Frédéric Chopin

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Chopin a los 25, por Maria Wodzi?ska de 1835

Frédéric François Chopin (pronunciación francesa: [f?e.de.?ik ??.p?] ; Polonia: Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin; [1] 22 de febrero o 01 de marzo 1810 [2] - 17 de octubre de 1849) fue un polaco compositor, virtuoso pianista, y profesor de música de Francia - Polonia parentesco .. Fue uno de los grandes maestros de la música romántica y ha sido llamado "el poeta del piano".

Chopin nació en ?elazowa Wola , una aldea en el Gran Ducado de Varsovia . Un famoso niño-prodigio pianista y compositor, creció en Varsovia y completó su educación musical allí. Después de la represión rusa de los polacos noviembre 1830 Levantamiento , se estableció en París como parte de la polaca gran emigración . Él se apoyó como compositor y profesor de piano, dando algunos espectáculos públicos. De 1837 a 1847 se llevó a cabo una relación con los franceses escritora George Sand . Para la mayoría de su vida, Chopin sufría de mala salud y murió en París en 1849 a la edad de 39 años.

La gran mayoría de Chopin trabaja exclusivamente para piano solo, las excepciones más notables son sus dos conciertos para piano . Sus composiciones son técnicamente exigentes, pero enfatizar los matices y la profundidad expresiva. Chopin inventó la forma musical conocida como la balada instrumentales e hizo importantes innovaciones para la sonata para piano , mazurca , el vals , nocturno , Polonesa , étude , improvisada , scherzo , y Prélude .

Contenido

[ editar ] Vida

[ editar ] Infancia

Padre de Chopin fue Nicolas Chopin , un francés de Lorena, que había emigrado a Polonia en 1787 a la edad de dieciséis años y había servido en la Guardia Nacional de Polonia durante la sublevación de Kosciuszko (1794). En Francia había sido bautizado Nicolás, pero más tarde, viviendo en Polonia, él usó la forma polaca de su nombre de pila, Mikolaj. Posteriormente, los niños tutelados de la aristocracia , entre ellos el Skarbeks, más pobres, cuya relación, Justyna Krzyzanowska, se casó. [3] La boda tuvo lugar en la iglesia parroquial del siglo 16 en Brochow el 2 de junio de 1806. (Justyna hermano se convertiría en el padre de la americana de la Unión General de W?odzimierz Krzyzanowski . [4] [5] )

Frédéric Chopin fue el segundo hijo de la pareja y su único hijo. (El hijo mayor, Ludwika , se convertiría en su primera profesora de piano, y varias décadas más tarde era repatriar a su corazón de París.) Nació en ?elazowa Wola , cuarenta y seis kilómetros al oeste de Varsovia, en lo que fue el Gran Ducado de Varsovia . El registro de la parroquia de bautismo, descubierto en 1892, da su cumpleaños el 22 febrero de 1810, [6] , pero la fecha una semana más tarde, 01 de marzo, fue declarado por el compositor y su familia, su cumpleaños, [7] de acuerdo a Chopin en una carta de 16 de enero de 1833 a el presidente de la Sociedad Polaca de Literatura en París, [8] que "nació 01 de marzo 1810 en el pueblo de Zelazowa Wola, en la provincia de Mazovia." [9] Fue bautizado el domingo de Pascua, 23 abril de 1810, en el mismo Brochow iglesia donde sus padres se habían casado. El registro de la parroquia cita su nombre de pila en la América forma Fridericus Franciscus, [6] en polaco, Fryderyk Franciszek fue. Su padrino fue Fryderyk Skarbek (1792-1866), un antiguo alumno de Nicolas Chopin , un reformador de prisiones que sería el diseño de la prisión de Pawiak de la fama más tarde enferma, y tatara-tatara-tío de la Segunda Guerra Mundial SOE agente Krystyna Skarbek , el padrino del hijo Józef Skarbek que, en 1841, se casa antigua de Frédéric Chopin novia Maria Wodzi?ska .

En 1817-27 la familia de Chopin vivió en este edificio la Universidad de Varsovia, ahora adornados con el perfil de Federico (centro)

En octubre de 1810, cuando Chopin tenía siete meses, la familia se trasladó a Varsovia, donde su padre había aceptado una oferta del lexicógrafo Samuel Linde para enseñar francés en el Liceo de Varsovia . La escuela se instaló en el Palacio de Sajonia , y la familia Chopin vivió en los jardines del palacio. En 1817 el gran duque Constantino requisado el Palacio de Saxon para fines militares, y el Liceo se trasladó al Palacio de Kazimierz , [10] , que también fue sede de la recién fundada Universidad de Varsovia . La familia vivía en un espacioso apartamento del segundo piso en un edificio adyacente. Chopin asistió al Liceo de Varsovia desde 1823 hasta 1826.

El espíritu de Polonia, la cultura y el lenguaje impregnado el hogar de Chopin, y como resultado, el hijo nunca, incluso en París, perfectamente dominar el idioma francés. [11] [12] Louis Enault , un biógrafo, prestada la frase de George Sand para describir Chopin como "más polaco que Polonia". [13]

Otros en la familia de Chopin fueron con talento musical. Padre de Chopin jugó la flauta y el violín y su madre tocaba el piano y daba clases a los niños en la casa de huéspedes de élite que mantiene el Chopin. Como resultado de Federico se convirtió al corriente de la música en sus diversas formas a una edad temprana. [11]

Józef Sikorski, un músico Chopin y contemporáneo, recuerda en sus memorias sobre Chopin (Wspomnienie Chopina) que, como un niño, Chopin lloró de emoción cuando su madre tocaba el piano. A las seis, ya estaba tratando de reproducir lo que había oído o inventar nuevas melodías. [14] Recibió sus primeras lecciones de piano, no de su madre sino de su hermana mayor Ludwika (en Inglés, "Louise"). [11]

Primero de piano de Chopin tutor profesional, desde 1816 hasta 1822, fue el checo Wojciech Zywny . [15] A pesar de las habilidades del joven pronto superó a su maestro, Chopin después habló muy bien de Zywny. Siete años de edad "poco Chopin" (Szopenek) comenzó a dar conciertos públicos, que pronto se le solicite comparaciones con Mozart cuando era niño y con Beethoven . [11]

Ese mismo año, de siete años de edad, Chopin compuso dos polonesas , en Sol menor y Si bemol mayor . El primero fue publicado en el taller de grabado del padre Józef Izydor Cybulski (compositor, grabador, director de la escuela un organistas, y uno de los pocos editores de música en Polonia), el segundo sobrevive como un manuscrito elaborado por Nicolás Chopin. Estas pequeñas obras se dice que su rival no sólo la polonesas populares de los principales compositores de Varsovia, pero el famoso Polonesas de Micha? Kleofas Oginski . Un desarrollo sustancial de la invención melódica y armónica y de la técnica pianística se muestra en la siguiente Polonesa de Chopin, conocida, en la bemol mayor , que el joven artista ofreció en 1821 como onomástico de don Zywny. [11]

Alrededor de este tiempo, a la edad de once años, Chopin realizó en presencia de Alejandro I , zar de Rusia, que se encontraba en Varsovia para abrir el Sejm (Parlamento polaco). [14]

Cuando era niño, Chopin mostró una inteligencia que se dice que absorbe todo y hacer uso de todo lo necesario para su desarrollo. Que pronto mostró notables habilidades en la observación y el dibujo, un agudo ingenio y sentido del humor, y un talento poco común para la mímica . [11] Una historia de sus años escolares relata un profesor que gratamente sorprendidos por un soberbio retrato que Chopin había hecho de él en la clase. [16]

Szafarnia mansión donde Chopin sus vacaciones en 1824 y 1825

En esos años, Chopin fue invitado a veces hasta el Palacio Belweder como compañero de juegos con el hijo del gobernante ruso en Polonia , el Gran Duque Constantino , y encantó a la irascible duque con su pianista. [11] (Unos años más tarde, el duque huiría el Belweder, justo en el momento preciso, en la apertura misma de la sublevación de noviembre 1830 , escapando de los cadetes de oficial polaco que viajaron a través del Parque Baños Reales de sus cuarteles, en un esfuerzo para capturarlo.)

Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz atestiguado "pequeño Chopin" popularidad en su dramática égloga ", Nasze Verkehry" ("nuestra relación", 1818), en la que los ocho años de edad, aparece como motivo en los diálogos. [11]

En la década de 1820, cuando adolescente Chopin era asistir al Liceo de Varsovia y el Conservatorio de Varsovia, que pasó todas las vacaciones fuera de Varsovia: en Szafarnia (1824 - tal vez su viaje en solitario lejos de su hogar - y 1825), Duszniki (1826), Pomerania (1827 ) y Sanniki (1828). [17]

En el pueblo de Szafarnia (donde fue invitado de Juliusz Dziewanowski, padre del compañero de escuela Dominik Dziewanowski) [18] y en sus lugares de vacaciones de otros, Chopin fue expuesto a las melodías populares que más tarde se transforma en composiciones originales. Su hogar misivas de Szafarnia (el famoso autodenominado "Szafarnia Courier" letras), escrito en un pulimento muy moderno y animado, divertido a su familia con su suplantación de los periódicos de Varsovia y ha demostrado regalo literario del joven. [16]

Una anécdota describe cómo ayudaron a Chopin tranquila hijos alborotados por la improvisación primero un cuento y luego adormecer a dormir con una Berceuse ( canción de cuna ) - después de lo cual despertó a todos con una perforación de las orejas de acordes . [16]

[ editar ] Educación

Józef Elsner , por Fajans , después de 1853

Chopin, clases particulares en casa hasta que tenía trece años, se inscribió en el Liceo de Varsovia en 1823, pero continuó sus estudios de piano bajo la dirección de Zywny. En 1825, en una representación de la obra de Ignaz Moscheles , que fascinado al público con su improvisación libre, y fue aclamado como el "mejor pianista de Varsovia". [11]

En el otoño de 1826, Chopin comenzó un curso de tres años de estudios con la Silesia compositor Jozef Elsner en el Conservatorio de Varsovia, que estaba afiliado con la Universidad de Varsovia (por lo tanto, Chopin se cuenta entre los que alumnos de universidad ). El primer contacto de Chopin con Elsner pudo haber sido desde 1822, lo cierto es que Elsner le estaba dando una orientación informal en 1823, y en 1826 comenzó a estudiar Chopin oficialmente la teoría musical , bajo cifrado , y la composición con Elsner.

