Chipre

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República de Chipre
???????? ?????????? (griego)
Kypriakí Dimokratia
Kibris Cumhuriyeti (Turco)
Bandera Escudo de armas
Himno :
Grecia nacional anthem.ogg
Ýmnos es el estaño Eleftherían
????? ??? ??? ??????????
Himno a la Libertad 1
Ubicación de Chipre (verde) en la Unión Europea (luz verde) - [Leyenda]
Ubicación de   Chipre    (Verde)

en la Unión Europea    (Luz verde) - [ Leyenda ]

Capital
(Y ciudad más grande)
Nicosia (????????, Lefko?a)
35 ° 08'N 33 ° 28'E / 35.133 ° N 33.467 ° E / 35.133, 33.467
El idioma oficial (s) Griego , turco [1]
Grupos étnicos (2001) 77% de los chipriotas griegos
18% de los turco-chipriotas
Otros 5% [2]
Gentilicio Chipriotas , griegos chipriotas , turco-chipriota
Gobierno Presidencial de la república
- Presidente Dimitris Christofias
Independencia del Reino Unido
- Zürich y Acuerdo de Londres 19 de febrero 1959
- Proclamada 16 de agosto 1960
Área
- Total 9.251 kilometros 2 ( 167a )
3572 (Incluye Norte) millas cuadradas
- De agua (%) despreciable
Población
- 2010 estiman 803.147 [3] (no incluye el Norte)
1.088.503 (isla)
- Densidad 117/km 2 ( 85a )
221/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2010 estiman
- Total $ 23.190 millones [4]
- Per cápita $ 28.256 [4]
PIB (nominal) 2010 estiman
- Total $ 23,174 mil millones [4]
- Per cápita $ 28.237 [4]
Gini (2005) 29 (bajo) ( 19no )
IDH (2010) aumento 0.810 [5] (muy alto) ( 35a )
Moneda Euro 2 ( EUR )
Huso horario EET ( UTC +2)
- Verano ( DST ) EEST ( UTC +3)
Unidades en el Izquierda
ISO 3166 CY
Dominio Internet . Cy 3
Código de llamada 357
1 También el himno nacional de Grecia .
2 Antes de 2008, la libra chipriota .
3 El . eu dominio también se utiliza, comparte con otros de la Unión Europea los Estados miembros.

Chipre ( Escuchar i / s a? p r ? s / ; griego : ??????, Kypros , IPA: [cipros] ; Turquía : Kibris, IPA: [k?b??s] ), oficialmente la República de Chipre ( griego : ???????? ??????????, Kypriak? ??Dimokratia, IPA: [cipriaci Dimokratia] ; Turquía : Kibris Cumhuriyeti, IPA: [k?b??s d?umhu?ijeti] ), es una de Eurasia país de la isla en el Mediterráneo Oriental , [6] [7] al este de Grecia , al sur de Turquía , al oeste de Siria y el norte de Egipto . Es la tercera isla más grande en el mar Mediterráneo y uno de los destinos turísticos más populares. [8] Una avanzada , [9] de altos ingresos la economía con un alto Índice de Desarrollo Humano , [10] [11] la República de Chipre Fue miembro fundador del Movimiento de Países No Alineados , hasta que se unió a la Unión Europea el 1 de mayo de 2004. [12] [13]

La primera actividad humana conocida en la isla se remonta a alrededor del décimo milenio antes de Cristo . Los restos arqueológicos de este período incluyen el buen estado de conservación del Neolítico pueblo de Khirokitia , que ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO , junto con las Tumbas de los Reyes . Chipre es el hogar de algunos de los pozos más antiguos de agua en el mundo, [14] y es el sitio del primer ejemplo conocido de felinos domesticación . [15] [16] En una ubicación estratégica en el Oriente Medio , [17] [18 ] [19] [20] Chipre ha sido ocupado por varias grandes potencias , incluyendo los imperios de los hititas , asirios , egipcios , persas , Rashiduns , Omeyas , Lusignan , venecianos y otomanos . Fundada por los griegos micénicos en el segundo milenio antes de Cristo, la isla experimentó durante largos períodos de gobierno griego en los Ptolomeos y los bizantinos . En el año 333 aC, Alejandro Magno conquistó la isla de los persas. El Imperio Otomano conquistó la isla en 1571 y se mantuvo bajo control otomano durante más de tres siglos. Fue puesta bajo administración británica en 1878 hasta que fue concedida la independencia en 1960, [21] se convierta en miembro de la Commonwealth del año siguiente.

En 1974, tras 11 años de violencia entre comunidades, entre chipriotas griegos y chipriotas turcos , [22] utilizando un intento de golpe de Estado por griegos chipriotas nacionalistas [23] [24] y los elementos de la junta militar griega [25] con el objetivo de lograr la Enosis (unión de la isla con Grecia) como un pretexto, [25] Turquía invadió y ocupó la parte norte de la isla, dando lugar a la partición de la isla, el objetivo de Turquía desde 1955. [25] La violencia entre comunidades y turco posterior llevó a la invasión de desplazamiento de cientos de miles de chipriotas y el establecimiento de un independiente turco-chipriota entidad política en el norte. Estos acontecimientos y la situación política resultante son materia de disputa .

La República de Chipre ha de jure [26] la soberanía sobre toda la isla de Chipre y sus aguas circundantes, salvo pequeñas porciones, Akrotiri y Dhekelia , que se asignan mediante un tratado con el Reino Unido como soberano bases militares . La República de Chipre es de facto dividido en dos partes principales: la zona bajo el control efectivo de la República de Chipre, que comprende aproximadamente el 59% de la superficie de la isla, y en la zona turco-controlado, en el norte, [27] que se hace llamar el República Turca del Norte de Chipre , que cubren aproximadamente el 36% de la superficie de la isla y reconocida sólo por Turquía.

Contenido

[ editar ] Etimología

La etimología del nombre griego Kypros es desconocida. Las sugerencias incluyen:

Los primeros atestiguado referencia a Chipre es el griego micénico ku-pi-ri-jo, que significa "Chipre", escritos en lineal B escritura silábica. [28]

A través del comercio de ultramar, la isla ha dado su nombre al latín clásico palabra de cobre a través de la frase aes Cyprium, "metal de Chipre", más tarde acortado a Cuprum. [29] Chipre, y más concretamente las costas de Paphos , fue también uno de los lugares de nacimiento de Afrodita, que figura en la mitología griega, que era conocido como Kupria, ya que según la mitología fenicia , Astarté , diosa del amor y la belleza, más tarde fue identificada con Afrodita.

La norma gentilicio correspondiente a Chipre o de su pueblo o cultura es chipriota . Los términos chipriota y Cipriano también, con menor frecuencia, que se utiliza.

[ editar ] Historia

[ editar ] Antigüedad

El neolítico en el yacimiento arqueológico Khirokitia

El primer sitio confirmado de la actividad humana en Chipre es Aetokremnos , situada en la costa sur, lo que indica que los cazadores-recolectores eran activos en la isla de alrededor de 10.000 a. C. , [30] se establecieron con las comunidades rurales que data de 8200 aC. La llegada de los primeros humanos se correlaciona con la extinción de los hipopótamos enanos y elefantes enanos . [31] de agua los pozos descubiertos por los arqueólogos en el oeste de Chipre, se cree que son las más antiguas del mundo, fechado en 9000 a 10.500 años de edad. [14 ]

Los restos de un niño de 8 meses de edad del gato fueron descubiertos enterrados con su dueño humano en un aparte del Neolítico sitio en Chipre. [15] La tumba se estima en 9.500 años de edad, anterior a los antiguos egipcios la civilización y hacer retroceder el más antiguo conocido felino-humanos asociación significativa. [16] El muy bien conservado pueblo neolítico de Khirokitia por la UNESCO como Patrimonio de la Humanidad que data de aproximadamente 6800 antes de Cristo. [32]

Templo de Apolo Ilatis fuera de la ciudad de Limassol .

