Intel

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Coordenadas : 37 ° 23'16 .54 "N 121 ° 57'48 .74" W / 37.3879278 121.9635389 ° N ° W / 37.3879278; -121.9635389

Intel Corporation
Tipo Compañía pública
Comercializan como NASDAQ : INTC NYSE : INTC
Euronext : INCO SEHK : 4335
Dow Jones de componentes
NASDAQ-100 Componente
Industria Semiconductores
Fundado Mountain View , California, EE.UU. (18 de julio de 1968 (07/18/1968)) [1]
Fundador (s) Gordon Moore , Robert Noyce
Sede Santa Clara , California, EE.UU. [2]
Área de servicio Mundial
Personas clave Paul Otellini (Presidente y Director General)
Jane Shaw (Presidente)
Productos Bluetooth chipsets , memoria flash , los microprocesadores , la placa base chipsets , tarjetas de interfaz de red
Ingresos aumento EE.UU. $ 43.623 millones (2010) [3]
La utilidad de operación aumento EE.UU. $ 16,045 mil millones (2010) [3]
Los ingresos netos aumento EE.UU. $ 11,464 mil millones (2010) [3]
El total de activos aumento EE.UU. $ 63,186 mil millones (2010) [3]
Total patrimonio neto aumento EE.UU. $ 49.430 millones (2010) [3]
Empleados 82.500 (2010) [3]
Sitio web Intel.com

Intel Corporation ( NASDAQ : INTC ) es un americano multinacional empresa de tecnología con sede en Santa Clara , California, Estados Unidos y la más grande del mundo de semiconductores fabricante de chips, con base en los ingresos. [4] Es el inventor de la 86 serie de microprocesadores , los procesadores en la mayoría de los ordenadores personales. Intel fue fundada el 18 de julio de 1968, según Int. egrated El ectronics Corporation (aunque un error muy común es que "Intel" viene de la palabra ligence Intel). Intel también hace que la placa base chipsets , controladores de interfaz de red y circuitos integrados , memoria flash , chips gráficos , procesadores integrados y otros dispositivos relacionados con las comunicaciones y la informática. Fundada por los pioneros de semiconductores Robert Noyce y Gordon Moore y ampliamente asociado con la dirección ejecutiva y la visión de Andrew Grove , de Intel combina capacidades avanzadas de diseño de chips con una capacidad de fabricación de vanguardia. Aunque Intel fue originalmente conocido principalmente a ingenieros y técnicos, su "Intel Inside" campaña publicitaria de la década de 1990 lo hizo y su Pentium nombres de procesadores domésticos.

Intel fue un promotor temprano de SRAM y DRAM chips de memoria, y esto representa la mayor parte de su negocio hasta el año 1981. Mientras que Intel creó el primer chip microprocesador comercial en 1971, no fue hasta el éxito de la computadora personal (PC) que se convirtió en su principal negocio. Durante la década de 1990, Intel invirtió fuertemente en el diseño de un nuevo microprocesador fomentar el rápido crecimiento de la industria de la computación . Durante este período de Intel se convirtió en la dominante proveedor de microprocesadores para PCs, y era conocido por tácticas agresivas e ilegales a veces en defensa de su posición en el mercado, en particular contra Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), así como una lucha con Microsoft por el control de la dirección de la industria del PC. ??[5] [6] El ranking 2010 de las 100 marcas más poderosas del mundo, publicado por Millward Brown Optimor mostró el valor de la empresa de la marca en el número 48. [7]

Intel también ha comenzado la investigación en la transmisión eléctrica y la generación. [8] [9] Intel ha introducido recientemente un transistor de 3-D que pueden mejorar el rendimiento y la eficiencia energética. [10] Intel será la producción masiva de este transistor de 3-D, llamado Tri -Puerta de transistores, con su proceso de 22 nm próximo en un futuro próximo. [11] En 2011, SpectraWatt Inc., un spin-off de células solares de Intel, se declaró en bancarrota bajo el Capítulo 11. [12]

Contenido

[ editar ] Historia de la empresa

[ editar ] Orígenes

Intel sede en Santa Clara, California, EE.UU.