En las evaluaciones de fin de año, señaló Elsner "gran talento" de Chopin y "genio de la música". Como había Zywny, Elsner observó, en lugar de influencia o dirigido, el desarrollo del talento en flor de Chopin. Elsner estilo de enseñanza se basa en su resistencia a "limitar" Chopin con "estrecho, académico, desactualizada" las reglas, y en su determinación para que el joven artista maduro ", de acuerdo a las leyes de su propia naturaleza". [19]

En 1827 la familia se trasladó a casas al otro lado de la calle de la Universidad de Varsovia, en el anexo al sur del Palacio Krasinski en Krakowskie Przedmiescie 5 (lo que hoy es la Academia de Bellas Artes de Varsovia ). Aquí los padres siguió corriendo su casa de huéspedes de élite para los estudiantes varones. Joven Chopin viviría aquí hasta que se marchó de Varsovia en 1830. (En 1837-1839, el artista y poeta Cyprian Norwid podría vivir allí mientras estudiaba pintura en la Academia de Bellas Artes, y más tarde iba a escribir el famoso poema, "Piano de Chopin", acerca de las tropas rusas " 1863 defenestración . del instrumento [20 ] ) salón de la familia de Chopin (Salonik Chopinów) se mantiene ahora como un museo abierto al público, fue en esta sala que Chopin jugó por primera vez muchas de sus primeras composiciones.

En 1829, el polaco retratista Ambrozy Mieroszewski ejecutado un conjunto de cinco retratos de miembros de la familia Chopin (la hija menor, Emilia, había muerto en 1827): los padres de Chopin, su hermana mayor Ludwika , la hermana menor de Izabela, y, en el primer retrato conocido de él, el propio compositor. (Los originales murieron en la Segunda Guerra Mundial;. Negro-sólo fotografías en blanco y siguen siendo) En 1913, el francés musicólogo y biógrafo de Chopin Édouard Ganche escribió que esta obra del compositor precoz mostró "una juventud amenazada por la tuberculosis Su piel es muy. blanco, tiene una prominente nuez de Adán y las mejillas hundidas, incluso a sus oídos muestran una forma característica de los tuberculosos ". Menores de Chopin hermana Emilia ya había muerto de tuberculosis a la edad de catorce años, y su padre sucumbió a la misma enfermedad en 1844. [19] [21]

Según el musicólogo polaco Chopin y biógrafo Zdzis?aw Jachimecki , la comparación del Chopin de menores con cualquier otro compositor anterior es difícil debido a la originalidad de las obras que Chopin estaba componiendo ya en la primera mitad de su vida. A una edad comparable, Bach , Mozart y Beethoven había sido todavía aprendices, mientras que Chopin fue percibida por los compañeros y al público a ser ya un maestro que estaba señalando el camino a la nueva era. [19]

Chopin mismo nunca dio títulos temáticos de sus obras instrumentales, pero se identifican ellos simplemente por género y número. [22] Sus composiciones han sido, sin embargo, a menudo inspiradas en las experiencias emocionales y sensuales en su propia vida. Una de sus inspiraciones primero de ellos fue una hermosa estudiante cantar los jóvenes en el Conservatorio de Varsovia y luego a un cantante en la Ópera de Varsovia, Konstancja G?adkowska . En cartas a su amigo Tytus Woyciechowski, Chopin indica que de sus obras, e incluso que de sus pasajes, se vieron influidos por sus arrebatos eróticos. Su alma de artista se vio enriquecida por la amistad con tales lumbreras del mundo artístico e intelectual de Varsovia como Maurycy Mochnacki , Józef Bohdan Zaleski y Julian Fontana . [23]

[ editar ] Juventud

Chopin a los 19 años, por Mieroszewski de 1829

En septiembre de 1828, dieciocho años de edad, Chopin se ponchó para el resto del mundo en compañía de un amigo de la familia, el zoólogo Feliks Jarocki , quien planeaba asistir a una convención científica en Berlín. Hay Chopin disfrutado varias óperas desconocidas dirigida por Gaspare Spontini , al que asistieron varios conciertos, y vio a Carl Friedrich Zelter , Felix Mendelssohn y otras celebridades. En su viaje de regreso, fue invitado por el príncipe Antoni Radziwill , gobernador del Gran Ducado de Posen - él mismo un compositor y violonchelista aspirantes. Para el príncipe y su pianista hija Wanda, Chopin compuso su Introducción y Polonesa brillante en do mayor para violonchelo y piano , op. 3. [24]

De regreso a Varsovia, en 1829, Chopin escuchó Niccolò Paganini juego y se reunió con el pianista y compositor alemán Johann Nepomuk Hummel . En agosto del mismo año, tres semanas después de terminar sus estudios en el Conservatorio de Varsovia, Chopin tuvo un debut brillante en Viena . Dio dos conciertos de piano y recibió muchas críticas favorables -. Además de algunos que criticaron el "tono pequeño" que dibujó desde el piano [14]

Esto fue seguido por un concierto, en diciembre de 1829, en el Club de Comerciantes de Varsovia, donde Chopin estrenó su Concierto para piano N º 2 en fa menor , op. 21, y por su primera actuación, el 17 de marzo de 1830, en el Teatro Nacional, en Varsovia, de su Concierto para piano N º 1 en mi menor , op. 11. En este período también comenzó a escribir su primera Études (1829-1832). [14]

Chopin éxitos como intérprete y compositor abrió la puerta profesionales para que Europa occidental, y el 2 de noviembre de 1830, despedido por amigos y admiradores, con un anillo de Konstancja G?adkowska en su mano y llevando con él una copa de plata que contiene tierra de su tierra natal, Chopin establecidos, escribe Jachimecki, "en el mundo, sin más objetivo claramente definido, para siempre." [24] Se dirigió a Austria, con la intención de ir a Italia.

Ese mismo mes, en Varsovia, la sublevación de noviembre estalló, y amigo de Chopin y compañero de viaje, el industrial y mecenas futuro Tytus Woyciechowski , regresó a Polonia para alistarse. Chopin, ahora solo en Viena , escribe Jachimecki, "afectados por la nostalgia, decepcionado en sus esperanzas de dar conciertos y publicar, maduró y adquirió la profundidad espiritual. De un poeta romántico ... ... que se convirtió en un inspirado bardo nacional, que intuyó el pasado, presente y futuro de su país. Sólo que ahora, a esta distancia, es lo que vio toda Polonia desde la perspectiva adecuada, y entender lo que era grande y verdaderamente hermoso en ella, la tragedia y el heroísmo de sus vicisitudes. " [24 ]

Cuando en septiembre de 1831 Chopin aprendido, durante el viaje de Viena a París, que el levantamiento había sido aplastado, que vierte "insultos y blasfemias, asemejándose a los versos finales de Konrad [25] la improvisación ", en su nativa lengua polaca en las páginas de un pequeño diario que se mantuvo en secreto hasta el final de su vida. [26] Expresó su temor por la seguridad de su familia y otros civiles, especialmente la mujeres de la familia en situación de riesgo de atropellos por las tropas rusas, lamentó la muerte del "amablemente [General] Sowinski "(a cuya esposa había dedicado una composición), condenado a los franceses por no haber acudido en ayuda de los polacos, y expresaron su consternación de que Dios había permitido a los rusos a aplastar a los insurgentes polacos -" o es usted [Dios] mismo un ruso? " [27] Estos clamores de un corazón atormentado encontró su expresión musical en su Scherzo en si menor, op. 20 , y su "Estudio Revolucionario", en do menor, op. 10, N º 12 . [24]

[ editar ] Paris

Polonesa de Chopin, por Kwiatkowski , que representa a un balón en el Conde Czartoryski 's Hôtel Lambert de París. Museo Nacional , Poznan .

Chopin llegó a París a finales de septiembre de 1831, sigue siendo incierto si iba a instalarse allí para siempre. [24] De hecho, él nunca regresaría a Polonia, convirtiéndose en uno de los muchos expatriados de la polaca gran emigración . [7] en febrero de 1832 Chopin dio un concierto que le valió la admiración universal. El musicólogo y crítico influyente Fétis François-Joseph escribió en la Revue musicale: "He aquí un hombre joven que, sin aceptar nada como modelo, ha encontrado, si no una renovación completa de la música de piano, a continuación, en cualquier caso, parte de lo que ha sido durante mucho tiempo buscado en vano, es decir, un derroche de ideas originales que son sin igual en cualquier parte ... " [28] Sólo tres meses antes, en diciembre de 1831, Robert Schumann , Chopin revisar Variaciones sobre "La ci Darem la mano" , op. 2 (variaciones sobre un tema de la ópera de Mozart Don Giovanni ), había escrito: "Me quito el sombrero, señores, un genio!". [29]

Después de su primer concierto en París en febrero de 1832, Chopin se dio cuenta de que su luz mano técnica del teclado no era óptimo para los espacios de gran tamaño. Sin embargo, ese mismo año fue presentado a los ricos Rothschild familia de banqueros, cuyo patrocinio le abrieron las puertas a otros salones privados. [14]

En París, Chopin encontrado los artistas y otros distinguida compañía, así como las oportunidades para ejercer sus talentos y alcanzar la celebridad, y en poco tiempo ganaba un piano de ingreso a los estudiantes de la enseñanza guapo ricos de toda Europa. [30] Se formó amistad con Héctor Berlioz , Franz Liszt , Vincenzo Bellini , Fernando Hiller , Felix Mendelssohn , Heinrich Heine , Eugène Delacroix , el príncipe Adam Jerzy Czartoryski , Alfred de Vigny , y Charles Valentin Alkan- . [30]

A pesar de un polaco ardiente patriota , [31] [32] en Francia se utiliza la versión francesa de su nombre de pila y viajó con un pasaporte francés, posiblemente para evitar tener que depender de los documentos Imperial Ruso. [33] El pasaporte francés se emitió el 01 de agosto 1835, después de Chopin se había convertido en un ciudadano francés. [34]