La isla era parte del imperio hitita durante la Edad de Bronce hasta la llegada de dos oleadas de asentamiento griego. [33] La primera consistió en griego micénico comerciantes que empezaron a visitar Chipre en 1400 antes de Cristo. [34] [35] Una de las principales ola de asentamiento griego que se cree que han tenido lugar tras el colapso de la Edad de Bronce de la Grecia micénica en el período de 1100-1050 aC, con carácter predominantemente griega de la isla datan de este período. [35] [36] Chipre ocupa un papel importante en griego la mitología es el lugar de nacimiento de Afrodita y Adonis , y el hogar de Rey Cíniras , Teucro y Pigmalión . [37] A partir del octavo siglo aC colonias fenicias se fundaron en la costa sur de Chipre, cerca de la actual Larnaca y Salamina. [35]

Chipre fue gobernada por los asirios durante un siglo a partir de 708 aC, antes de un breve periodo bajo dominio egipcio y, finalmente, persa en 545 aC regla. [35] Los chipriotas, dirigido por Onesilus , rey de Salamina , se unieron a sus compatriotas griegos en el Jónico ciudades durante la fracasada rebelión jónica en el 499 aC contra el Imperio Aqueménida . La rebelión fue suprimida, pero Chipre logró mantener un alto grado de autonomía y se mantuvo orientada hacia el mundo griego. [35]

La isla quedó bajo el gobierno griego permanente por Alejandro el Grande y el Tolomeos de Egipto después de su muerte. Completa helenización tuvo lugar durante el ptolemaico período, que terminó cuando Chipre fue anexado por la República romana en 58 aC.

[ editar ] Edad Media

Retrato de Catalina Cornaro , reina de Chipre.

Cuando el Imperio Romano se dividió en Oriental y Occidental en 395 partes, Chipre pasó a formar parte del Imperio Romano Oriental, o Imperio Bizantino , y seguiría siendo parte de él hasta que las cruzadas de unos 800 años más tarde. Bajo la dominación bizantina, la orientación griego que había sido destacado desde la antigüedad ha desarrollado el fuerte carácter helenístico-cristiana que sigue siendo un sello distintivo de la comunidad chipriota griega. [35] A partir de 649, Chipre sufrió de incursiones devastadoras en marcha del Levante , que continuó durante los próximos 300 años. [35] Muchos se apresuraron ataques piratas, pero otros fueron ataques a gran escala en la que muchos chipriotas fueron asesinados y una gran riqueza se llevó o destruyó. [35]

No hay iglesias bizantinas sobrevivir a este período, miles de personas fueron asesinadas, y muchas ciudades - como Salamina -. Destruidas y nunca reconstruido [35] el gobierno bizantino fue restaurado en el año 965, cuando el emperador Nicéforo Focas II anotó victorias decisivas en la tierra y el mar . [35] En 1191, durante la Tercera Cruzada , Ricardo I de Inglaterra capturó la isla de Isaac Comneno de Chipre [38] Se lo utiliza como base de apoyo importante que era relativamente a salvo de los sarracenos . Un año más tarde Richard vendió la isla a los Caballeros Templarios , quien, tras una sangrienta revuelta, a su vez lo vendió a Guy de Lusignan . Su hermano y sucesor Amalric fue reconocido como rey de Chipre por Enrique VI, emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano . [35]

Después de la muerte en 1473 de Jacobo II , el último rey de Lusignan, la República de Venecia, asumió el control de la isla, mientras que la viuda de Venecia del difunto rey, la reina Catalina Cornaro , reinó como mascarón de proa. Venecia anexó formalmente Chipre en 1489, tras la abdicación de Caterina. [35] Los venecianos fortificada Nicosia por la construcción de las murallas venecianas famoso, y lo utilizó como un centro comercial importante. A lo largo de la dominación veneciana, el Imperio Otomano a menudo atacó Chipre. En 1539 los otomanos destruyeron Limassol y lo temiendo lo peor, los venecianos también fortificada Famagusta y Kyrenia . [35]

Durante los casi cuatro siglos de gobierno de América, existían dos sociedades en Chipre. El primero consistió en nobles francos y su séquito, así como los comerciantes italianos y sus familias. La segunda, la mayoría de la población, consistió de los chipriotas griegos, siervos y trabajadores. A pesar de un esfuerzo determinado se hizo para sustituir a las tradiciones indígenas y la cultura, el esfuerzo fracasó. [35]

[ editar ] El Imperio Otomano

Mapa histórico de Chipre por Piri Reis

En 1570, un asalto a gran escala otomano con 60.000 tropas traídas de la isla bajo control otomano, a pesar de la fuerte resistencia de los habitantes de Nicosia y Famagusta . 20.000 Nicosians fueron condenados a muerte , y todas las iglesias, edificios públicos, y el palacio fue saqueado. [39] El anterior elite de América fue destruido y el primer cambio demográfico importante desde la antigüedad se llevó a cabo cuando otomano jenízaros se asentaron en la isla. [23]

Los otomanos se abolió el feudalismo sistema previamente establecido y aplicado el sistema de mijo a Chipre, según el cual no musulmanes los pueblos se rigen por sus propias autoridades religiosas. En un cambio de la época de la dominación de América, el jefe de la Iglesia de Chipre fue investido como líder de la población chipriota griega y actuó como mediador entre los chipriotas griegos y cristianos las autoridades otomanas. [39] otomano de Chipre, a veces indiferente , a veces opresiva, en función de los temperamentos de los sultanes y los funcionarios locales, y durante este período la isla cayó en un declive económico. [39]

En 1828, en primer lugar la Grecia moderna presidente Ioannis Kapodistrias cuyos antepasados ??maternos fueron los chipriotas griegos , [40] [41] llama a la unión de Chipre con Grecia, y numerosos levantamientos de menor importancia se llevó a cabo. [42] La reacción a otomano mal gobierno condujo a levantamientos de los griegos y los turco-chipriotas, aunque ninguno tuvo éxito. Para 1872, la población de la isla había aumentado a 144.000 que comprende 44.000 musulmanes y 100.000 cristianos. [43] , siglos de abandono por parte de los turcos, la pobreza implacable de la mayoría de la gente, y los recaudadores de impuestos siempre presente alimentado el nacionalismo griego y por siglo 19 la idea de la enosis , o unión, con el recién independizado Grecia estaba firmemente arraigado entre los chipriotas griegos. [39]

[ editar ] Imperio Británico

Izar la bandera británica en Nicosia

En las secuelas de la guerra ruso-turca (1877-1878) y el Congreso de Berlín , Chipre fue arrendado a la del Imperio Británico , que de facto se hizo cargo de su administración en 1878 (aunque, en términos de soberanía , sigue siendo una de jure Otomano territorio hasta 1914, junto con Egipto y Sudán ) a cambio de garantías de que Gran Bretaña podría utilizar la isla como una base para proteger el Imperio Otomano contra la agresión rusa posible. [35] La isla de Gran Bretaña serviría como una base militar clave en las rutas coloniales . En 1906, cuando el puerto de Famagusta fue terminado, Chipre era un puesto estratégico naval con vistas al Canal de Suez , la principal ruta crucial para la India, que era entonces la más importante colonia de Gran Bretaña. Tras el estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial y la entrada del Imperio Otomano en el lado de las potencias centrales , Gran Bretaña se anexó formalmente la isla el 5 de noviembre de 1914. [35]

En 1915, Gran Bretaña ofreció Chipre a Constantino I de Grecia , a condición de que Grecia unirse a la guerra en el lado de los británicos, que se negó. En 1923, bajo el Tratado de Lausana , la naciente república turca abandonó cualquier pretensión de Chipre y en 1925 fue declarada británica colonia de la corona . [35] Muchos chipriotas griegos lucharon en el ejército británico durante las dos guerras mundiales, con la esperanza de que Chipre eventualmente unirse a Grecia . [44] Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial se alistó muchos en el Regimiento de Chipre .

En enero de 1959, la Iglesia de Chipre organizó un referéndum, que fue boicoteado por la comunidad turco-chipriota, donde más del 90% [ aclaración necesaria ] votaron a favor de " Enosis ", es decir, la unión con Grecia. [45] [46] la autonomía restringida bajo una constitución fue propuesta por la administración británica, pero finalmente rechazada. En 1955, la EOKA organización fue fundada, en busca de la independencia y la unión con Grecia a través de la lucha armada. Al mismo tiempo, la Organización de la resistencia turca (TMT), llamando a Taksim, o partición, fue establecido por los turco-chipriotas como contrapeso. [47] La agitación en la isla se reunió con fuerza por los británicos.