Intel fue fundada en Mountain View, California en 1968 por Gordon E. Moore (la " Ley de Moore ", la fama, un químico y físico ), Robert Noyce (un físico y co-inventor del circuito integrado ), y Roca Arthur (inversor y capitalista de riesgo ). Moore y Noyce había dos vienen de Fairchild Semiconductor fueron los dos primeros empleados, y Aurthur era un inversor (no un empleado), pero fue Presidente de la Junta . [13] [14] La inversión total inicial de Intel fue $ 2,5 millones convertible obligaciones y $ 10.000 de Rock. A tan sólo 2 años más tarde, Intel completa su oferta pública inicial (IPO) la recaudación de $ 6,8 millones (23,50 dólares por acción). [13] tercer empleado de Intel fue Andy Grove , [15] un ingeniero químico , que más tarde dirigió la compañía durante la mayor parte de la década de 1980 y la década de 1990 de alto crecimiento.

Moore y Noyce inicialmente quisieron llamar a la compañía "Moore Noyce". [16] El nombre, sin embargo, era un homófono de "más ruido" - un nombre poco adecuado para una electrónica de la empresa, ya que el ruido en electrónica suele ser muy indeseable y normalmente se asocia con mala interferencia . En su lugar, utilizó el nombre de NM Electronics durante casi un año, antes de decidirse a llamar a su compañía Int. egrated El ectronics o "Intel" para abreviar. [17] Puesto que "Intel" ya estaba registrado por el Intelco cadena hotelera, que tenían que comprar el derechos para el nombre. [13] [18]

[ editar ] Primeros años

En su fundación, Intel se distinguió notablemente por su capacidad para hacer semiconductores y su primer producto en 1969 fue el 3101 Schottky bipolar memoria de acceso aleatorio (RAM). Ese mismo año, Intel produjo los primeros semiconductores de óxido metálico (MOS) estática memoria de acceso aleatorio (SRAM) fichas. [13] [19] el negocio de Intel creció durante la década de 1970, ya que amplió y mejoró sus procesos de fabricación y produce una amplia gama de productos , sigue estando dominado por los dispositivos de memoria diferentes.

Mientras que Intel creó el primer microprocesador comercial (Intel 4004) en 1971 [13] y uno de los primeros microordenadores en 1972, [20] [19] A principios de 1980 su negocio estaba dominado por dinámicas de acceso aleatorio memoria de los chips. Sin embargo, la creciente competencia de los fabricantes de semiconductores japoneses, en 1983, redujo drásticamente la rentabilidad de este mercado, y el repentino éxito de la IBM PC convencido entonces CEO Andrew Grove para cambiar el foco de la compañía de microprocesadores, y para cambiar los aspectos fundamentales de la que modelo de negocio.

A finales de la década de 1980 esta decisión había tenido éxito. Alentado por su posición como proveedor fortuito microprocesador de IBM y sus competidores en el mercado de las computadoras personales de rápido crecimiento , Intel se embarcó en un período de 10 años de crecimiento sin precedentes como el proveedor de hardware principal (y más rentables) para la industria del PC. Con el lanzamiento de su Intel Inside campaña de marketing en 1991, Intel fue capaz de asociar lealtad a la marca con la selección de los consumidores, de modo que a finales de la década de 1990, su línea de Pentium los procesadores se había convertido en un nombre familiar.

[ editar ] desaceleración de la demanda y los desafíos a la dominación

Después de 2000, el crecimiento de la demanda de gama alta de microprocesadores disminuyó. Competidores, en particular, AMD (el mayor competidor de Intel en su principal arquitectura x86 del mercado), ganó cuota de mercado significativa, en un principio en los procesadores de gama baja y gama media, pero en última instancia, toda la gama de productos, y la posición dominante de Intel en su mercado principal se redujo considerablemente. [21] En la década de 2000 el entonces CEO Craig Barrett trató de diversificar el negocio de la compañía más allá de los semiconductores, pero algunas de estas actividades fueron finalmente exitosas.