En París, Chopin rara vez ejecutadas públicamente. En años más tarde, en general, dio un concierto anual único en la Salle Pleyel, un lugar que sentados 300. Jugó con más frecuencia en los salones - las reuniones sociales de la aristocracia y la élite artística y literaria -, pero prefiere jugar en su propio apartamento en París para pequeños grupos de amigos. Su precaria salud le impidió viajar extensivamente como un viaje virtuoso , y más allá de jugar una vez en Rouen , rara vez se aventuraban fuera de la capital. [30] Sus ingresos altos de la enseñanza y la composición de lo liberó de las tensiones de los conciertos que da, a la que había una repugnancia innata. [14] Arthur Hedley ha observado que "Como pianista Chopin fue único en la adquisición de una reputación de primer orden sobre la base de un mínimo de apariciones públicas-algunas de más de treinta en el curso de su vida." [35]

En 1835 Chopin fue a Carlsbad , donde, por última vez en su vida, se reunió con sus padres. En el camino a través de Sajonia en su camino de regreso a París, conoció a los viejos amigos de Varsovia, el Wodzi?skis. Él había conocido a su hija María, de dieciséis años, en Polonia cinco años antes, y se enamoró con el encantador, una mujer inteligente, joven talento artístico. [36] Al año siguiente, en septiembre de 1836, al regresar a Dresde después que viajamos con la Wodzi?skis en Marienbad , Chopin propuso matrimonio a María. Ella aceptó, y su madre la condesa Wodzi?ska aprobado, en principio, pero la edad de María tierno y frágil de la salud de Chopin (en el invierno de 1835-1836 había sido tan mal que la palabra había circulado en Varsovia que había muerto) obligó a un aplazamiento indefinido de la boda. El compromiso sigue siendo un secreto para el mundo y nunca llevó hasta el altar. [37] Chopin finalmente colocó las cartas de María y su madre en un sobre grande, en el que escribió las palabras en polaco "Moja Bieda" ("Mi dolor") . [30]

Chopin sentimientos de María dejaron sus huellas en su vals en la bemol mayor , "El vals del adiós", op. 69, No. 1, escrito en la mañana de su partida de septiembre, de Dresde. A su regreso a París, compuso el Étude en fa menor , el segundo en la op. 25 del ciclo, que se refirió como "un retrato del alma de María." Junto con esto, envió a María siete canciones que había puesto a las palabras del polaco románticos poetas Witwicki Stefan , Zaleski Józef y Adán Mickiewicz . [38]

Después de los planes matrimoniales de Chopin terminó, polaco condesa Delfina Potocka aparecido en ocasiones en la vida de Chopin como musa y el interés romántico. Dedicó a su Vals en re bemol mayor, op. 64, No. 1, el famoso " Vals Minuto ". [30]

Durante sus años en París, Chopin participó en un pequeño número de conciertos públicos. La lista de participantes de los programas da una idea de la riqueza de la vida artística parisina durante este período. Los ejemplos incluyen un concierto el 23 de marzo de 1833, en el que Chopin, Liszt y Hiller realizado concierto de JS Bach para tres clavecines , y, el 3 de marzo de 1838, un concierto en el que Chopin, su discípulo Adolphe Gutman, Alkan , y el profesor de Alkan Pierre Joseph Zimmerman realizar arreglos Alkan, por ocho manos, de Beethoven séptima sinfonía .

Chopin también participó en la composición de Liszt Hexameron , Chopin fue la sexta (y última) variación de Bellini tema 's.

[ editar ] George Sand

Chopin a los 28, por Delacroix . Parte del retrato conjunta con George Sand , 1838. Chopin no le gustaba este retrato.
Arena de coser, de Delacroix, la otra parte del retrato conjunto

En 1836, en una fiesta organizada por la condesa Marie d'Agoult , amante de su amigo y compañero compositor Franz Liszt , Chopin conoció autor francés y feminista Amandine Aurore Lucille Dupin, la baronesa Dudevant, mejor conocida por su seudónimo, George Sand . Sand participaciones anteriores romántica había incluido Jules Sandeau (su colaboración literaria ha dado lugar a la arena seudónimo de George), Prosper Mérimée , Alfred de Musset , Louis Michel-Chrystosome, el escritor Charles Didier, Bocage Pierre-François y Mallefille Félicien . [39]

Chopin se sintió al principio una aversión a la arena. [30] declaró a Ferdinand Hiller : "¡Qué mujer de arena es repugnante, pero es realmente una mujer me inclino a dudarlo?". [40] de arena, sin embargo, en una franca treinta y dos páginas carta al conde Wojciech Grzymala, un amigo de ella y Chopin, admitió fuertes sentimientos por el compositor. En su carta debatido la posibilidad de abandonar una relación actual con el fin de comenzar una relación con Chopin, y trató de evaluar la vigencia de su relación anterior con María Wodzi?ska, que no tenía intención de interferir en caso de que todavía existen. [41] En el verano de 1838, la participación de Chopin y la arena era un secreto a voces. [30]

Un episodio notable en su tiempo juntos fue un invierno turbulento y miserable en Mallorca (8 noviembre 1838-13 febrero 1839), donde, junto con dos hijos de Sand, había ido con la esperanza de mejorar el deterioro de la salud de Chopin. Sin embargo, después de descubrir que la pareja no estaban casados, el pueblo profundamente religioso de Mallorca se convirtió en inhóspitos, [ cita requerida ] haciendo los arreglos difíciles de encontrar, lo que obligó al cuarteto a tomar alojamiento en un pintoresco aún dura y fría antigua Cartuja Monasterio de Valldemossa .

Chopin también tuvo problemas con su piano Pleyel que le envió. Que llegó de París el 20 de diciembre, pero fue retenido por la aduana. (Chopin escribió el 28 de diciembre: "Mi piano ha estado estancada en las aduanas durante 8 días ... Ellos exigen una enorme suma de dinero para liberarlo que no me lo puedo creer.") Mientras tanto Chopin había alquilado una desvencijada piano en el que se practica y puede haber compuesto algunas piezas.

El 3 de diciembre, se quejó de su mala salud y la incompetencia de los médicos en Mallorca: "He estado enfermo como un perro durante estas últimas dos semanas, tres médicos me han visitado El primero dijo que iba a morir, y el segundo.. dijo que yo era la respiración de mi pasado, y el tercero dijo que ya estaba muerto ".

El 4 de enero de 1839, George Sand accedió a pagar 300 francos (la mitad de la cantidad demandada) para que el piano Pleyel de aduanas. Que fue finalmente entregado el 5 de enero. A partir de entonces Chopin fue capaz de utilizar el instrumento largamente esperado por casi cinco semanas, tiempo suficiente para completar algunas de las obras: algunos Preludios , op. 28, una revisión de la Ballade No. 2, op. 38, dos polonesas, op. 40, el Scherzo N º 3, op. 39, la Mazurca en mi menor de op. 41, y probablemente a visitar su Sonata N º 2, op. 35. El invierno en Mallorca sigue siendo considerado uno de los períodos más productivos en la vida de Chopin.

Durante el invierno, el mal tiempo tuvo un efecto grave sobre la salud de Chopin y la enfermedad pulmonar crónica que, con el fin de salvar su vida, se vio obligado a todo el partido a abandonar la isla. El piano francés amada se convirtió en un obstáculo para una salida precipitada. Sin embargo, George Sand logró vender a una pareja de franceses (el Canuts), cuyos herederos son los custodios del legado de Chopin en Mallorca y de la celda de Chopin en Valldemossa sala del museo.

El grupo de cuatro se dirigió primero a Barcelona, ??y después a Marsella , donde permanecieron durante unos meses para recuperarse. En mayo de 1839, se dirigieron a la propiedad de Sand en Nohant para el verano. En el otoño de su regreso a París, donde inicialmente vivían aparte, Chopin pronto salió de su apartamento en la rue Tronchet 5 a mudarse a la casa de Sand a los 16 rue Pigalle. Los cuatro vivieron juntos en esta dirección a partir de octubre 1839-noviembre 1842, mientras que los veranos más gastos hasta el año 1846 en Nohant. [42] En 1842, se trasladaron a la calle Taitbout 80 en la Plaza d'Orléans, que viven en los edificios adyacentes. [43]

Fue en ese momento en que tenemos evidencia de Chopin tocando un instrumento que no sea el piano. En el funeral del tenor Nourrit Adolphe , quien saltó a su muerte en Nápoles , pero cuyo cuerpo fue devuelto a París para el entierro, Chopin jugó un órgano de la transcripción de Franz Schubert 's mentido morir Gestirne. [44]

Durante los veranos en Nohant, en particular en los años 1839-1843, Chopin encontró día tranquilo, pero productiva durante el cual compuso muchas obras. Entre ellos su Polonesa en La bemol mayor , op. 53, la "Heroica", una de sus piezas más famosas. Arena describe tumultuoso proceso creativo de Chopin, llena de emoción, llanto, quejas, y cientos de cambios de concepto tiempo de regresar a la inspiración inicial, [43] , en una noche en Nohant con su amigo Eugène Delacroix :

Chopin es el piano, bastante ajeno al hecho de que alguien está escuchando. Se embarca en una especie de improvisación casual, luego se detiene. "Vamos, vamos," exclama Delacroix, "Ese no es el fin!" "Ni siquiera es un comienzo. Nada va a venir ... nada más que reflejos, sombras, formas que no se queda fijo. Estoy tratando de encontrar el color correcto, pero ni siquiera puede obtener el formulario ... " "Usted no va a encontrar el uno sin el otro", dice Delacroix, "y ambos se reunirán. "¿Qué pasa si no encuentro nada, pero la luna?" -Entonces, ¿se ha encontrado el reflejo de un reflejo. " La idea parece agradar a la artista divino. Se comienza de nuevo, sin que parezca que, por lo incierto es la forma. Colores poco a poco comienzan a mostrar tranquilidad, lo que corresponde a la modulación suave que suena en nuestros oídos. De repente, la nota de color azul canta, y la noche está a nuestro alrededor, azul y transparente. Nubes de la luz adquieren formas fantásticas y llenan el cielo. Ellos se reúnen alrededor de la luna que arroja sobre ellos grandes discos opalescente, y despierta a los colores de dormir. Soñamos con una noche de verano, y se sientan allí esperando el canto del ruiseñor ... [45]

Como enfermedad del compositor avanzado, Sand se convirtió en menos de un amante y más de una enfermera a Chopin, a quien llamó su "tercer hijo". En los próximos años se mantendrá su amistad con Chopin, mientras que a menudo cariñosamente ventilación su impaciencia en cartas dirigidas a terceros, refiriéndose a él como un "niño", un "pequeño ángel", una "víctima" y un "cadáver poco amado. " [43]

Chopin. daguerrotipo de 1846 o 1847.