[ editar ] Independencia

El primer presidente de Chipre, Makarios III

El 16 de agosto de 1960, Chipre obtuvo su independencia después de que el Acuerdo de Zurich y Londres, entre el Reino Unido, Grecia y Turquía. El Reino Unido mantiene las dos zonas de soberanía de Akrotiri y Dhekelia , mientras que los puestos gubernamentales y oficinas públicas fueron asignados por cuotas étnicas, dando a la minoría turca chipriotas un veto permanente, el 30% en el parlamento y la administración, y la concesión de los tres estados de la madre garante de los derechos.

En 1963, la violencia intercomunitaria estalló parcialmente patrocinado por tanto "madre patria" con los turco-chipriotas están obligados a enclaves y presidente de Chipre, el arzobispo Makarios III pidiendo unilateral cambios constitucionales como un medio para aliviar las tensiones en toda la isla. La Naciones Unidas se involucró y las Naciones Unidas para las fuerzas en Chipre (UNFICYP), desplegados en los puntos de inflamación. [48]

En 1964, Turquía intentó intervenir en Chipre [49] en respuesta a la continua violencia entre las comunidades chipriotas , pero fue detenido por un telegrama con palabras fuertes de los EE.UU. el presidente Lyndon B. Johnson , el 5 de junio de 1964; quien advirtió que el Estados Unidos no estar al lado de Turquía en caso de una consecuente Soviética invasión de territorio turco. [50]

[ editar ] Edad Contemporánea

La calle Ledra en Nicosia acabó en la Zona de Amortiguamiento de las Naciones Unidas (conocida como la Línea Verde).

Después de un golpe de Estado orquestado por la Junta griega, Turquía lanzó una invasión militar a gran escala de la isla en 1974. La fuerza aérea de Turquía empezó a bombardear las posiciones griegas en Chipre, cientos de paracaidistas se lanzaron en el área entre Nicosia y Kyrenia , donde bien armados enclaves turcochipriotas habían sido establecidas desde hace tiempo, mientras que frente a las costas de Kyrenia 30 de transporte de tropas turcas protegidos por destructores desembarcaron 6.000 hombres, así como tanques, camiones y vehículos blindados.

Tres días más tarde, cuando un alto el fuego había sido acordado, Turquía había aterrizado 30.000 soldados en la isla y Kyrenia capturado, el corredor que une a Kyrenia Nicosia, y el barrio turco-chipriota de Nicosia en sí. La junta de Atenas, y luego el régimen de Sampson en Chipre cayó del poder. En Nicosia Clerides Glafkos asumió la presidencia y el orden constitucional se restableció, aparentemente con el pretexto de la eliminación de los turcos dio para la invasión. Los turcos utilizaron un período de negociaciones para reforzar su cabeza de puente de Kyrenia y prepararse para la segunda fase de la invasión, que comenzó el 14 de agosto y como resultado la incautación de Morphou , Karpass , Famagusta y el Mesaoria . Las fuerzas griegas-chipriotas fueron incapaces de resistir el avance de los turcos.

La presión internacional llevó a un alto el fuego y en ese momento había sido el 37% de la isla, tomada por los turcos y los 180.000 chipriotas griegos fueron expulsados ??de sus hogares en el norte. [51] Al mismo tiempo, alrededor de 50.000 turcochipriotas se trasladó a las áreas bajo el control de las fuerzas turcas y se instalaron en las propiedades de los chipriotas griegos desplazados. A mediados de 1975, el Congreso de Estados Unidos entre una variedad de sanciones contra Turquía, impuso un embargo de armas a Turquía para el uso suministradas por Estados Unidos el equipo durante la invasión turca de Chipre en 1974. [52]

En 1983, los turcochipriotas proclamaron la República Turca del Norte de Chipre , reconocida sólo por Turquía. A partir de hoy, hay 1.534 chipriotas griegos [53] y 502 turco-chipriotas [54] por desaparecidas a raíz de los combates. Los acontecimientos del verano de 1974 dominan la política en la isla, así como las relaciones greco-turcas . Alrededor de 150.000 colonos de Turquía se cree que viven en el norte, en violación de la Convención de Ginebra y varias resoluciones de la ONU . [55] [56] Después de la invasión y la conquista de su territorio por las tropas turcas del norte, la República de Chipre anunció que todos sus puertos de entrada en el norte estaban cerradas, ya que no estaban efectivamente bajo su control. [ cita requerida ] El último gran esfuerzo para resolver el conflicto de Chipre era la propuesta de Annan en 2004. Se obtuvo el apoyo de los turcochipriotas, pero fue rechazado por los chipriotas griegos , que consideraban que el Plan Annan para ser desequilibrado y demasiado pro-turca. [57]

El 1 de mayo de 2004, Chipre se unió a la Unión Europea junto con otros nueve países. [58] En julio de 2006, la isla sirvió como un refugio seguro para las personas que huyen de Líbano debido al conflicto entre Israel y Hezbollah . [59]

En marzo de 2008, un muro que durante décadas había estado en la frontera entre la República de Chipre y la ONU la zona de amortiguamiento fue demolido. [60] El muro había cortado a través de la calle Ledra, en el corazón de Nicosia y fue visto como un fuerte símbolo de la isla es de 32 años de división. El 3 de abril de 2008, la calle Ledra fue reabierto en la presencia de funcionarios chipriotas griegos y turcos. [61]

[ editar ] Geografía

Imagen topográfica de Chipre.
Chipre campo en las montañas de Troodos

Chipre es la tercera mayor isla en el Mar Mediterráneo , después de la italiana isla de Sicilia y Cerdeña (tanto en términos de superficie y población). También es la 81a más grande del mundo por área y 49a más grande del mundo por población . Que mide 240 kilómetros (149 millas) de largo de punta a punta y 100 kilómetros (62 millas) de ancho en su punto más ancho, con Turquía, 75 kilómetros (47 millas) al norte. Se encuentra entre las latitudes 34 ° y 36 ° N y longitudes 32 ° y 35 ° E .

Otros territorios vecinos son Siria y el Líbano hacia el este (105 kilómetros (65 millas) y 108 kilómetros (67 millas), respectivamente), Israel 200 kilómetros (124 millas) al sureste, Egipto, 380 kilómetros (236 millas) al sur, y Grecia , al noroeste: 280 kilómetros (174 millas) al pequeño Dodecanesian isla de Kastelorizo ??(Megisti), a 400 kilómetros (249 millas) a Rodas , y 800 kilómetros (497 millas) de la península griega.

El alivio físico de la isla está dominado por dos cadenas montañosas, la montañas de Troodos, y el más pequeño Range Kyrenia , y la llanura central que abarca, la Mesaoria . Las montañas de Troodos cubren la mayor parte de las partes sur y oeste de la isla y representan aproximadamente la mitad de su área. El punto más alto de Chipre, es el Monte Olimpo en 1.952 m (6.404 pies), ubicado en el centro de la cordillera Troodos. La gama de Kyrenia estrecha, que se extiende a lo largo de la costa norte, ocupa el área considerablemente menor, y las elevaciones son menores, alcanzando un máximo de 1.024 m (3.360 pies).

Geopolíticamente , la isla está dividida en cuatro segmentos principales. La República de Chipre ocupa el sur de las dos terceras partes de la isla (59,74%). La República Turca de Chipre del Norte ocupa el tercio norte (34.85%), y el de las Naciones Unidas -controlada Línea Verde ofrece una zona de seguridad que separa a las dos y cubre el 2,67% de la isla. Por último, dos bases de soberanía británica se encuentra en la isla: Akrotiri y Dhekelia , que cubre el restante 2,74%.