Intel también había un número de años que ha envuelto en un litigio. EE.UU. ley inicialmente no reconoció los derechos de propiedad intelectual relacionados con el microprocesador topología (diseños de circuito), hasta que la Ley de Protección de semiconductores chip de 1984 , una ley que buscaba por Intel y la industria de los semiconductores Association (SIA). [22] Durante los años 1980 y 1990 (después de esta ley fue aprobada) Intel también demandó a las empresas que trataron de desarrollar chips de la competencia a los 80.386 de la CPU . [23] Las demandas se observó que de manera significativa la carga de la competencia con facturas legales, aunque Intel perdió los trajes. [23] Defensa de la Competencia las denuncias que se había estado gestando desde principios de 1990 y ya ha sido la causa de una demanda contra Intel en 1991, volvió a estallar como AMD trajo otra reclamación en contra de Intel en relación con la competencia desleal en el año 2004, y nuevamente en 2005 .

En 2005, el CEO Paul Otellini, reorganizó la compañía a reorientar su procesador central y en las plataformas de negocios chipset (empresa, el hogar digital, salud digital, y la movilidad), que condujo a la contratación de más de 20.000 nuevos empleados. [ cita requerida ] En septiembre de 2006 por a la caída de beneficios, la compañía anunció una reestructuración que resultó en el despido de 10.500 empleados, o alrededor del 10 por ciento de su fuerza laboral en julio de 2006. [ cita requerida ]

[ editar ] La recuperación del impulso

Ante la necesidad de recuperar el impulso perdido mercado, [21] [24] Intel presentó su nuevo modelo de desarrollo de productos para recuperar su liderazgo tecnológico previo. Conocido como el " tic-tac modelo ", el programa se basa en la alternancia anual de la microarquitectura innovación y proceso de innovación.

En 2006, Intel produjo P6 y NetBurst productos con un tamaño reducido morir (65 nm). Un año más tarde se dio a conocer su microarquitectura Core de reconocimiento de la crítica, [25] la gama de productos que se percibía como un salto excepcional en el rendimiento del procesador que de un plumazo recuperado gran parte de su liderazgo en el campo. [26] [27] En el año 2008, vimos otra "señal", Intel introdujo la microarquitectura Penryn, sometidos a un psiquiatra de 65 nm a 45 nm, y al año siguiente vio el lanzamiento de su procesador sucesor analizada positivamente, Nehalem , seguida por otra de silicio se reducen a los 32nm de proceso.

Intel no fue el primer microprocesador corporación para hacer esto. Por ejemplo, alrededor de 1996 diseñadores de chips gráficos nVidia había dirigido a su propio negocio y las dificultades del mercado mediante la adopción de una demanda interna de 6 meses el ciclo del producto , cuyos productos en repetidas ocasiones superaron las expectativas del mercado.

[ editar ] La venta de negocio de procesadores XScale

El 27 de junio de 2006, la venta de Intel XScale activos se anunció. Intel acordó vender el negocio de procesador XScale a Marvell Technology Group por unos US $ 600 millones (Se las compró por $ 1.6billion) en efectivo y la asunción de pasivos sin especificar. La medida tenía por objeto permitir a Intel concentrar sus recursos en sus 86 centrales y las empresas de servidor, y la adquisición completó el 9 de noviembre de 2006. [28]

[ editar ] Adquisiciones

En agosto de 2010, Intel anunció dos importantes adquisiciones. El 19 de agosto, Intel anunció que planea adquirir McAfee , un fabricante de tecnología de seguridad informática. El precio de compra fue de $ 7,68 mil millones, y las empresas, dijo que si el acuerdo se aprobaron los nuevos productos que se publicará a principios de 2011. [29]

Menos de dos semanas después, la compañía anunció la adquisición de Infineon Technologies Wireless Business Solutions. [30] Con la transacción Infineon, Intel planea utilizar la tecnología de la compañía en los ordenadores portátiles, teléfonos inteligentes, netbooks, tabletas y los ordenadores integrados en los productos de consumo, finalmente la integración de su módem inalámbrico en chips de silicio de Intel. [31] Intel ganó la aprobación de la Unión Europea para la regulación de la adquisición de McAfee el 26 de enero de 2011. Intel accedió a garantizar que las empresas competidoras de seguridad tengan acceso a toda la información necesaria que permita a sus productos de usar los chips de Intel y los ordenadores personales. [32]