En 1845, como la salud de Chopin continuó deteriorándose, un grave problema surgido en sus relaciones con la arena. Esas relaciones se agriaron aún más en 1846 por los problemas que afectan a su hija Solange y el joven escultor Auguste Clésinger . En 1847 publicó su novela Arena Lucrezia Floriani, cuyos personajes principales - una actriz rica y un príncipe débil salud - podría ser interpretado como Sand y Chopin, la historia era poco halagüeño de Chopin, que no podría haber perdido las alusiones que él ayudó a corregir la arena las galeras de la impresora . En 1847, no visitó Nohant. Amigos en común trató de reconciliarlos, pero el compositor fue inflexible. [43]

Uno de estos amigos era mezzo-soprano Pauline Viardot . Arena había basado su novela 1843 Consuelo en Viardot, y los tres habían pasado muchas horas en Nohant. An outstanding opera singer, Viardot was also an excellent pianist who had initially wanted the piano to be her career and had taken lessons with Liszt and Anton Reicha . Her friendship with Chopin was based on mutual artistic esteem and similarity of temperament. [ 46 ] The two had often played together; he had advised her on piano technique and had assisted her in writing a series of songs based on the melodies of his mazurkas . He in turn had gained from Viardot some first-hand knowledge of Spanish music. [ 46 ]

In 1847, Sand and Chopin quietly ended their ten year relationship. [ 43 ] Count Wojciech Grzyma?a, who followed their romance from the beginning, commented, "If (Chopin) had not had the misfortune of meeting GS [George Sand], who poisoned his whole being, he would have lived to be Cherubini 's age." Chopin died at thirty-nine; his friend Cherubini died in Paris in 1842 at the age of eighty-one. [ 47 ] The two composers are buried four meters apart at Père Lachaise Cemetery .

[ editar ] Últimos años

Photo by Bisson , 1849.

Chopin's public popularity as a virtuoso waned, as did the number of his pupils. In February 1848 he gave his last Paris concert. In April, with the Revolution of 1848 underway in Paris, [ 48 ] he left for London, where he performed at several concerts and at numerous receptions in great houses. [ 43 ] This tour was suggested to Chopin by his Scottish pupil and sometime secretary, Jane Stirling and her elder sister, the widowed Mrs. Katherine Erskine. Jane Stirling also made all the necessary arrangements and provided much of the necessary funding.

Toward the end of the summer he was invited by Jane Stirling to visit Scotland, staying at Calder House near Edinburgh and the castle ( Johnstone , [ 49 ] in Renfrewshire , near Glasgow ), both owned by Jane Stirling's family members. It was by then being rumored, even internationally, that Miss Stirling and Chopin would soon announce their engagement but apparently Chopin had no amorous feelings for her. While in Edinburgh he also spent time at 10 Warriston Crescent, residing at the home of the Polish GP , Dr. Adam ?yszczy?ski, and being treated by him. He was generally so weak that ?yszczy?ski or his servant had to carry Chopin up and down stairs. He gave a single concert in Edinburgh, at the Hopetoun Rooms on Queen Street (now Erskine House). [ 50 ]

In late October 1848, at the home of Dr. ?yszczy?ski, [ 51 ] Chopin wrote out his last will and testament—"a kind of disposition to be made of my stuff in the future, if I should drop dead somewhere," he wrote his friend Wojciech Grzyma?a. In his thoughts he was now constantly with his mother and sisters, and conjured up for himself scenes of his native land by playing his adaptations of its folk music on cool Scottish evenings at Miss Stirling's castle. [ 43 ]

Chopin made his last public appearance on a concert platform at London's Guildhall on 16 November 1848, when, in a final patriotic gesture, he played for the benefit of Polish refugees. [ 14 ] His appearance on this occasion proved to be a well-intentioned mistake, as most of the participants were more interested in the dancing and refreshments than in Chopin's piano artistry, which cost him much effort and physical discomfort. [ 52 ]

At the end of November, Chopin returned to Paris. [ 43 ] He passed the winter in unremitting illness, but in spite of it he continued seeing friends and visited the ailing Adam Mickiewicz , soothing the Polish poet's nerves with his playing. He no longer had the strength to give lessons, but he was still keen to compose. He lacked money for the most essential expenses and for his physicians. He had to sell off his more valuable furnishings and belongings. [ 43 ]

On 24 March 2011, Warsaw's Frédéric Chopin Museum recovered long-lost letters belonging to the composer. The letters are dated from 1845 to 1848, and describe his daily life and his cello sonata in G minor, opus 65. The letters were up for display at the Frédéric Chopin Museum until 25 April 2011. [ 53 ]

[ editar ] Muerte

Feeling ever more poorly, Chopin longed to have a family member with him. In June 1849 his sister Ludwika J?drzejewicz , who had given him his first piano lessons, agreed to come to Paris. [ 43 ]

In September 1849, Chopin took a very beautiful, sunny apartment at Place Vendôme 12 . The second-floor, seven-room apartment had previously housed the Russian embassy; Chopin could not afford it, but Jane Stirling , his wealthy Scottish pupil, rented it for him. [ 54 ]

Chopin on His Deathbed , by Kwiatkowski , 1849, commissioned by Jane Stirling . Chopin sits in bed, in presence of (from left) Aleksander Je?owicki, Chopin's sister Ludwika , Princess Marcelina Czartoryska , Wojciech Grzyma?a, Kwiatkowski .
Chopin's death mask, by Clésinger (photos: Jack Gibbons )

On 15 October, when his condition took a marked turn for the worse, his numerous visitors were asked to leave, and a handful of his closest friends remained with him. A couple of times during those last two days, they thought that the end had come, but the composer was able to catch his breath again. He asked Delfina Potocka to play sonatas and prayed and called out to God, though only a few days earlier he had refused confession, saying that he did not believe in it. He complained that George Sand had promised that he "would die in her arms." He asked for a piece of paper and wrote: "Comme cette terre m'étouffera, je vous conjure de faire ouvrir mon corps pour [que] je ne sois pas enterré vif." ("As this earth will suffocate me, I implore you to have my body opened so that I will not be buried alive .") [ 54 ]

On Wednesday 17 October, after midnight, the physician leaned over him and asked whether he was suffering greatly. "Not any more," Chopin replied. [ 54 ] He died a few minutes before two o'clock in the morning. [ 55 ]

Frédéric Chopin's illness and the cause of his death remained unclear and consequently have become a matter of medical argument. His death certificate stated the cause as tuberculosis . In 2008 an alternative cause of Chopin's death would be proposed: cystic fibrosis . [ 56 ] [ 57 ] In counterpoint, it can well be argued that survival with cystic fibrosis in the 19th century until the age of 39 was virtually impossible, without modern respiratory therapy and medical support. [ 58 ] A full review of the possible causes of Chopin's long illness has recently been published. [ 59 ] Given the contextual facts, it is much more likely that Chopin suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis . [ 60 ]

Many people who had not been present at Chopin's death would later claim to have been there. "Being present at Chopin's death," writes Tad Szulc, "seemed to grant one historical and social cachet." [ 61 ] Those actually around his bed appear to have included his sister Ludwika J?drzejewicz , Princess Marcelina Czartoryska, Solange and Auguste Clésinger (George Sand's daughter and son-in-law), Chopin's friend and former pupil Adolf Gutmann, his friend Thomas Albrecht, and his confidant, Polish Catholic priest Father Aleksander Je?owicki. [ 55 ]

Cast of Chopin's left hand by Clésinger

Later that morning, Clésinger made Chopin's death mask and a cast of his left hand, to which Chopin had given prominence in his compositions. Before the funeral, pursuant to his dying wish, his heart was removed. It was preserved in alcohol (perhaps brandy) to be returned to his homeland, as he had requested. [ 56 ] His sister smuggled it in an urn to Warsaw, where it was later sealed within a pillar of the Holy Cross Church on Krakowskie Przedmie?cie , beneath an epitaph sculpted by Leonard Marconi , bearing an inscription from Matthew VI:21: "For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also." Chopin's heart has reposed there – except for a period during World War II , when it was removed for safekeeping – within the church that was rebuilt after its virtual destruction during the 1944 Warsaw Uprising . The church stands only a short distance from Chopin's last Polish residence, the Krasi?ski Palace at Krakowskie Przedmie?cie 5 .

Chopin's grave monument, by Clésinger . Euterpe weeps over broken lyre .

The funeral, to be held at the Church of the Madeleine in Paris, was delayed almost two weeks, until 30 October. Chopin had requested that Mozart's Requiem be sung. The Requiem had major parts for female voices, but the Church of the Madeleine had never permitted female singers in its choir. The Church finally relented, on condition that the female singers remain behind a black velvet curtain.

The soloists in the Requiem included the bass Luigi Lablache – who had sung the same work at the funerals of Haydn and Beethoven, and had also sung at Bellini 's funeral – and Chopin's and George Sand's friend, the mezzo-soprano Pauline Viardot . [ 62 ] Also played were Chopin's Préludes No. 4 in E minor and No. 6 in B minor. The organist was Franz Liszt . [ citation needed ]

The funeral was attended by nearly three thousand people, but George Sand was not among them.