[ editar ] Biodiversidad

El muflón es un símbolo nacional

Las grandes diferencias de altura en diferentes partes de la isla, contribuyen a las condiciones climáticas divergentes, dando lugar a una variedad de hábitats distintivos de una colección única de fauna y flora. El número de especies y subespecies de plantas silvestres en Chipre es, posiblemente, en los miles, [ vago ] muchas son endémicas.

La vida silvestre puede ser visto en las montañas de Troodos, Larnaca y los lagos de sal Akrotiri, y el parque nacional Akamas. Chipre muflón , un símbolo nacional , está protegido y se puede ver en Paphos bosques hacia las montañas de Troodos. En la prehistoria de la isla fue el hogar de ambos un hipopótamo pigmeo, el hipopótamo pigmeo de Chipre (H. menor de edad), y un elefante pymgy, el Enano Chipre elefante (E. chipriotas). El Ayia Napa Monstruo Marino es un críptico , que según la leyenda local es un monstruo mítico mar de la mitología griega, el Scylla .

[ editar ] Clima

Chipre tiene un clima subtropical - mediterráneo y semi-áridas tipo (en la parte noreste de la isla) - de acuerdo a la clasificación del clima de Köppen signes Csa y BSH, [62] [63] , con inviernos muy suaves (en la costa) y caliente a los veranos calientes. La nieve es posible sólo en las montañas de Troodos, en la parte central de la isla. La lluvia se presenta principalmente en invierno, con el verano se seca en general.

Chipre tiene el clima más cálido (y inviernos más cálidos) en la parte mediterránea de la Unión Europea. La temperatura media anual en la costa es de 24 ° C (75 ° F) durante el día y 14 ° C (57 ° F) durante la noche. Por lo general - / temporada de vacaciones de verano dura alrededor de 8 meses, comienza en abril, con temperaturas promedio de 21-23 ° C (70-73 ° F) durante el día y 11-13 ° C (52-55 ° F) por la noche, termina en noviembre, con temperaturas promedio de 22 a 23 ° C (72-73 ° F) durante el día y 12-14 ° C (54-57 ° F) por la noche, aunque también en el resto de las temperaturas a veces cuatro meses supera los 20 ° C ( 68 ° F). Entre todas las ciudades de la parte mediterránea de la Unión Europea, Limassol tiene los inviernos más cálidos, en el período enero-febrero de la temperatura promedio es de 17 a 18 ° C (63-64 ° F) durante el día y 9.8 ° C (46 -48 ° F) por la noche, en otras localidades costeras de Chipre es generalmente 16 a 17 ° C (61-63 ° F) durante el día y 9.7 ° C (45-48 ° F) durante la noche. En marzo y diciembre las temperaturas medias Limassol es 19 a 20 ° C (66-68 ° F) durante el día y 10-11 ° C (50-52 ° F) por la noche, en otras localidades costeras de Chipre es generalmente 17 - 19 ° C (63-66 ° F) durante el día y 11.8 ° C (46-52 ° F) durante la noche. Mitad del verano es caliente - en julio y agosto en la costa la temperatura media suele rondar los 33 ° C (91 ° F) durante el día y alrededor de 23 ° C (73 ° F) por la noche (en el interior de la isla, en la sierra la temperatura media supera los 35 ° C (95 ° F)), mientras que en los meses de junio y septiembre, en la costa la temperatura media suele rondar los 30 ° C (86 ° F) durante el día y alrededor de 20 ° C (68 ° F) por la noche . Las grandes fluctuaciones de temperatura son poco frecuentes. Las temperaturas en el interior de la isla son más estrictas, con inviernos más fríos y más cálidos veranos en comparación con la costa de la isla. [64]

Temperatura media anual de mar es 21-22 ° C (70-72 ° F), desde los 17 ° C (63 ° F) en febrero de 27 a 28 ° C (81-82 ° F) en agosto (dependiendo de la ubicación ). Un total de 7 meses - de mayo a noviembre - la temperatura media del mar supera los 20 ° C (68 ° F). [65]

Horas de sol en la costa es de alrededor de 3.400 por año, de media de 5-6 horas de sol / día de diciembre en un promedio de 12-13 horas en julio. [65] Esto es aproximadamente el doble que la de las ciudades en la mitad norte de Europa, por comparación: Londres - 1.461, [66] Sin embargo, en invierno hasta el sol algunas veces más, para la comparación: Londres tiene 37 horas [66] , mientras que las localidades costeras de Chipre tiene alrededor de 180 horas de sol en diciembre (es decir, tanto como en de mayo en Londres).

[ editar ] El suministro de agua

Presa Kouris es el más grande de una red de 107 presas en Chipre

Chipre está sufriendo de una escasez permanente de agua. El país depende en gran medida de la lluvia para proporcionar agua para uso doméstico y desde hace muchos años, el promedio anual de lluvia parecía estar disminuyendo. Entre 2001 y 2004, la precipitación anual excepcionalmente fuerte empujado las reservas de agua para arriba, con la oferta y la demanda superior, lo que permite total de almacenamiento en los embalses de la isla a la altura de su punto más alto a principios de 2005. Sin embargo, desde entonces la demanda ha aumentado cada año - un resultado de crecimiento de la población local, los extranjeros de trasladarse a Chipre y el número de turistas que visitan - mientras que la oferta se ha reducido. Chipre tiene un total de 107 presas (más una en construcción) y los depósitos, con una capacidad de almacenamiento de agua total de alrededor de 330.000.000 m 3 (1,2 x 10 10 pies cúbicos ). [67] Las represas siguen siendo la principal fuente de agua tanto para uso doméstico y el uso agrícola. Plantas de desalinización de agua poco a poco se está construyendo con el fin de hacer frente a los últimos años de sequía prolongada. El Gobierno ha invertido mucho en la creación de plantas de desalinización de agua que se suministra casi el 50 por ciento de agua para uso doméstico desde 2001. Asimismo, se ha hecho para sensibilizar al público sobre la situación y animar a los usuarios de agua doméstica a asumir más responsabilidad para la conservación de este bien cada vez más escasos.

[ editar ] Política

Chipre es una república presidencial . El jefe de Estado y del gobierno es elegido por un proceso de sufragio universal para un mandato de cinco años. El poder ejecutivo es ejercido por el gobierno con el poder legislativo reside en la Cámara de Representantes, mientras que el Poder Judicial es independiente tanto del poder ejecutivo y el legislativo.

El Palacio Presidencial (Residencia) en Nicosia .

La Constitución de 1960 estableció un sistema presidencial de gobierno con el ejecutivo independiente, legislativo y judicial, así como un complejo sistema de controles y equilibrios entre un promedio ponderado de poder compartido proporción diseñado para proteger los intereses de los turco-chipriotas. El ejecutivo fue dirigido por un presidente chipriota griego y un vicepresidente turco-chipriota elegidos por sus respectivas comunidades para períodos de cinco años y cada uno posee un derecho de veto sobre ciertos tipos de leyes y decisiones ejecutivas. El poder legislativo se basaba en la Cámara de Representantes, que también fueron elegidos sobre la base de rodillos de los votantes independientes.

Después de los enfrentamientos entre las dos comunidades de la turco-chipriota escaños en la Cámara permanecen vacantes desde el año 1965. Los turco-chipriotas se negó a establecer el estado de cosas antes de la invasión de Chipre como es evidente en el Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas, dijo que "Los dirigentes chipriotas turcos han adoptado una postura rígida en contra de cualquier medida que pudiera llevar a que los miembros de los dos comunidades viven y trabajan juntos, o que pudiera situar a los turco-chipriotas en situaciones en las que tendrían que reconocer la autoridad de los agentes del gobierno. De hecho, ya los dirigentes turcochipriotas es la separación física y geográfica de las comunidades como un objetivo político, es no es probable que promover que los turco-chipriotas que puede ser interpretado como una demostración de los méritos de una política alternativa. El resultado ha sido una política al parecer deliberada de auto-segregación de los turco-chipriotas. " [68] En 1974 las dos comunidades habían vuelto a un Estado más tolerante de la vida. [68]

In 1974 Cyprus was divided de facto when the Turkish army occupied the northern third of the island. The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in 1983 as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but were recognized only by Turkey . In 1985 the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. The United Nations recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the entire island of Cyprus.

