied unless the Christian spirit can be allowed to concern itself with everything that interests and touches human life." Anglican focus on labour issues culminated in the work of William Temple in the 1930s and 1940s.

[ edit ] Pacifism

A question of whether or not Christianity is a pacifist religion has remained a matter of debate for Anglicans. In 1937, the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship emerged as a distinct reform organisation, seeking to make pacifism a clearly defined part of Anglican theology. The group rapidly gained popularity amongst Anglican intellectuals, including Vera Brittain , Evelyn Underhill and former British political leader George Lansbury . Furthermore, the Reverend Dick Sheppard , who during the 1930s was one of Britain's most famous Anglican priests due to his landmark sermon broadcasts for BBC radio , founded the Peace Pledge Union a secular pacifist organisation for the non-religious that gained considerable support throughout the 1930s.

Whilst never actively endorsed by the Anglican Church, many Anglicans unofficially have adopted the Augustinian " Just War " doctrine. The Anglican Pacifist Fellowship remain highly active throughout the Anglican world. It rejects this doctrine of "just war" and seeks to reform the Church by reintroducing the pacifism inherent in the beliefs of many of the earliest Christians and present in their interpretation of Christ's Sermon on the Mount . The principles of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowhip are often formulated as a statement of belief that "Jesus' teaching is incompatible with the waging of war, that a Christian church should never support or justify war and that our Christian witness should include opposing the waging or justifying of war." [ 52 ]

Confusing the matter was the fact that the 37th Article of Religion in the Book of Common Prayer states that "it is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the Magistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars." Therefore, the Lambeth Council in the modern era has sought to provide a clearer position by repudiating modern war and developed a statement that has been affirmed at each subsequent meeting of the Council. This statement was strongly reasserted when "the 67th General Convention of the Episcopal Church reaffirms the statement made by the Anglican Bishops assembled at Lambeth in 1978 and adopted by the 66th General Convention of the Episcopal Church in 1979, calling "Christian people everywhere ... to engage themselves in non-violent action for justice and peace and to support others so engaged, recognizing that such action will be controversial and may be personally very costly... this General Convention, in obedience to this call, urges all members of this Church to support by prayer and by such other means as they deem appropriate, those who engaged in such non-violent action, and particularly those who suffer for conscience' sake as a result; and be it further Resolved, that this General Convention calls upon all members of this Church seriously to consider the implications for their own lives of this call to resist war and work for peace for their own lives."

[ editar ] Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Desmond Tutu (born 1931), former Primate of the Anglican Church of the Province of South Africa , is a noted pacifist and a leading figure in the successful fight against apartheid

The focus on other social issues became increasingly diffuse after the Second World War . On the one hand, the growing independence and strength of Anglican churches in the global south brought new emphasis to issues of global poverty, the inequitable distribution of resources, and the lingering effects of colonialism. In this regard, figures such as Desmond Tutu and Ted Scott were instrumental in mobilizing Anglicans worldwide against the apartheid policies of South Africa . Rapid social change in the industrialised world during the 20th century compelled the church to examine issues of gender, sexuality and marriage.

These changes led to Lambeth Conference resolutions countenancing contraception and the remarriage of divorced persons. They led to most provinces approving the ordination of women . In more recent years it has led some jurisdictions to permit the ordination of people in same-sex relationships and to authorise rites for the blessing of same-sex unions (see homosexuality and Anglicanism ). More conservative elements within Anglicanism (primarily African churches and factions within North American Anglicanism) have opposed these proposals. Some liberal and moderate Anglicans see this opposition as representing a new fundamentalism within Anglicanism. Others see the advocacy for these proposals as representing a breakdown of Christian theology and commitment. The lack of social consensus among and within provinces of diverse cultural traditions has resulted in considerable conflict and even schism concerning some or all of these developments (see Anglican realignment ). Some Anglicans opposed to various liberalising changes, in particular the ordination of women , have converted to Roman Catholicism. Others have, at various times, joined the Continuing Anglican movement .

These latter trends reflect a countervailing tendency in Anglicanism towards insularity, reinforced perhaps by the "big tent" nature of the movement, which seeks to be comprehensive of various views and tendencies. The insularity and complacency of the early established Church of England has tended to influence Anglican self-identity, and inhibit engagement with the broader society in favour of internal debate and dialogue. Nonetheless, there is significantly greater cohesion among Anglicans when they turn their attention outward. Anglicans worldwide are active in many areas of social and environmental concern.