The funeral procession traversed the considerable distance from the church, in the center of town, adjacent to the Opera , to Père Lachaise Cemetery at the city's eastern edge. It was led by the dean of the Polish Great Emigration , the aged Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski ; immediately after the casket, which was borne by shifts of artists (including Eugène Delacroix , cellist Auguste Franchomme and pianist Camille Pleyel), walked Chopin's sister Ludwika . [ 54 ]

Chopin was interred at Père Lachaise Cemetery , in accordance with his wishes. At the graveside, the Funeral March from his Sonata No. 2 in B flat minor, Op. 35 , was played, in Napoléon Henri Reber 's instrumentation. [ 63 ]

Chopin's tombstone, featuring the muse of music, Euterpe , weeping over a broken lyre , was designed and sculpted by Auguste Clésinger. The expenses of the funeral and monument, in the amount of five thousand francs, were covered by Jane Stirling, who also paid for Chopin's sister's return to Warsaw. [ 54 ] Jane Stirling wore black mourning dresses for a long time thereafter (some sources say for the rest of her life).

Chopin's grave attracts numerous visitors and is consistently decorated with flowers, even in winter.

[ edit ] Memorials

Chopin statue in winter, Warsaw's Royal Baths Park
Pillar in Warsaw 's Holy Cross Church . Within it ( bottom ) is an urn with Chopin's heart .

In 1909, to celebrate Chopin's centenary, the Russian composer Sergei Lyapunov wrote a " symphonic poem in memory of Chopin", titled Zhelazova Vola , Op. 37 ( Russian : ?e?a?o?a ?o?a ), a reference to Chopin's birthplace . [ 64 ]

In 1926 a bronze statue of Chopin, designed by sculptor Wac?aw Szymanowski in 1907, was erected in the upper part of Warsaw's Royal Baths ( ?azienki ) Park , adjacent to Ujazdów Avenue ( Aleje Ujazdowskie ). The statue was originally to have been installed in 1910, on the centenary of Chopin's birth, but its execution was delayed by controversy about the design, then by the outbreak of World War I .

On 31 May 1940, during the German occupation of Poland in World War II , the statue was destroyed by the Nazis . It was reconstructed after the war, in 1958. Since 1959, free piano recitals of Chopin's compositions have been performed at the statue's base on summer Sunday afternoons. The stylized willow over Chopin's seated figure echoes a pianist's hand and fingers. Until 2007, the statue was the world's tallest monument to Chopin.

A 1:1-scale replica of Szymanowski's Art Nouveau statue is found in Warsaw's sister city of Hamamatsu , Japan. There are also preliminary plans to erect another replica along Chicago's lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Chopin's birth.

A bronze bust memorializing Chopin stands at Symphony Circle outside Kleinhans Music Hall in Buffalo , New York.

There are numerous other monuments to Chopin around the world. The most recent, by a small margin taller than the Warsaw statue, is a modernistic bronze sculpture by Lu Pin [4] [5] in Shanghai, China, that was unveiled on 3 March 2007.

The world's oldest monographic music competition, the International Chopin Piano Competition , founded in 1927, is held every five years in Warsaw.

Established in 1954, the Fryderyk Chopin Museum is housed in Warsaw's Ostrogski Palace , seat of the Fryderyk Chopin Society. Refurbished for the 200th anniversary (2010) of Chopin's birth, the Fryderyk Chopin Museum is the most modern museum in Poland.

Periodically the Grand prix du disque de F. Chopin is awarded for notable Chopin recordings, both remastered and newly recorded work.

Named for the composer are the largest Polish music conservatory , the Fryderyk Chopin University of Music in Warsaw ; Warsaw Chopin Airport ; the Chopin crater on Mercury; and asteroid 3784 Chopin .

[ editar ] Música

Autograph musical quotation from Op. 53 , signed by Chopin on 25 May 1845
Chopin's autograph, stylised as a half note

The great majority of Chopin's compositions were written for the piano as solo instrument; all of his extant works feature the piano in one way or another. Chopin, according to Arthur Hedley , "had the rare gift of a very personal melody, expressive of heart-felt emotion, and his music is penetrated by a poetic feeling that has an almost universal appeal.... Present-day evaluation places him among the immortals of music by reason of his insight into the secret places of the heart and because of his awareness of the magical new sonorities to be drawn from the piano." [ 35 ]

It is very difficult to characterise Chopin's oeuvre briefly. Robert Schumann , speaking of Chopin's Sonata in B-flat minor , wrote that "he alone begins and ends a work like this: with dissonances, through dissonances, and in dissonances," and in Chopin's music he discerned "cannon concealed amid blossoms." Franz Liszt , in the opening of his biography about Chopin (Life of Chopin), termed him a "gentle, harmonious genius." Thus disparate have been the views on Chopin's music. The first systematic, if imperfect, study of Chopin's style came in FP Laurencin's 1861 Die Harmonik der Neuzeit . Laurencin concluded that "Chopin is one of the most brilliant exceptional natures that have ever stridden onto the stage of history and life, he is one who can never be exhausted nor stand before a void. Chopin is the musical progone [ 65 ] of all progones until now." [ 66 ]

According to Tad Szulc , though technically demanding, [ 67 ] Chopin's works emphasize nuance and expressive depth rather than sheer virtuosity. Vladimir Horowitz referred to Chopin as "the only truly great composer for the piano." [ 68 ]

Chopin's music for the piano combined a unique rhythmic sense (particularly his use of rubato ), frequent use of chromaticism , and counterpoint . This mixture produces a particularly fragile sound in the melody and the harmony , which are nonetheless underpinned by solid and interesting harmonic techniques. He took the new salon genre of the nocturne , invented by Irish composer John Field , to a deeper level of sophistication. Three of Chopin's twenty-one Nocturnes were published only after his death in 1849, contrary to his wishes. [ 69 ] He also endowed popular dance forms, such as the Polish mazurek and the Viennese Waltz , with a greater range of melody and expression.

Chopin's mazurkas , while based somewhat on the traditional Polish dance (the mazurek ), were different from the traditional variety in that they were suitable for concerts halls as well as dance settings. With his mazurkas, Chopin brought a new sense of nationalism, which was an idea that other composers writing both at the same time as, and after, Chopin would also incorporate into their compositions. Chopin's nationalism was a great influence and inspiration for many other composers, especially Eastern Europeans, and he was one of the first composers to clearly express nationalism through his music. Furthermore, he was the first composer to take a national genre of music from his home country and transform it into a genre worthy of the general concert-going public, thereby creating an entirely new genre.

Chopin was the first to write ballades [ 70 ] and scherzi as individual pieces. He also took the example of Bach's preludes and fugues , transforming the genre in his own Préludes.

Chopin reinvented the étude , [ 71 ] expanding on the idea and making it into a gorgeous, eloquent and emotional showpiece. He also used his Études to teach his own revolutionary style, [ 14 ] for instance playing with the weak fingers (3, 4, and 5) in fast figures (Op. 10, No. 2), playing in octaves (Op 25, No.10) and playing black keys with the thumb (Op. 10, No. 5).

[ editar ] Influencia

Several of Chopin's pieces have become very well known—for instance the Revolutionary Étude (Op. 10, No. 12), the Minute Waltz (Op. 64, No. 1), and the third movement of his Funeral March Sonata No. 2 (Op. 35), which is often used as an iconic representation of grief. Chopin himself never named an instrumental work beyond genre and number, leaving all potential extra-musical associations to the listener; the names by which we know many of the pieces were invented by others. [ 72 ] The Revolutionary Étude was not written with the failed Polish uprising against Russia in mind; it merely appeared at that time. The Funeral March was written before the rest of the sonata within which it is contained, but the exact occasion is not known; it appears not to have been inspired by any specific personal bereavement. [ 73 ] Other melodies have been used as the basis of popular songs, such as the slow section of the Fantaisie-Impromptu (Op. posth. 66) and the first section of the Étude, Op. 10, No. 3 . These pieces often rely on an intense and personalised chromaticism, as well as a melodic curve that resembles the operas of Chopin's day – the operas of Gioachino Rossini , Gaetano Donizetti , and especially Vincenzo Bellini . [ 74 ] Chopin used the piano to recreate the gracefulness of the singing voice, and talked and wrote constantly about singers.

Chopin's style and gifts became increasingly influential. Robert Schumann was a huge admirer of Chopin's music, and he used melodies from Chopin and even named a piece from his suite Carnaval after Chopin. This admiration was not generally reciprocated, although Chopin did dedicate his Ballade No. 2 in F major to Schumann.

Franz Liszt was another admirer and personal friend of the composer, and he transcribed for piano six of Chopin's Polish songs . However, Liszt denied that he wrote Funérailles (subtitled "October 1849", the seventh movement of his piano suite Harmonies poétiques et religieuses of 1853) in memory of Chopin. Though the middle section seems to be modeled on the famous octave trio section of Chopin's Polonaise in A flat major, Op. 53 , Liszt said the piece had been inspired by the deaths of three of his Hungarian compatriots in the same month. However, Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C-sharp minor borrows heavily [ citation needed ] from the "funeral march" third movement of Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor. This influence can be seen in the first segment of Liszt's piece: this section expands on Chopin's minimalist melody. [ citation needed ]

Johannes Brahms and the younger Russian composers, too, found inspiration in Chopin's examples. [ 66 ] Chopin's technical innovations became influential. His Préludes (Op. 28) and Études (Opp. 10 and 25) rapidly became standard works, and inspired both Liszt's Transcendental Études and Schumann's Symphonic Studies . Alexander Scriabin was also strongly influenced by Chopin; for example, his 24 Preludes, Op. 11, are inspired by Chopin's Op. 28.

Ostrogski Palace , Warsaw seat of the Fryderyk Chopin Museum

Jeremy Siepmann, in his biography of the composer, lists pianists whose recordings of Chopin are generally acknowledged to be among the greatest Chopin performances ever preserved: Vladimir de Pachmann , Raoul Pugno , Ignacy Jan Paderewski , Moriz Rosenthal , Sergei Rachmaninoff , Alfred Cortot , Ignaz Friedman , Raoul Koczalski , Arthur Rubinstein , Mieczys?aw Horszowski , Claudio Arrau , Vlado Perlemuter , Vladimir Horowitz , Dinu Lipatti , Vladimir Ashkenazy , Martha Argerich , Maurizio Pollini , Murray Perahia , Krystian Zimerman , Evgeny Kissin .