Tras el cierre de la oferta de McAfee, la fuerza laboral de Intel asciende a unos 90.000, incluidos los (aproximadamente) 12 000 ingenieros de software. [33]

En marzo de 2011, Intel compró la mayor parte de los activos de la sede en El Cairo SySDSoft. [34]

En julio de 2011, Intel anunció que ha acordado adquirir Fulcrum Microsystems Inc., una empresa especializada en conmutadores de red. [35] La compañía se había incluido previamente en EE lista del Times de 60 startups emergentes. [35]

[ editar ] Expansiones

En 2008, Intel escindió los activos clave de un esfuerzo de negocio solar de inicio para formar una compañía independiente, SpetraWatt Inc. Sin embargo, a partir de 2011, SpectraWatt ha declarado en bancarrota. [36]

Febrero 2011: La compañía construirá una fábrica de nuevo microprocesador en Chandler, Arizona , que se espera que esté terminado en 2013 a un costo de $ 5 mil millones. Se tendrá en cuenta 4.000 empleados. La compañía produce tres cuartas partes de sus productos en los Estados Unidos, aunque tres cuartas partes de los ingresos vienen del extranjero. [37] [38]

Abril 2011: Intel Corporation inició un proyecto piloto para producir teléfonos inteligentes con ZTE Corporation para el mercado interno de China. Este proyecto tiene la intención de desafiar la dominación de los procesadores de ARM en los teléfonos móviles. El teléfono inteligente se basa en el procesador Intel Atom procesador. [39]

[ editar ] Descripción e historia del mercado

[ editar ] SRAM y el microprocesador

Primeros productos de la compañía fueron registro de desplazamiento de la memoria y de acceso aleatorio memoria de circuitos integrados, Intel y creció hasta convertirse en un líder en el ferozmente competitivo DRAM , SRAM y ROM mercados a lo largo de la década de 1970. Al mismo tiempo, los ingenieros de Intel Marciano Hoff , Federico Faggin , Stanley Mazor y Shima Masatoshi inventó Intel de microprocesadores . Originalmente desarrollado para la compañía japonesa Busicom para reemplazar a un número de ASICs en una calculadora ya producida por Busicom, el Intel 4004 fue introducido al mercado de masas el 15 de noviembre de 1971, cuando el microprocesador no se convirtió en el núcleo de negocio de Intel hasta mediados de los la década de 1980. (Nota: Intel lo general se administra de crédito con Texas Instruments . para la invención casi simultánea del microprocesador)

[ editar ] A partir de DRAM a los microprocesadores

En 1983, en los albores de la era de las computadoras personales, las ganancias de Intel cayeron bajo la presión creciente de japoneses de chips de memoria, los fabricantes, y el entonces presidente Andy Grove llevó a la compañía en un foco en los microprocesadores. Grove se describe esta transición en el libro Sólo los paranoicos sobreviven . Un elemento clave de su plan era la idea, entonces consideradas radicales, de convertirse en la única fuente para los sucesores de los populares 8086 microprocesador.

Hasta entonces, la fabricación de complejos circuitos integrados no era lo suficientemente confiable para que los clientes dependen de un solo proveedor, pero Grove comenzó a producir en tres fábricas de procesadores geográficamente distintas, y dejó de concesión de licencias de diseños de chips a los competidores como Zilog y AMD . Cuando la industria de PC creció en los años 1980 y 1990, Intel fue uno de los principales beneficiarios.

[ editar ] Intel, los procesadores x86, y el PC de IBM

La muerte de un procesador Intel 8742, un microcontrolador de 8 bits, que incluye una CPU funcionando a 12 MHz, 128 bytes de RAM , 2048 bytes de EPROM , y I / O en el mismo chip.

A pesar de la importancia fundamental de que el microprocesador, el 4004 y sus sucesores el 8008 y el 8080 nunca fueron grandes contribuyentes de ingresos de Intel. Como el procesador que viene, el 8086 (y su variante el 8088) se completó en 1978, Intel se embarcó en una campaña de marketing más importantes y de ventas para ese chip apodado "Crush operación", con la intención de ganar mayor número de clientes para el procesador como sea posible. Una victoria de diseño fue la recién creada IBM PC división, a pesar de la importancia de esto no se realizó plenamente en el momento.