The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian , Latin and Maronite minorities. 24 seats are allocated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964. The political environment is dominated by the communist AKEL , the liberal conservative Democratic Rally , the centrist [ 69 ] Democratic Party , the social-democratic EDEK and the centrist EURO.KO . On 17 February 2008 Dimitris Christofias of the AKEL was elected President of Cyprus, on AKEL's first electoral victory without being part of a wider coalition. Christofias took over government from Tassos Papadopoulos of the Democratic Party who had been in office since February 2003.

[ editar ] Divisiones administrativas

The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts: [ 70 ] Nicosia , Famagusta , Kyrenia , Larnaca , Limassol and Paphos . These are not the same as those of Northern Cyprus.

District Map of Cyprus Distritos Greek name Turkish name
PaphosNicosiaLimassolLarnacaKyreniaFamagustaAkrotiriDhekeliaCyprus districts not named.svg
Acerca de esta imagen
Famagusta ?????????? (Ammochostos) Gazima?usa/Ma?usa
Kyrenia ????v??? (Keryneia) Girne
Larnaca ??????? (Larnaka) Larnaka/?skele
Limassol ??????? (Lemesos) Limasol/Leymosun
Nicosia ???????? (Lefkosia) Lefko?a
Paphos ????? (Pafos) Baf/Gazibaf

[ edit ] Exclaves and enclaves

Episkopi Cantonment in south-southwest Cyprus.

Cyprus has four exclaves , all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia . The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou . The third is the Dhekelia Power Station which is divided by a British road into two parts. The northern part is an exclave, like the two villages, whereas the southern part is located by the sea and therefore not an exclave although it has no territorial waters of its own. [ 71 ]

The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor. In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni area on the southeast corner of the island into a de facto , though not de jure , exclave.

[ editar ] Relaciones Exteriores

Cyprus president Dimitris Christofias and Cyprus first lady with US President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama .

The island nation Cyprus is member of: Australia

[ editar ] Los derechos humanos

In "Freedom in the World 2011", the democracy of Cyprus was rated as "free". [ 74 ]

The constant focus on the division of the island can sometimes mask other human rights issues. Prostitution is rife in both the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish-controlled regions leading to the government being criticised for its lack of controls [ 75 ] and for the role of Cyprus in the sex trade as one of the main destinations for human trafficking from Eastern Europe . [ 76 ]

There have been reports of mistreatment to the Turkish Cypriots in the Republic of Cyprus. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] The US Department of State report about human rights in Cyprus in 2002 said that: [ 79 ]

Some of the approximately 300 Turkish Cypriots living in the government-controlled area faced difficulties in obtaining identification cards and other government documents, especially if they were born after 1974. Turkish Cypriots also appeared to be subjected to surveillance by the Greek Cypriot police.

Domestic violence legislation remains largely unimplemented [ 80 ] and mistreatment of domestic staff, mostly immigrant workers from developing countries , are sometimes reported in the Cypriot press [ 77 ] and are the subject of several campaigns by the anti-racist charity KISA .

[ editar ] Militares

Soldiers of Cypriot National Guard marching in Rome .

The Cypriot National Guard is the main military institution of the Republic of Cyprus. It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. The National Guard is a required 24 month service for all men upon completing their 18th birthday. The land forces of the Cypriot National Guard comprise the following units:

The air force includes the 449th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (449 ???) – operating SA-342L and Bell 206 and the 450th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (450 ME/P) – operating Mi-35P , BN-2B and PC-9 . Current Senior officers include Supreme Commander, Cypriot National Guard: Lt. Gen. Petros Tsalikidis, Deputy Commander, Cypriot National Guard: Lt. Gen. Savvas Argyrou and Chief of Staff, Cypriot National Guard: Maj. Gen. Gregory Stamoulis.

[ editar ] Economía

The city of Limassol is a major port and touristic hub in the Mediterranean.

The Cypriot economy is prosperous and has diversified in recent years. [ 81 ] According to the latest IMF estimates, its per capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power ) at $ 28,381 is just above the average of the European Union. [ 82 ] Cyprus has been sought as a base for several offshore businesses for its highly developed infrastructure. Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union. The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January 2008. [ 81 ] Oil has recently been discovered in the seabed between Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel and Egypt and talks are underway between Lebanon and Egypt to reach an agreement regarding the exploration of these resources. [ 83 ] The seabed separating Lebanon and Cyprus is believed to hold significant quantities of crude oil and natural gas . [ 83 ] However the government of Cyprus states that the Turkish Navy does not allow the exploration of oil in the region. [ 83 ] [ 84 ]

Cyprus has been part of the Eurozone since 2008.

The economy of the Turkish-occupied areas operates on a free-market basis although it continues to be handicapped by the lack of private and public investment, high freight costs and shortages of skilled labor. Despite these constraints the economy turned in an impressive performance in 2003 and 2004 with growth rates of 9.6% and 11.4%. The average income in the area was $15,984 (S?16,289) in 2008. [ 85 ] Growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish new lira and by a boom in the education and construction sectors. The island has witnessed a massive growth in tourism over the years and as such the property rental market in Cyprus has grown alongside. Added to this is the capital growth in property that has been created from the demand of incoming investors and property buyers to the island. [ 86 ]

The euro was introduced in 2008. Three different designs were selected for the Cypriot coins, chosen from entrants in a competition in 2005. The €2 (S?2.59) coin is a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. To commemorate this event, a €5 (S?6.48) collector coin was also issued. Unlike normal issues these coins are not legal tender in all of the eurozone and so cannot be used in any other country but Cyprus.

[ editar ] Transporte

A map showing the main roads of Cyprus
Cruise ship in Limassol .
Cyprus has a full bus network.

Available modes of transport are by road, sea, and air. Of the 10,663 km (6,626 mi) of roads in the Republic of Cyprus as of 1998, 6,249 km (3,883 mi) were paved, and 4,414 km (2,743 mi) were unpaved. As of 1996 the Turkish occupied area had a similar ratio of paved to unpaved, with approximately 1,370 km (850 mi) of paved road and 980 km (610 mi) unpaved. Cyprus is one of only four EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road , a remnant of British colonisation, the others being Ireland, Malta and the United Kingdom.

Motorways

Number of licensed vehicles [ 87 ]
Vehicle Category 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Private vehicles 270,348 277,554 291,645 324,212 344,953
Taxis 1,641 1,559 1,696 1770 1,845
Rental cars 8,080 8509 9,160 9,652 8,336
Autobuses 3003 2,997 3,275 3,199 3,217
Light trucks (lighter than 40 tonnes) 107,060 106,610 107,527 105,017 105,327
Heavy trucks (over 40 tonnes) 10,882 11,182 12,119 12,808 13,028
Motorcycles (2 wheels) 12,956 14,983 16,009 16,802 16,836
Motorcycles (3 wheels) 42 41 43 55 558
Scooters 28,987 25,252 25,464 24,539 22,987
TOTAL 442,999 448,687 466,938 498,054 517,087

In 1999, Cyprus had six heliports and two international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport . Nicosia International Airport has been closed since 1974 and although Ercan airport was still in use it was only for flights from Turkey.

Per capita private car ownership is the 5th highest in the world. In 2006 extensive plans were announced to improve and expand bus services and restructure public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank. In 2010 the new revised and expanded bus network got implemented. [ 88 ]

The main harbours of the island are Limassol harbour and Larnaca harbour , which service cargo, passenger, and cruise ships .

[ editar ] Comunicaciones

Cyta , the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most Telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. However, following the recent liberalisation of the sector, a few private telecommunications companies have emerged including MTN , Cablenet , TelePassport , OTEnet Telecom , Omega Telecom and PrimeTel . In the Turkish-controlled area of Cyprus, three companies are also present. These are Turkcell , Vodafone and Turk Telekom .