Arthur Rubinstein said the following about Chopin's music and its universality:

Chopin was a genius of universal appeal. His music conquers the most diverse audiences. When the first notes of Chopin sound through the concert hall there is a happy sigh of recognition. All over the world men and women know his music. They love it. They are moved by it. Yet it is not "Romantic music" in the Byronic sense. It does not tell stories or paint pictures. It is expressive and personal, but still a pure art. Even in this abstract atomic age, where emotion is not fashionable, Chopin endures. His music is the universal language of human communication. When I play Chopin I know I speak directly to the hearts of people!

[ editar ] Estilo

Chopin's autograph of first 32 bars of Polonaise in A flat major , 1842

Although Chopin lived in the 19th century, he was educated in the tradition of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and Clementi ; he used Clementi's piano method with his own students. He was also influenced by Hummel 's development of virtuoso, yet Mozartian, piano technique. Chopin cited Bach and Mozart as the two most important composers in shaping his musical outlook. [ 75 ]

The series of seven Polonaises published in his lifetime (another nine were published posthumously), beginning with the Op. 26 pair, set a new standard for music in the form, and were rooted in Chopin's desire to write something to celebrate Polish culture after the country had fallen into Russian control. [ 76 ] The Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1, the "Military," and the Polonaise in A-flat major , Op. 53, the "Heroic," are among Chopin's best-loved and most-often-played works.

Chopin also wrote 24 different preludes as a tribute to JS Bach's "The Well Tempered Clavier." Chopin's preludes move up the circle-of-fifths, whereas Bach uses the chromatic scale to create a prelude in every major and minor tonality achievable on the clavier. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Rubato

Chopin's music is well known for benefiting from rubato (which was how he himself performed his music), [ 77 ] as opposed to a strictly regular playing. Yet there is usually call for caution when the music is performed with wobbly, over-exaggerated, inappropriate "rubato" (eg attempting to justify insecure playing, with reference to expressive rubato).

His playing was always noble and beautiful; his tones sang, whether in full forte or softest piano . He took infinite pains to teach his pupils this legato , cantabile style of playing. His most severe criticism was "He—or she—does not know how to join two notes together." He also demanded the strictest adherence to rhythm. He hated all lingering and dragging, misplaced rubatos , as well as exaggerated ritardandos ... and it is precisely in this respect that people make such terrible errors in playing his works.
—Friederike Müller, "From the Diary of a Viennese Chopin Pupil" [ 78 ]

However, while some can provide restrictive quotes about Chopin such as the above, often to the effect that "the accompanying hand always played in strict tempo", these quotes need to be considered in better context [ 79 ] in terms both of the time when they were made and of the situations that may have prompted the original writer to set down the thoughts. Constantin von Sternberg (1852–1924) has written:

It is amusing to note that even some serious persons express the idea that in tempo rubato "the right hand may use a certain freedom while the left hand must keep strict time." (See Niecks ' Life of Chopin , II, p. 101.) A nice sort of music would result from such playing! Something like the singing of a good vocalist accompanied by a poor blockhead who hammers away in strict time without yielding to the singer who, in sheer despair, must renounce all artistic expression. It is reported by some ladies that Chopin himself gave them this explanation, but – they might not have understood him [...]
—Constantin von Sternberg (1852–1924), Tempo rubato, and other essays [ 80 ]

There are also views of contemporary writers such as Hector Berlioz . [ 79 ] [ 81 ]

This suggests that Chopin is not to be found at commonly encountered one-sided extremes. The unbalanced views are:

Some performers' (and piano-schools') "too strongly held one-sided views on Chopin's way of playing rubato" may account for some unsatisfactory interpretations of his music.

[ edit ] Romanticism

Chopin is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music . [ 82 ]

Chopin regarded most of his contemporaries with indifference, though he had many acquaintances who were associated with romanticism in music, literature, and the fine arts—many of them via his liaison with George Sand. Chopin's music is, however, considered by many to epitomise the Romantic style. [ 83 ] The relative classical purity and discretion in his music, with little extravagant exhibitionism, partly reflects his reverence for Bach and Mozart.

Chopin never indulged in explicit "scene-painting" in his music, or used programmatic titles. He castigated publishers who renamed his compositions in this way.

[ edit ] Nationalism

1831 Russian attack on Warsaw during the November 1830 Uprising , which inspired Chopin's Revolutionary Étude

Chopin's Polish biographer Zdzis?aw Jachimecki notes that "Chopin at every step demonstrated his Polish spirit – in the hundreds of letters that he wrote in Polish, in his attitude to Paris' [Polish] émigrés, in his negative view of all that bore the official stamp of the powers that occupied Poland." Likewise Chopin composed music to accompany Polish texts [ 84 ] but never musically illustrated a single French or German text, though he numbered among his friends several great French and German poets. [ 66 ]

According to his English biographer Arthur Hedley , Chopin "found within himself and in the tragic story of Poland the chief sources of his inspiration. The theme of Poland's glories and sufferings was constantly before him, and he transmuted the primitive rhythms and melodies of his youth into enduring art forms." [ 35 ]

In asserting his own Polishness, Chopin, according to Jachimecki, exerted "a tremendous influence [toward] the nationalization of the work of numerous later composers, who have often personally – like the Czech Smetana and Norway's Grieg – confirmed this opinion..." [ 66 ]

The Hungarian composer Franz Liszt , Chopin's contemporary, referred to Chopin's Polish homeland when he wrote that Chopin "may be ranked first among musicians who have had an individual poetic sense of a particular nation." [ 85 ] He referred to Chopin as "a Polish artist." [ 86 ] Composer Robert Schumann acknowledged the strength of Chopin's personal reaction to Russia's suppression of the November 1830 Uprising when he wrote that in Chopin's music one found "guns buried among the flowers." [ 87 ]

Some Polish writers have used, for Chopin's surname, the Polonized phonetic spelling, " Szopen " (pronounced [???p?n] ).

[ editar ] Obras

Statue of Chopin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Over 230 Chopin works survive; some compositions from early childhood have been lost. All his known works involved the piano. Only a few ranged beyond solo-piano music, as either piano concertos or chamber music .

Chopin composed:

He also composed: a fantaisie , an Allegro de concert (which is possibly the remnant of an incomplete concerto), a barcarole , a berceuse , a bolero , a tarantelle , a contredanse , a fugue , a cantabile , a lento , a Funeral march , and a Feuille d'album .

Chopin's other works include: a krakowiak for piano and orchestra; Variations on "Là ci darem la mano" for piano and orchestra; fantasia on themes from Polish songs with accompanying orchestra; a trio for violin, cello and piano ; a sonata for cello and piano ; a Grand Duo in E major for cello and piano on themes from Giacomo Meyerbeer 's opera Robert le diable , co-written with Auguste Franchomme ; and 19 Polish songs for voice and piano . [ 66 ]

[ edit ] Opus numbers

The last opus number that Chopin himself used was 65, allocated to the Cello Sonata in G minor .

Chopin expressed a deathbed wish that all his unpublished manuscripts be destroyed. However, at the request of the composer's mother and sisters, his pianist friend and musical executor Julian Fontana selected 23 unpublished piano pieces and grouped them into eight opus numbers (Opp. 66–73). These works were published in 1855. [ 88 ]

In 1857, 17 Polish songs which Chopin wrote at various stages of his life were collected and published as Op. 74—the order within that opus having little regard to the actual order of composition. [ 89 ] Two other songs were published in 1910.

Works that have been published since 1857 have not received opus numbers. Instead, alternate catalog designations have been applied to them.

[ edit ] Publishing

Chopin published much of his music simultaneously in Germany, France, and England. While this certainly earned the composer triple exposure and likely a good sum of revenue, the discrepancies between these three (or more) editions can be quite the conundrum. Ever the romantic, Chopin lived in a constant state of inspiration and improvisation, and was certainly prone to editing and revising his own music even after sending final drafts to his publishers. Especially considering that all published editions of his work during his lifetime were in fact proofed and approved by the composer himself, this is a popular source of anxiety amongst pianists and scholars.

How is one to know what the composer truly meant and wanted when we are presented with autographs and first drafts bearing the composer's approval that differ in content? Details such as phrase markings, dynamics, fingerings, even the notes themselves are often subject to suspicion. The several editions of the time had different ways of dealing with this problem; the Germans of course believed that their version was infallible, the French called Chopin their own, having spent most of his adult life based in Paris, and the English publisher (a German who largely copied the French editions) annoyed Chopin by insisting on adding flowery titles to his pieces. Nearly 200 years later, the state of affairs in regards to Chopin editions has turned over a new leaf.

Today, several scholarly editions exist that attempt to organize the vast array of sources and compile the information in one presentable volume, notably the Paderewski and Polish National editions which contain lengthy and scholarly explanations and discussions regarding choices and sources. Even so, it is ultimately up to the taste of an editor as to which version of which piece suits them most at the given time, and perhaps Chopin himself faced the same dilemma, resulting in the variations we have today.

[ edit ] TV documentaries

In 2010, the 90-min. BBC TV documentary Chopin – The Women Behind The Music explores Chopin's life, notably his encounters with the singers who enchanted the composer with their voices. The BBC announcement for the premiere refers to Jenny Lind as the "Swedish opera star, who so affected Chopin in the final years of his life." [ 90 ] Another documentary about Chopin was realized by Angelo Bozzolini and Roberto Prosseda for Italian Television in 2010: "Fryderik Chopin". Featuring interviews with Martha Argerich, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Daniel Barenboim, Charles Rosen, it is currently distributed by Euroarts. [ 91 ]

[ edit ] Fiction

Possibly the first venture into fictional treatments of Chopin's life was a fanciful operatic version of some of its events. This opera, entitled Chopin , was written by Giacomo Orefice and produced in Milan in 1901. Orefice incorporated Chopin's music, arranged as arias; the operatic arrangements have been described as "coarse". [ 92 ] Various arias have been recorded by well-known singers, but the opera has long been out of the repertoire. Orefice also applied an operatic treatment to one of George Sand 's novels, Consuelo .