IBM presentó su computadora personal en 1981, y fue rápido éxito. En 1982, Intel creó el 80286 microprocesador, el cual, dos años más tarde, fue utilizado en el IBM PC / AT. Compaq , el primer PC de IBM "clon" del fabricante, produce un sistema de escritorio basado en el procesador más rápido en 1985 y 80.286 en 1986 seguido rápidamente con los primeros 80.386 basado en el sistema, superando a IBM y el establecimiento de un mercado competitivo para PC compatible con los sistemas y el establecimiento de Intel como proveedor de componentes clave.

En 1975 la empresa había iniciado un proyecto para desarrollar un muy avanzado microprocesador de 32 bits, lanzado finalmente en 1981 como el iAPX Intel 432 . El proyecto era demasiado ambicioso y que el procesador no era capaz de cumplir sus objetivos de rendimiento, y no en el mercado. Intel amplió la arquitectura x86 de 32 bits en su lugar. [40] [41]

[ editar ] 386 microprocesador

Durante este período, Andrew Grove dramáticamente redirigido a la compañía, el cierre de gran parte de su memoria DRAM de negocio y dirigir los recursos a la micro empresa. De importancia tal vez mayor fue su decisión de "fuente única", el microprocesador 386. Antes de esto, de fabricación de microprocesadores estaba en su infancia, y los problemas de fabricación con frecuencia reduce o se detiene la producción, la interrupción del suministro a los clientes. Para mitigar este riesgo, estos clientes suelen insistió en que varios fabricantes producir chips que podrían utilizar para garantizar un suministro constante. El 8080 y 8086 series microprocesadores fueron producidos por varias empresas, en particular, AMD. Grove tomó la decisión de no autorizar el diseño 386 a otros fabricantes, en cambio, la producción en tres fábricas geográficamente en Santa Clara , California, Hillsboro , Oregon, y el Phoenix , Arizona, suburbio de Chandler , y convencer a los clientes que ello garantizaría la entrega constante . A medida que el éxito de la Compaq Deskpro 386 de los 386 establecidos como la opción dominante de la CPU, Intel obtuvo una posición de dominio casi exclusivo de su proveedor. Los beneficios de este desarrollo financiados rápido de los dos diseños de chips de alto rendimiento y de alto rendimiento las capacidades de fabricación, impulsando a Intel a una posición de liderazgo indiscutible de la década de 1990.

[ editar ] 486, Pentium e Itanium

Intel introdujo el 486 microprocesador en 1989, y en 1990 se estableció formalmente un equipo de diseño en segundo lugar, el diseño de los procesadores con nombre en código "P5" y "P6" en paralelo y de comprometerse con un nuevo procesador principal cada dos años, frente a los cuatro años o más diseños que haya tenido anteriormente. El P5 era conocido antes como "Operación de bicicletas", en referencia a los ciclos del procesador. El P5 se introdujo en 1993 como el Intel Pentium , la sustitución de un nombre de marca registrada para el número anterior (números, tales como 486, son difíciles de registrar como marca comercial). El P6 seguido en 1995 como el Pentium Pro y mejorados en el Pentium II en 1997. Nuevas arquitecturas se han desarrollado alternativamente en Santa Clara, California y Hillsboro, Oregon .

El equipo de Santa Clara diseño inició en 1993 un sucesor a la arquitectura x86 , con nombre en código "P7". El primer intento fue lanzada un año más tarde, pero rápidamente se revivió en un programa de cooperación con Hewlett-Packard ingenieros, aunque Intel pronto asumió la responsabilidad principal de diseño. La puesta en práctica como resultado de la IA-64 arquitectura de 64 bits fue el Itanium , finalmente introdujo en junio de 2001. El rendimiento del Itanium está ejecutando código heredado x86 no alcanzó las expectativas, y no pudo competir eficazmente con extensiones de 64 bits a la arquitectura original x86, introducida por AMD, llamada x86-64 (aunque Intel usa el nombre de Intel 64, antes EM64T). A partir de 2009, Intel continúa para desarrollar y desplegar la plataforma Itanium.