[ editar ] Demografía

Ethnographic map of Cyprus showing the distribution of the population during the 1960 census.
Population growth (numbers for the entire island, excluding in recent years some 150,000 Turkish immigrants residing in Northern Cyprus).
Population structure

It has traditionally been accepted that Greek Cypriots form up to 80%, Turkish Cypriots 18% (not including Turkish settlers), and Christian minorities (including Maronites , Latin Catholic and Armenians ) 2% of the Cypriot population. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ]

According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December 1960 and covering the entire island, Cyprus had a total population of 573,566; of whom 442,138 (77.1%) were Greek Cypriots, 104,320 (18.2%) Turkish Cypriots, and 27,108 (4.7%) others. [ 93 ] [ 94 ]

Due to the inter-communal ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974, an island-wide census was regarded as impossible. Nevertheless, the Greek Cypriots conducted one in 1973, without the Turkish Cypriot populace. [ 95 ] According to this census, the Greek Cypriot population was 482,000. One year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the total population of Cyprus at 641,000; of whom 506,000 (78.9%) were Greek Cypriots, and 118,000 (18.4%) Turkish Cypriots. [ 96 ] After the partition of the island in 1974, Greek Cypriots conducted four more censuses: in 1976, 1982, 1992 and 2001; these excluded the Turkish Cypriot population which was resident in the northern part of the island. [ 97 ]

According to the Republic of Cyprus's latest estimate, in 2005, the number of Cypriot citizens currently living in the Republic of Cyprus is around 656,200. In addition to this the Republic of Cyprus is home to 110,200 foreign permanent residents [ 98 ] and an estimated 10,000–30,000 undocumented illegal immigrants currently living in the south of the island. [ 99 ]

According to the 2006 census carried out by Northern Cyprus, there were 256,644 ( de jure ) people living in Northern Cyprus. 178,031 were citizens of Northern Cyprus, of which 147,405 were born in Cyprus (112,534 from the north; 32,538 from the south; 371 did not indicate what part of Cyprus they were from); 27,333 born in Turkey; 2,482 born in the UK and 913 born in Bulgaria. Of the 147,405 citizens born in Cyprus, 120,031 say both parents were born in Cyprus; 16,824 say both parents born in Turkey; 10,361 have one parent born in Turkey and one parent born in Cyprus. [ 100 ]

In 2010, the International Crisis Group estimated that the total population of Cyprus was 1.1 million, [ 101 ] of which there was an estimated 300,000 residents in the north, perhaps half of which were either born in Turkey or are children of such settlers. [ 102 ] However, some academic sources claim that the population in the north has reached 500,000, [ 103 ] 50% of which are thought to be Turkish settlors or Cypriot-born children of such settlers. [ 104 ]

The village of Pyla in the Larnaca District is the only settlement in the Republic of Cyprus with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot population.

Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Cyprus : J (43.07% including 6.20% J1), E1b1b (20.00%), R1 (12.30% including 9.2% R1b), F (9.20%), I (7.70%), K (4.60%), A (3.10%). [ 105 ] J, K, F and E1b1b haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East , North Africa and Europe while R1 and I are typical in West European populations.

Outside Cyprus there is a significant and thriving Greek Cypriot diaspora and Turkish Cypriot diaspora in the United Kingdom , Australia , Canada , the United States , Greece and Turkey .

[ editar ] Religión

Religion in Cyprus [ 2 ]
religión por ciento
Greek Orthodoxy
78.0%
Other Christian
1,3%
Islam sunita
18.0%
Otro
2,7%

Almost all Greek Cypriots are members of the autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus , [ 2 ] [ 106 ] [ 107 ] whereas most Turkish Cypriots are adherents of Sunni Islam . According to Eurobarometer 2005, [ 108 ] Cyprus is one of the most religious countries in the European Union , alongside Malta, Romania, Greece, and Poland. The first President of Cyprus , Makarios III , was an archbishop .

Lefkara 's orthodox church in Troodos Mountains (left) and Hala Sultan Tekke near Larnaca Salt Lake (right).

Given the special legal status of the Church of Cyprus, the country is also one of only six EU states to have an established state church , alongside Finland ( Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church and Finnish Orthodox Church ), Denmark ( Danish National Church ), Greece ( Church of Greece ), Malta ( Roman Catholic Church ) and the United Kingdom ( Church of England (only in England )). In addition to the Greek Orthodox and Muslim communities, there are also small Hindu , Sikh , Bahá'í , Jewish , Protestant (including Pentecostal ), Catholic (including Latin Rite and Maronite ) and Armenian Apostolic communities in Cyprus.

Hala Sultan Tekke , situated near the Larnaca Salt Lake , is considered by some secular orientalists as the third holiest site in Sunni Islam [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ] [ 112 ] [ 113 ] [ 114 ] [ 115 ] and an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims and Christians . [ 116 ] [ 117 ]

The current leader of the Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus is Archbishop Chrysostomos II . He is known for his right-wing nationalist views, branding for example, illegal immigrants as "'interlopers' who do not belong on the island" and admits espousing several other political ideas of Cyprus' National People's Front (ELAM). [ 118 ] [ 119 ]

According to the 2001 census carried out in the Government controlled area, [ 120 ] 94.8% of the population are Christian Orthodox , 0.9% Armenians and Maronites , 1.5% Roman Catholics , 1.0% Church of England , and 0.6% Muslims . The remaining 1.3% adhere to other religious denominations or did not state their religion.

[ editar ] Idiomas

The country has two official languages: Greek and Turkish . [ 1 ] Armenian , Cypriot Maronite Arabic and Romani are also recognized as minority languages. [ 121 ] In addition to these languages – according the Eurobarometer by European Commission – 76% of the population of Cyprus speak English , 12% speak French , and 5% speak German . [ 122 ]

[ editar ] Educación

University of Cyprus modern facilities.
Faneromeni School , the oldest functioning all-girl primary school in Cyprus.

Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education . The high quality of instruction can be attributed to a large extent to the above-average competence of the teachers [ citation needed ] but also to the fact that nearly 7% of the GDP is spent on education which makes Cyprus one of the top three spenders of education in the EU along with Denmark and Sweden. [ 123 ]

State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions. However, the value of a state high-school diploma is limited by the fact that the grades obtained account for only around 25% of the final grade for each topic, with the remaining 75% assigned by the teacher during the semester, in a minimally transparent way. Cypriot universities (like universities in Greece) ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes. While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take.

The majority of Cypriots receive their higher education at Greek, British, Turkish, other European and North American universities. It is noteworthy that Cyprus currently has the highest percentage of citizens of working age who have higher-level education in the EU at 30% which is ahead of Finland's 29.5%. In addition 47% of its population aged 25–34 have tertiary education, which is the highest in the EU. The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with 78.7% studying in a university outside Cyprus.

[ editar ] Cultura

The culture of Cyprus is divided between the two distinct cultures of Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Each community maintains its own culture, linked to the cultures of Greece and Turkey, and there is little cultural interchange between the two groups. Due to the complex history of the island, cultures have shifted over time. The Greek culture first became prominent in the running of the island in the 1400s. The Turkish culture arrived with the invasion of the Ottoman Empire in 1570, and it was under this rule that the divide between the two communities became prominent and encouraged by government policies. The British did nothing to change this, leaving the island in its divided state with no unified culture. [ 124 ]

[ editar ] Arte

The art history of Cyprus can be said to stretch back up to 10,000 years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia and Lempa [ 125 ] and the island is also the home to numerous examples of high quality religious icon painting from the Middle Ages . Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination (1191–1571).

Aphrodite ; Greek goddess of love, beauty and sexuality is said to be born in Cyprus.

In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides (1883–1958) who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice. [ 126 ] Arguably the two founding fathers of modern Cypriot art were Adamantios Diamantis (1900–1994) who studied at London's Royal College of Art and Christopheros Savva (1924–1968) who also studied in London, at St Martins School of Art . [ 127 ] In many ways these two artists set the template for subsequent Cypriot art and both their artistic styles and the patterns of their education remain influential to this day. In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in England [ 128 ] although art schools in Greece are also popular and local art institutions such as the Cyprus College of Art , University of Nicosia and the Frederick Institute of Technology are becoming more popular.