[ edit ] Continuing Anglicanism

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Continuing Anglican refers to a number of church bodies formed outside of the Anglican Communion . These churches generally believe that traditional forms of Anglican faith and worship have been unacceptably revised or abandoned within some Anglican Communion churches in recent decades and thus claim that they are "continuing" the traditional forms of Anglicanism. The modern Continuing movement principally dates to the Congress of St. Louis in the United States in 1977, at which participants rejected changes that had been made in the Episcopal Church's Book of Common Prayer and the ordination of women . More recent changes in the North American churches of the Anglican Communion, such as the ordination of gay and lesbian people to the priesthood and episcopate , have created further separations.

Continuing churches have generally been formed by people and churches who have left the Anglican Communion . These older Anglican churches are charged by the Continuing movement with being greatly compromised by secular cultural standards and liberal approaches to theology. Many Continuing Anglicans believe that the faith of some churches in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury has become either unorthodox or un-Christian [ citation needed ] and therefore have not sought to also be in communion with him.

Although the term Anglican usually refers to those churches in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury , [ 53 ] many Continuing Anglicanism bodies in the United States, use the term Anglican to differentiate themselves from the Episcopal Church.

The original generation of Continuing parishes in the United States were found mainly in metropolitan areas. Since the late 1990s a number have appeared in smaller communities, often as a result of a division in the town's existing Episcopal parish(es) or mission(s). The 2007–08 Directory of Traditional Anglican and Episcopal Parishes , published by The Fellowship of Concerned Churchmen, contained information on over 900 parishes affiliated with either the Continuing Anglican churches or the Anglican realignment movement.

[ edit ] Ordinariates within the Roman Catholic Church

On 4 November 2009 Pope Benedict XVI issued an apostolic constitution , Anglicanorum Coetibus , to allow groups of former Anglicans to enter into full communion with the Roman Catholic Church as members of personal ordinariates . The announcement of the imminent constitution on 20 October 2009 mentioned:

Today's announcement of the Apostolic Constitution is a response by Pope Benedict XVI to a number of requests over the past few years to the Holy See from groups of Anglicans who wish to enter into full visible communion with the Roman Catholic Church, and are willing to declare that they share a common Catholic faith and accept the Petrine ministry as willed by Christ for his Church.

Pope Benedict XVI has approved, within the Apostolic Constitution, a canonical structure that provides for Personal Ordinariates, which will allow former Anglicans to enter full communion with the Catholic Church while preserving elements of distinctive Anglican spiritual patrimony.

The announcement of this Apostolic Constitution brings to an end a period of uncertainty for such groups who have nurtured hopes of new ways of embracing unity with the Catholic Church. It will now be up to those who have made requests to the Holy See to respond to the Apostolic Constitution.

—The Archbishop of Westminster and The Archbishop of Canterbury [ 54 ]

For each personal ordinariate the ordinary may be a former Anglican bishop or priest. It is expected that provision will be made to allow the retention of aspects of Anglican liturgy; cf. Anglican Use . [ 55 ]

[ editar ] Referencias

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  17. ^ Chadwick, Owen. The Victorian Church, Part Two 1860–1901 . Black. p. 324.  
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  21. ^ a b c Morris, Jeremy N. (Fall 2003). "Newman and Maurice on the Via Media of the Anglican Church: Contrasts and Affinities". Anglican Theological Review .  
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  25. ^ Sykes, Stephen. W. (1978). The Integrity of Anglicanism . Mowbray. p. 19.  
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  30. ^ Booty, John (1998). "Standard Divines". The Study of Anglicanism . [London]: SPCK/Fortress Press. p. 163 ff.. ISBN 080063151X . OCLC 46883122 .  
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  47. ^ Major Branches of Religions
  48. ^ The Hindu Restoration work under way at St. Mary's Church
  49. ^ Legacy XS Youth Centre & Skatepark, St. George's, Benfleet [ dead link ]
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  53. ^ Accessed 9 November 2010
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  55. ^ Butt, Riazat; Hooper, John (20 October 2009). "Roman Catholic church to receive Anglicans" . The Retrieved 20 October 2009 .  

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