Chopin's life and his relations with George Sand have been fictionalized in film. The 1945 biopic A Song to Remember earned Cornel Wilde an Academy Award nomination as Best Actor for his portrayal of the composer. Other film treatments have included: Impromptu (1991), starring Hugh Grant as Chopin; La note bleue (1991); and Chopin: Desire for Love (2002). The 1975 Ken Russell film Lisztomania outlandishly portrayed Chopin and Sand's relationship as dominant and submissive , with Sand fulfilling the role of dominatrix over Chopin's submissive attitude.

Another reference to Chopin in cinema occurs in Ingmar Bergman 's Autumn Sonata . The difference of interpretation of Chopin's Prelude No. 2 in A minor by the pianist Charlotte Andergast and her daughter Eva constitutes a major scene in the film.

Kate Beaton did a series of comics starring Chopin and Liszt, focusing on a fictionalized account of their friendship. [ 93 ]

Chopin is the main character in the console role-playing game titled Eternal Sonata .

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas

  1. ^ The surname is pronounced [???p?n?] in Polish (and occasionally spelled Szopen ); [???p??] in French; and usually /??o?pæn/ in English.
  2. ^ Some sources give 22 February. See Childhood for details.
  3. ^ Zdzis?aw Jachimecki , "Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek," Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. III, 1937, p. 420.
  4. ^ Michael Robert Patterson. "Wladimir B. Krzyzanowski" . Arlingtoncemetery.net . http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/wbkrzyzanowski.htm . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  5. ^ Jaros?aw Krawczyk, " Wielkie odkrycia ludzko?ci. Nr 17 ," Rzeczpospolita , 12 June 2008.
  6. ^ a b The record of Chopin's baptism (in Latin, dated 23 April), parish of Saint Roch in Brochów, Poland, gives Chopin's birth date as 22 February: http://diaph16.free.fr/chopin//actenaissancechopin.png
  7. ^ a b Smolenska-Zielinska, Barbara. "Life / Biography – general outline" . Fryderyk Chopin Society . http://www.chopin.pl/biography_chopin.en.html . Retrieved 26 February 2010 .  
  8. ^ Bibliothèque Polonaise de
  9. ^ Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk Chopin , abridged from Fryderyk Chopin's correspondence, collected and annoted by Bronislaw Edward Sydow, translated by Arthur Hedley, McGraw-Hill, 1963, p. 116
  10. ^ [1] Fryderyk Chopin Information Centre.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jachimecki , p. 420.
  12. ^ Benita Eisler, Chopin's Funeral , Abacus, 2004, p. 29: "Language was another matter, rooted in anxiety passed from father to son. A foreigner concerned with shrouding his origins and proving his Polishness, Nicolas was as cautious as a spy dropped behind enemy lines; he never seems to have mentioned his French family to his Polish children. French was the lingua franca of the nobility and the subject Nicolas taught to others' sons—but not to his own.... Consequently Fryderyk's grasp of French grammar and spelling would always remain shaky. Surprising for one blessed with an extraordinary 'ear' and famed from earliest childhood as an extraordinary mimic, his pronunciation, too, was poor. More telling was his own unease in his adopted tongue: half-French, living in Paris, the paradise of expatriates , Chopin would always feel twice exiled—from his country and from his language. Imprisoned by foreign words, the expressive power of his music unbound him."
  13. ^ "Chopin, in spite of spending half of his life in Paris, remained characteristically Polish and was a 'lonely soul.' Louis Enault, a biographer, said: 'The Slavs lend themselves gladly but never give themselves; Chopin is more Polish than Poland.'", Bauer, Marion (March 2007). Music Through the Ages – A Narrative for Student and Layman . Google Books. p. Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Hedley , Encyclopædia Britannica , p. 263.
  15. ^ Ambro?y Mieroszewski's portrait of Wojciech ?ywny , 1829.
  16. ^ a b c Described in the Polish Wikipedia article on "Fryderyk Chopin."
  17. ^ Artur Szklener, " Fryckowe lato: czyli wakacyjne muzykowanie Chopina " ("Fritz's Summers: Chopin's Musical Vacations"), Magazyn Chopin: Miesi?cznik Narodowego Instytutu Fryderyka Chopina (Chopin Magazine: Monthly of the Fryderyk Chopin National Institute), no. 4, 2010, p. 8.
  18. ^ http://en.chopin.nifc.pl/chopin/persons/detail/id/6608
  19. ^ a b c Jachimecki , p. 421.
  20. ^ Jan Zygmunt Jakubowski, ed., Literatura polska od ?redniowiecza do pozytywizmu (Polish Literature from the Middle Ages to Positivism), pp. 514–15.
  21. ^ Édouard Ganche , Frédéric Chopin: sa vie et ses œuvres (Frédéric Chopin: His Life and Works), Mercure de France , 1913.
  22. ^ Jachimecki , p. 421. Hedley , Encyclopædia Britannica , p. 264: "He valued [sensuous beauty] throughout life as much as he abhorred descriptive titles or any hint of an underlying 'program.'" Programmatic titles were given to some of his works, against his wishes, by others, including opportunistic music publishers.
  23. ^ Jachimecki , pp. 421–22.
  24. ^ a b c d e Jachimecki , p. 422.
  25. ^ Konrad was a patriotic Polish hero in poems by Chopin's friend Adam Mickiewicz . Chopin would later set some of Mickiewicz's poems to music.
  26. ^ "This relic of Chopin's spiritual becoming (whose text was first published by Stanis?aw Tarnowski in 1871) is today [1937] found among the Chopin mementoes in the National Library in Warsaw (initially the journal was preserved by Princess Marcelina Czartoryska , a noted pupil of the artist)." Zdzis?aw Jachimecki , "Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek," Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. III, 1937, p. 422.
  27. ^ A reading of Chopin's words may be heard at the Chopin Museum in the Ostrogski Palace in Warsaw.
  28. ^ Jachimecki , pp. 422–23.
  29. ^ Sheppard, Linda. "Frédéric Chopin's Résumé". Musical overview (1600–2000): from the History à la carte series. Canada: Longbow Publishing Ltd, 2006.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Jachimecki , p. 423.
  31. ^ David Ewen, p. 164.
  32. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , pp. 12, 404.
  33. ^ A French passport used by Chopin is shown here [2] . Tad Szulc writes ( Chopin in Paris , p. 69): "[...] the French granted him permission to stay in Paris indefinitely 'to be able to perfect his art'. Four years later, Frédéric became a French citizen and a French passport was issued to him on 1 August 1835. He is not known to have discussed his decision to change citizenship with anyone, including his father. It is unclear whether he did it to avoid renewing his Russian passport at the Russian embassy for patriotic reasons or simply as a matter of general convenience."
  34. ^ Tad Szulc (30 December 1999). Chopin in Paris: The Life and Times of the Romantic Composer? . Da Capo Press. p. Consultado el 7 de mayo de 2010.  
  35. ^ a b c Hedley , Encyclopædia Britannica , p. 264.
  36. ^ She "made sketches of Chopin's head as he played the piano and talked, then sat him down in an armchair to paint his portrait in watercolors . It is one of the best portraits of Chopin extant—after that by Delacroix —with the composer looking relaxed, pensive, and at peace." Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 137. Wodzi?ska's portrait would seem accurate, judging by the accuracy of her 1830s self-portrait , as demonstrated by a photo of her in later life .
  37. ^ On 24 July 1841 Maria Wodzi?ska (7 January 1819 – 7 December 1896) married Count Józef Skarbek, son of Chopin's godfather, Fryderyk Florian Skarbek (1792–1866, a prison reformer who designed Warsaw's Pawiak Prison, had been tutored in French language by Chopin's father, and was a great-great-uncle of Krystyna Skarbek ). The couple divorced after seven years, and in 1848 Maria married W?adys?aw Orpiszewski, lessee of estates belonging to her first husband.
  38. ^ Jachimecki , p 423.
  39. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , pp. 160, 165, 194–95.
  40. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 146.
  41. ^ André Maurois , Léila: the Life of George Sand , trans. by Gerard Hopkins, Penguin, 1980 (c 1953), pp. 317–20.
  42. ^ André Maurois , Léila , pp. 333, 337–8.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jachimecki, p. 424.
  44. ^ Krzysztof Rottermund, "Chopin and Hesse: New Facts About Their Artistic Acquaintance," translation in The American Organist , March 2008.
  45. ^ George Sand , Impressions et souvenirs , chapter V, p. 86, quoted in André Maurois , Léila , pp. 338–9.
  46. ^ a b Rachel M. Harris. "The Music Salon of Pauline Viardot" (PDF) . http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-04082005-095548/unrestricted/Harris_dis.pdf . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  47. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 403.
  48. ^ During which, to Chopin's dismay, some of George Sand 's radical political friends briefly came to power: Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , pp. 366–73.
  49. ^ Zaluski, Iwo (2 June 2009). "Chopin's Scottish autumn – Frederick Chopin" . Contemporary Review . http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2242/is_n1530_v263/ai_14234524/pg_2/ . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  50. ^ Michael TRB Turnbull, Monuments and Statues of Edinburgh , Chambers, p. 53.
  51. ^ Chopin was very pleased to spend several days with the doctor, as he was always looking for someone with whom he could speak Polish—particularly now, as he knew no English. Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 382 and passim .
  52. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 383.
  53. ^ "Long-lost Chopin letters revealed by Polish museum" . 24 March Retrieved 24 March 2011 .  
  54. ^ a b c d e Maria Barcz, " Etiuda paryska " ("Paris Étude"), Gwiazda Polarna (The Pole Star), vol. 101, no. 17 (14 August 2010), p. 16.
  55. ^ a b Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 400.
  56. ^ a b "Home is where the heart'll stay" . News24.com South Africa. 26 de julio Retrieved 14 February 2010 .   In 2008 a controversy arose over whether Chopin died of tuberculosis or cystic fibrosis, an incurable genetic disease whose complete clinical spectrum was not recognized until the 1930s, almost a century after his death. The Polish government declined to allow scientists to remove Chopin's heart from its repository for DNA testing.
  57. ^ According to a 23 June 2008 Times of India article: Polish cystic fibrosis specialist Wojciech Cichy says that the symptoms Chopin suffered throughout his life were typical of cystic fibrosis, a genetic illness which clogs the lungs with excess thick, sticky mucus . "From childhood he was weak, prone to chest infections, wheezing, coughing." As an adult weighing 40 kg (88.18 lb) at a height of five feet, seven inches, Chopin was chronically underweight—another symptom of cystic fibrosis. It has been proposed that Chopin's heart be retrieved from its alcohol-filled crystal urn, which reposes inside a pillar at Warsaw 's Holy Cross Church , and be tested for the CFTR gene that is a marker for cystic fibrosis. [3]
  58. ^ DJ Mantle, AP Norman, "Life-table for Cystic Fibrosis," British Medical Journal , issue 5524, pp. 1238–41.
  59. ^ Lagerberg, Steven. Chopin's Heart – The Quest to Identify the Mysterious Illness of the World's Most Beloved Composer. Lagerberg, 2011, ISBN 145640296X .
  60. ^ But see " Chopin's disease ."
  61. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 399.
  62. ^ Frederick Niecks , The Life of Chopin , vol. II, London, Novello, Ewers & Co., 1888, p. 325.
  63. ^ "Fryderyk Chopin 1810–1849: A Chronological Biography" . Dobrowolski.com . http://www.dobrowolski.com/joeandpam/famouspols/chopin-bio.html . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .   [ enlace roto ]
  64. ^ "Crocks Newsletter" . Clofo.com . http://www.clofo.com/Newsletters/C081028.htm . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  65. ^ A "progone" is the opposite of an "epigone"—the latter being "an undistinguished imitator or follower of an important writer, painter, [composer] etc." The word "progone" (also written "progon") comes from the Greek progonos , meaning "born before."
  66. ^ a b c d e Jachimecki , p. 425.
  67. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , pp. 197–98.
  68. ^ Newsweek magazine , May 1982
  69. ^ Letter of 12 December 1853 from Camille Pleyel to Chopin's sister, Louise Jedrzejewicz , cited in Chopin – Nocturnes , with note by Ewald Zimmermann, winter 1979/1980, published by G. Henle Verlag (ISM N M-2018-0185-8).
  70. ^ Scholes, Percy (1938), The Oxford Companion to Music , "Ballade".
  71. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , pp. 112–13.
  72. ^ Jachimecki , p. 421. Hedley , Encyclopædia Britannica , p. 264.
  73. ^ Kornel Micha?owski, Grove
  74. ^ Hedley writes: "From the great Italian singers of the age he learned the art of 'singing' on the piano, and his nocturnes reveal the perfection of his cantabile style and delicate charm of ornamentation." Hedley , Encyclopædia Britannica , p. 264.
  75. ^ Kornel Micha?owski and Jim Samson. "Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek." In Grove Music Online . (accessed 19 September 2010) (subscription required)
  76. ^ Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris , p. 115.
  77. ^ Eigeldinger, Jean-Jacques (1986). Chopin: Pianist and Teacher as Seen by His Pupils . Cambridge University Press . p. 52. ISBN 0-521-36709-3 .  
  78. ^ Müller-Streicher, Friederike (1994). "Aus dem Tagebuch einer Wiener Chopin-Schülerin [1839–1841, 1844–1845 "]. Wiener Chopin-Blätter (International Chopin Society) . http://www.nifc.pl/chopin/bibliography/detail/id/11807 . Retrieved 9 October 2007 .  
  79. ^ a b Ignacy Jan Paderewski. "Tempo Rubato" . Polish Music Journal, Vol. 4; No. 1; Summer 2001. ISSN 1521-6039 . http://www.usc.edu/dept/polish_music/PMJ/issue/4.1.01/paderewskirubato.html .  
  80. ^ Constantin von Sternberg (1852–1924) (c. 1920). " Tempo rubato, and other essays " . http://www.archive.org/details/temporubatoother00sterrich .  
  81. ^ John F. Strauss. The puzzle of Chopin's Tempo Rubato . Clavier 22, no. 5 (May–June 1983).  
  82. ^ Arthur Hedley et al. , "Chopin, Frédéric (François)," Encyclopædia Britannica , p. 263.
  83. ^ See eg Charles Rosen , The Romantic Generation , chapters 5–7, Harvard University Press 1995. ISBN 978-0-674-77933-4
  84. ^ Jachimecki , pp. 425–26.
  85. ^ Dominique Bosseur, Histoire de la musique occidentale sous la direction de Brigitte et Jean Massin Fayard, 1985, p. 787.
  86. ^ Franz Liszt , Chopin , 1852, p. 163.
  87. ^ "Piano Society" . Piano Society . http://www.pianosociety.com/cms/index.php?section=636 . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  88. ^ "Classical Archives" . Classical Archives . http://www.classicalarchives.com/work/7303.html#about . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  89. ^ BBC Four's TV documentary (15 October 2010): Chopin – The Women Behind The Music . In the last scene, James Rhodes (pianist) and Natalya Romaniw (soprano) perform an arrangement by Jenny Lind, a love song in Italian to Chopin's Mazurka in A-flat, Op. 24, n° 3: "Faithful love will never die."
  90. ^ http://www3.euroarts.com/artikel/tvdistribution/?id=005884_fryderyk_chopin
  91. ^ "Answers.com" . Answers.com . http://www.answers.com/topic/chopin-opera . Retrieved 14 February 2010 .  
  92. ^ "Hark! A Vagrant!" . 17 March 2010 . http://www.harkavagrant.com/index.php?id=302 . Consultado el 17 de marzo de 2010.  