One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art “institutions” and most notably the Nicosia Municipal Art Centre [15] . Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene. Cyprus was due to host the international art festival Manifesta in 2006 but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta and the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture over the location of some of the Manifesta events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia . [ 129 ] [ 130 ]

Other notable Cypriot artists include Rhea Bailey, Mihail Kkasialos, Ioannis Kissonergis, Theodoulos Gregoriou, Helene Black , George Skoteinos, Kalopedis family , Nicos Nicolaides , Stass Paraskos , Arestís Stasí , Telemachos Kanthos , Konstantia Sofokleous and Chris Achilleos .

[ editar ] Música

Bouzouki , the mainstay of most Cypriot folk music.

The traditional folk music of Cyprus has several common elements with Greek , Turkish , and Arabic music including Greco-Turkish dances such as the sousta , syrtos , zeibekikos , tatsia , and kartsilamas as well as the Middle Eastern -inspired tsifteteli and arapie . There is also a form of musical poetry known as chattista which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus folk music are the bouzouki ( pictured ), oud ("outi"), violin ("fkiolin"), lute ("laouto"), accordion , Cyprus flute ("pithkiavlin") and percussion (including the " toumperleki "). Composers associated with traditional Cypriot music include Evagoras Karageorgis , Marios Tokas , Solon Michaelides and Savvas Salides.

Popular music in Cyprus is generally influenced by the Greek Laïka scene with several artists including Anna Vissi , Evridiki , and Sarbel earning widespread popularity in Cyprus, Greece and parts of the Middle East . Hip Hop , R&B and reggae are also very popular genres on the island and have been supported by the emergence of Cypriot rap and the urban music scene at Ayia Napa . Cypriot rock music and Éntekhno rock is often associated with artists such as Michalis Hatzigiannis and Alkinoos Ioannidis . Metal also has a small following in Cyprus represented by bands such as Winter's Verge and Quadraphonic.

[ editar ] Literatura

Zeno of Citium , founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Ioannis Kigalas ( ca. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century. [ 131 ]

Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria , an epic poem , probably composed in the late seventh century BCE and attributed to Stasinus . The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry. [ 132 ] The Cypriot Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic School of Philosophy.

Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages . Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Georgios Voustronios, cover the entire Middle Ages until the end of Frankish rule (4th century – 1489). Poèmes d'amour written in medieval Greek Cypriot date back from 16th century. Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch , Bembo , Ariosto and G. Sannazzaro . [ 133 ] Many Cypriot scholars fled Cyprus at troubled times such as Ioannis Kigalas ( ca. 1622–1687) who migrated from Cyprus to Italy in the 17th century, several of his works have survived in books of other scholars. [ 134 ]

Hasan Hilmi Efendi , a Turkish Cypriot poet, was rewarded by the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II and said to be the "sultan of the poems". [ 135 ]

Modern literary figures from Cyprus include the poet and writer Kostas Montis, poet Kyriakos Charalambides , poet Michalis Pasiardis, writer Nicos Nicolaides , Stylianos Atteshlis , Altheides , Loukis Akritas [ 136 ] and Demetris Th. Gotsis. Dimitris Lipertis , Vasilis Michaelides and Pavlos Liasides are folk poets who wrote poems mainly in the Cypriot-Greek dialect. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] Lawrence Durrell lived in Northern Cyprus from 1952 until 26 August 1956 and wrote the book Bitter Lemons concerning his time there which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in 1957. The majority of the play Othello by William Shakespeare is set on the island of Cyprus. Cyprus also figures in religious literature such as the Acts of the Apostles according to which the Apostles Barnabas and Paul preached on the island.

[ editar ] Cine

From the opening sequence of The Palace , filmed along the United Nations Green Line that still divides the island nation of Cyprus in two.

The Cypriot cinema was born much later than the cinema of other countries and in the last decades the first coordinated steps have been taken to create a distinct Cypriot cinematography. The main reason for this delay was the belated entry of Cyprus into international society as an independent state in 1960, and the dramatic events that followed which left the island divided in a Greek and Turkish zones that remain divided.

During the late 60s and early 70s production showed a richer crop of films. George Filis produced and directed Gregoris Afxentiou , Etsi Prodothike i Kypros (Cyprus Betrayal), and the Mega Document.

Cinematographic production in Cyprus received a boost in 1994 with the establishment of the Cinema Advisory Committee. The annual amount currently set aside (2000) in the national budget stands at Cy Pounds 500,000 (about 850,000 Euros). In addition to government grants Cypriot co-productions are eligible for funding from the Eurimages Fund, a Council of Europe institution financing European film co-productions. To date four feature-length films in which a Cypriot was executive producer have received funding from Eurimages. The first was I Sphagi tou Kokora (1992) which has been completed in 1996, Hellados (And the trains fly to the sky, 1995), which is currently in the post-production phase and O Dromos gia tin Ithaki (The Road to Ithaka, 1997) of Costas Demetriou which was premiered in March 2000. In September 1999, To Tama (The Promise) of Andreas Pantzis has also received funding from the Eurimages Fund. [ 139 ]

In October 2010 filming of The Palace , the first ever Australia-Cyprus short film co-production, commenced in Cyprus. Set during the 1974 invasion of Cyprus , The Palace was filmed along the United Nations Green Line and was made with a mixed Australian, Cypriot and international crew. [ 140 ]

[ editar ] Cocina

Slices of fresh haloumi cheese with mint leaves packed in the centre.

Halloumi cheese originated in Cyprus [ 141 ] [ 142 ] and was initially made during the Medieval Byzantine period, [ 143 ] subsequently gaining popularity throughout the Middle-East . Halloumi (Hellim) is commonly served sliced, either fresh or grilled, as an appetiser.

Meat meze with sliced luntza, chiromeri, onions and olives

Seafood and fish dishes of Cyprus include squid , octopus , red mullet , and sea bass . Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets , asparagus and Taro . Other traditional delicacies of the island are meat marinated in dried coriander, seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza (smoked pork loin ), charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki (pork and chicken cooked over charcoal), and sheftalia (minced meat wrapped in mesentery ). Pourgouri ( bulgur , cracked wheat) is the traditional carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the Cypriot delicacy koubes .

Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients in Cypriot cuisine. Frequently used vegetables include courgettes , green peppers, okra , green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans , peas, black-eyed beans , chick-peas and lentils . The commonest among fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines , nectarines , mespila , blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon , melon , avocado, lemon, pistachio , almond , chestnut , walnut , hazelnut .

Cyprus is also well-known for its desserts, including lokum (also known as Turkish Delight ) and Soutzoukos . [ 144 ] This island has protected geographical indication (PGI) for its lokum produced in the village of Geroskipou . [ 145 ]

[ editar ] Deportes

Petter Solberg driving his Citroën Xsara WRC in Cyprus Rally .
Marcos Baghdatis , Cypriot professional tennis player

Governing bodies of sports in Cyprus include the Cyprus Football Association , Cyprus Basketball Federation , Cyprus Volleyball Federation , Cyprus Automobile Association , Cyprus Badminton Federation, [ 146 ] Cyprus Cricket Association and the Cyprus Rugby Federation .

Football is by far the most popular spectator sport . The Cyprus League is nowadays considered as quite competitive and includes notable teams such as AC Omonia , APOEL FC , AEL Lemesos , Apollon FC , Anorthosis Famagusta FC , Nea Salamis Famagusta FC and AEK Larnaca FC . Stadiums or sports venues in Cyprus include the GSP Stadium (the largest in Cyprus), Tsirion Stadium (second largest), Neo GSZ Stadium , Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium , Ammochostos Stadium and Makario Stadium . Cyprus, also has a football national team which in the last decade has evolved to a promising squad within the European rankings.

Apart from the main interest in football, Cyprus has exhibited certain accomplishments in other sports. Marcos Baghdatis is one of the most successful tennis players in international stage. [ citation needed ] He was a finalist at the Australian Open in 2006, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final in the same year. Also Kyriakos Ioannou a Cypriot high jumper achieved a jump of 2.35 m at the 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics held in Osaka, Japan , in 2007 winning the bronze medal. He was recently ranked as 3rd at international level and 2nd in Europe.

[ editar ] Medios de comunicación

Newspapers include Phileleftheros , Politis (Cyprus) , Simerini , K?br?s , Cyprus Mail , the Cyprus Observer , Cyprus Today , Cyprus Weekly , Halk?n Sesi , Yeni Düzen , Havadis , Haravgi and Kathimerini (in a special Cypriot edition). TV channels include ANT1 Cyprus , Alfa TV , CNC Plus TV , Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation , Mega Channel Cyprus , Bayrak , Kanal SIM and Sigma TV .

[ edit ] Research Centers

Notable research institutions include: Cyprus Neuroscience and Technology Institute , The Cyprus Institute , The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics , etc.

[ editar ] Arquitectura

Exterior view of Kykkos Monastery

There are nine churches and one monastery in Troodos that are counted among UNESCO 's World Heritage Sites and several other monasteries, of which the Kykkos monastery is the richest and most famous. The churches are:

The area has been known since ancient times for its copper mines, and in the Byzantine period it became a great centre of Byzantine art, as churches and monasteries were built in the mountains, away from the threatened coastline.

The three prominent mosques in Cyprus are:


[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

Notas
  1. ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus : "The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish" (Appendix D, Part 01, Article 3)
  2. ^ a b c "Cyprus" . The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cy.html . Consultado el 9 de febrero de 2010.  
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  4. ^ a b c d "Cyprus" . Monetario Internacional Consultado el 21 de abril de 2011.  
  5. ^ Human Development Report 2009 . The United Nations. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  6. ^ Fouskas, V. 2002. Eurasian gambles over Cyprus' European prospects [ dead link ] . Turkish Yearbook of International Relations (ISSN: 0544-1943): Vol. 33, pp. 183–207; on p. 186: "[In analysing Cyprus within a wider geopolitical context, t]he requirement is to decipher the parameters and the linkages of the balance of power in the Eurasian region, and in its Near Eastern subregion, to which Cyprus belongs."
  7. ^ Cyprus is approximate to Anatolia (Asia Minor) (which comprises the bulk of Turkey ) but it may be considered to be in Asia and/or Europe , which together constitute Eurasia . [1] The UN classification of world regions places Cyprus in Western Asia ; [2] [ dead link ] National Geographic also places Cyprus in Asia. Conversely, numerous sources place Cyprus in Europe such as the BBC [3] and www.worldatlas.com ; it is also a member of the European Union . Additionally, sources may place Cyprus in the Middle East , eg, the CIA World Factbook . [4]
  8. ^ Invest in Cyprus website – figures do not include tourism to the Northern Cyprus [5]
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  132. ^ "An indication that at least the main contents of the Cypria were known around 650 BCE is provided by the representation of the Judgment of Paris on the Chigi vase " (Burkert 1992:103). On the proto-Corinthian ewer of ca. 640 BCE known as the Chigi "vase" [ dead link ] , Paris is identified as Alexandros , as he was apparently called in Cypria .
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  135. ^ Gazio?lu, Ahmet C. (1990). The Turks in Cyprus: a province of the Ottoman Empire (1571–1878), 293–295, K. Rüstem.
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  137. ^ "Cyprus Stamp Issue: Cyprus Poets" . http://www.philatelism.com/details.php?issueid=91 .  
  138. ^ "Cyprus Stamp Issue: Centenary Birthday Anniversary of Poet Pavlos Liasides" . http://www.philatelism.com/details.php?issueid=252 .  
  139. ^ " Film Birth - History of Cinema - Cyprus ".
  140. ^ " Adelaide Film Festival ".
  141. ^ Robinson, RK – Tamime, AY (1991). Feta and Related Cheeses . Woodhead Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 1855732785 . "Halloumi is a semi-hard to hard, unripened cheese that, traditionally, is made from either sheep's milk or goat's milk or a mixture of the two. Although the cheese has its origins in Cyprus, it is widely popular throughout the Middle East, and hence many countries have now become involved with its manufacture."  
  142. ^ Murdoch Books Pty Limited (2005). Essential Mediterranean . Murdoch Books. p. 21. ISBN 1740455398 . "HALOUMl Originating in Cyprus, this salty, semi-hard sheep's milk cheese is a popular table cheese"  
  143. ^ Goldstein, Darra – Merkle, Kathrin – Parasecoli, Fabio – Mennell, Stephen – Council of Europe (2005). Culinary cultures of Europe: identity, diversity and dialogue . Council of Europe. p. 121. ISBN 9287157448 . "Most culinary innovations in the Cypriot cuisine occurred during the Byzantine era... Experimentation with dairy products resulted in the now-famous halloumi and feta cheese."  
  144. ^ " Cyprus villagers make giant sweet ", BBC News , 18 October 2004
  145. ^ "Turks riled as Cyprus set to win EU trademark on Turkish Delight" . International Herald Tribune . Associated Press. 13 December 2007 . http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/13/europe/EU-GEN-Cyprus-Turkish-Delight.php . Retrieved 14 December 2007 .  
  146. ^ "Cyprus Badminton Federation" . Cyprusbadminton.com . http://www.cyprusbadminton.com . Retrieved 27 March 2009 .  
Para leer más
  • Anastasiou, Harry (2008). Broken Olive Branch: Nationalism Ethnic Conflict and the Quest for Peace in Cyprus . Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815631960 .  
  • Brewin, Christopher (2000). European Union and Cyprus . Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-24-0 .  
  • Dods, Clement (ed.) (1999). Cyprus: The Need for New Perspectives . The Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-23-2 .  
  • Durrell, Lawrence (1957). Bitter Lemons . Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571201-55-5 .  
  • Faustmann, Hubert and Nicos Peristianis (2006). Britain and Cyprus: Colonialism and Post-Colonialism, 1878–2006 . Bibliopolis. ISBN 978-3-93392-536-7 .  
  • Gibbons, Harry Scott (1997). The Genocide Files . Charles Bravos Publishers. ISBN 0-9514464-2-8 .  
  • Hannay, David (2005). Cyprus: The Search for a Solution . IB Tauris . ISBN 1-85043-665-7 .  
  • Hitchens, Christopher (1997). Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger . Verso. ISBN 1-85984-189-9 .  
  • Ker-Lindsay, James (2005). EU Accession and UN Peacemaking in Cyprus . Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-9690-3 .  
  • Ker-Lindsay, James and Hubert Faustmann (2009). The Government and Politics of Cyprus . Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-03911-096-4 .  
  • Leventis Yiorghos, (2002). Cyprus: The Struggle for Self-Determination in the 1940s . Peter Lang. ISBN 3-631-38411-4 .  
  • Leventis Yiorghos, Murata Sawayanagi Nanako, Hazama Yasushi (2008). Crossing Over Cyprus . Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA) Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS). ISBN 978-4-86337-003-6 .  
  • Mallinson, William (2005). Cyprus a Modern History . IB Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-580-4 .  
  • Mirbagheri, Farid (1989). Cyprus and International Peacemaking . Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-354-2 .  
  • Nicolet, Claude (2001). United States Policy Towards Cyprus, 1954–1974 . Bibliopolis. ISBN 3-933925-20-7 .  
  • Oberling, Pierre (1982). The Road to Bellapais . Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-88033-000-7 .  
  • O'Malley, Brendan and Ian Craig (1999). The Cyprus Conspiracy . IB Tauris . ISBN 1-86064-737-5 .  
  • Palley, Claire (2005). An International Relations Debacle: The UN Secretary-General's Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus, 1999–2004 . Hart Publishing. ISBN 1-84113-578-X .  
  • Papadakis, Yiannis (2005). Echoes from the Dead Zone: Across the Cyprus Divide . IB Tauris . ISBN 1-85043-428-X .  
  • Plumer, Aytug (2003). Cyprus, 1963–64: The Fateful Years . Cyrep (Lefkosa). ISBN 975-6912-18-9 .  
  • Richmond, Oliver (1998). Mediating in Cyprus . Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4431-5 .  
  • Richmond, Oliver and James Ker-Lindsay (eds.) (2001). The Work of the UN in Cyprus: Promoting Peace and Development . Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-91271-3 .  
  • Richter, Heinz (2010). A Concise History of Modern Cyprus 1878–2009 . Rutzen. ISBN 978-3-447-06212-1 .  
  • Tocci, Nathalie (2004). EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus? . Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-4310-7 .  

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