[ editar ] Bibliografía

  • Tad Szulc , Chopin in Paris: the Life and Times of the Romantic Composer , New York, Scribner, 1998, ISBN 0-684-82458-2 .
  • Zdzis?aw Jachimecki , "Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek," Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. III, Kraków, Polska Akademia Umiej?tno?ci , 1937, pp. 420–26.
  • Arthur Hedley et al. , "Chopin, Frédéric (François)," Encyclopædia Britannica , 15th ed., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 263–64.
  • Édouard Ganche , Frédéric Chopin: sa vie et ses œuvres (Frédéric Chopin: His Life and Works), Mercure de France , 1913.
  • Gastone Belotti , Chopin, l'uomo (Chopin the Man), 3 vols., Milan, Sapere, 1974.
  • Gastone Belotti, Chopin , Turin, EDT , 1984, ISBN 88-7063-033-1 .
  • Gerald Abraham , "Chopin Frédéric," Encyclopedia Americana , 1986 ed., vol. 6, pp. 627–28.
  • Adam Zamoyski , Chopin: a Biography , New York, Doubleday, 1980, ISBN 0-385-13597-1 .
  • Micha?owski, Kornel, and Jim Samson, Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek , Grove Music Online, edited by L. Macy (accessed 31 October 2006) (subscription access)
  • Benita Eisler, Chopin's Funeral , Abacus, 2004.
  • (German) Wuest, Hans Werner (2001). Frédéric Chopin, Briefe und Zeitzeugnisse . Cologne: Classic-Concerts-Verlag. ISBN 3-8311-0066-7 .  
  • [The Book of the Second International Musicological Congress, Warsaw, 10–17 October 1999:] Chopin and His Work in the Context of Culture , studies edited by Irena Poniatowska, vols. 1–2, Warsaw, 2003.
  • (Dutch) Bastet, Frédéric L. (1997). Helse liefde: Biografisch essay over Marie d'Agoult, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, George Sand . Amsterdam: Querido . ISBN 90-214-5157-3 .  
  • Samson, Jim (1996). Chopin . Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816495-5 .  
  • Siepmann, Jeremy (1995). Chopin: The Reluctant Romantic . London: Victor Gollancz. ISBN 0-575-05692-4 .  
  • Samson, Jim. The Cambridge Companion to Chopin. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Jean-Jacques Eigeldinger, Chopin: Pianist and Teacher, as Seen by His Pupils , Cambridge University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-521-36709-3 .
  • Samson, Jim. The Music of Chopin. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
  • André Maurois , Leila: the Life of George Sand , translated by Gerard Hopkins, Penguin, 1980 (c 1953).
  • Jan Zygmunt Jakubowski, ed., Literatura polska od ?redniowiecza to pozytywizmu (Polish Literature from the Middle Ages to Positivism), Warsaw, Pa?stwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe , 1979, ISBN 83-01-00201-8 .
  • George Richard Marek and Maria Gordon-Smith, Chopin: A Biography , New York, Harper & Row, 1978.
  • Chopin's Letters , collected by Henryk Opie?ski, translated by EL Voynich, New York, 1973.
  • The Book of the First International Musicological Congress Devoted [to] the Works of Frederick Chopin, Warsaw, 16–22 February 1960 , edited by Zofia Lissa, Warsaw, PWN, 1963.
  • Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk Chopin , collected and annotated by BE Sydow, translated and edited by Arthur Hedley , London, 1962.
  • Krystyna Kobyla?ska, Chopin in His Own Land: Documents and Souvenirs , Kraków, PWM, 1955.
  • David Ewen, Ewen's Musical Masterworks: The Encyclopedia of Musical Masterpieces , 2nd ed., New York, ARCO Publishing Company, 1954.
  • Artur Szklener, " Fryckowe lato: czyli wakacyjne muzykowanie Chopina " ("Fritz's Summers: Chopin's Musical Vacations"), Magazyn Chopin: Miesi?cznik Narodowego Instytutu Fryderyka Chopina (Chopin Magazine: Monthly of the Fryderyk Chopin National Institute), no. 4, 2010, pp. 8–9.
  • Maria Barcz, " Etiuda paryska " ("Paris Étude"), Gwiazda Polarna (The Pole Star), vol. 101, no. 17 (14 August 2010), pp. 15–16.
  • Chopin and Other Musical Essays (1889) by Henry T. Finck
  • Jeffrey Kallberg, “Chopin in the Marketplace: Aspects of the International Music Publishing Industry in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century,” Notes 39, no. 3 (March 1983): 539.
  • Kazimierz Wierzy?ski , The Life and Death of Chopin , translated from the Polish by Norbert Guterman , foreword by Arthur Rubinstein , New York, Simon and Schuster, 1949.

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