El equipo de Hillsboro diseñó el Willamette procesadores (con nombre en código P67 y P68) que se comercializa como el Pentium 4. [ cita requerida ]

En junio de 2011, Intel va a presentar el primer procesador Pentium móvil, basado en el núcleo Sandy Bridge. El B940, velocidad de reloj de 2 GHz, es más rápido que los actuales o futuros Celeron móvil, a pesar de que es casi idéntico al Celeron dual-core CPU en todos los demás aspectos. [42]

[ editar ] falla de Pentium

En junio de 1994, los ingenieros de Intel descubrieron una falla en el punto flotante apartado de matemáticas del P5 microprocesador Pentium . Bajo ciertas condiciones dependientes de los datos, bits de bajo orden de los resultados de las operaciones de división de punto flotante, sería incorrecto, un error que rápidamente se puede agravar en operaciones de punto flotante de los errores más grandes en cálculos posteriores. Intel corrigió el error en una revisión futura de chips, pero sin embargo se negó a revelar. [ cita requerida ]

En octubre de 1994, el Dr. Thomas Muy bien, profesor de Matemáticas en Lynchburg College descubrió de forma independiente el fallo , y al no recibir respuesta de su investigación a Intel, el 30 de octubre publicó un mensaje en Internet. [43] Palabra del insecto se extendió rápidamente en Internet y luego a la prensa de la industria. Debido a que el fallo era fácil de replicar por un usuario medio (no había una secuencia de números se podía entrar en la calculadora OS para mostrar el error), las declaraciones de Intel que era menor de edad y "ni siquiera una fe de erratas" no fueron aceptadas por computadora muchas los usuarios. Durante Acción de Gracias de 1994, The New York Times publicó un artículo por el periodista John Markoff poniendo de relieve el error. Intel cambió su posición y se ofreció para reemplazar todas las fichas, de forma rápida puesta en marcha de un gran usuario final apoyar la organización. Esto resultó en un cargo de $ 500 millones contra 1994 de Intel ingresos .

Irónicamente, el "defecto Pentium" incidente, la respuesta de Intel a la misma, y ??la cobertura de los medios de comunicación alrededor de propulsión Intel de ser un proveedor de tecnología en general, desconocidos para la mayoría de usuarios de un nombre familiar. Coincidiendo con un incremento en el " Intel Inside "de campaña, el episodio se considera que ha sido un acontecimiento positivo para Intel, el cambio de algunas de sus prácticas de negocios a ser más centrado en el usuario final y la generación de conocimiento público importantes, evitando al mismo tiempo una impresión negativa que dura . [44]

[ editar ] "Intel Inside" y otros programas de 1990

Durante este periodo, Intel llevó a cabo dos importantes programas de apoyo. La primera es ampliamente conocida: la de 1991 " Intel Inside "campaña de marketing y branding. La idea de la marca ingrediente era nuevo en el momento con sólo Nutrasweet y algunos otros intentos de hacer eso. [45] Esta campaña establecido Intel, que había sido un proveedor de componentes poco conocido fuera de la industria del PC, como un nombre familiar.

El segundo programa es poco conocido: Sistemas Group de Intel comenzó, a principios de 1990, de fabricación de PC " madre ", el componente de la placa principal de una computadora personal, y aquella en la que el procesador (CPU) y memoria (RAM) chips conectado. [46] Poco después, Intel comenzó a fabricar totalmente configurado "caja blanca" de los sistemas de las decenas de empresas clon PC que rápidamente se levantó. [ cita requerida ] En su punto máximo a mediados de la década de 1990, Intel fabrica más del 15% de todos los PC, por lo que es el tercer proveedor más grande en ese momento. [ cita requerida ]

Durante la década de 1990, Intel Arquitectura de laboratorio (IAL) fue responsable de muchas de las innovaciones de hardware de la computadora personal, incluido el PCI bus, el bus PCI Express (PCIe) de bus, el bus serie universal (USB), Bluetooth interconexión inalámbrica, y la ahora dominante [ cita requerida ] la arquitectura para servidores multiprocesador [. aclaraciones necesarias ] esfuerzos IAL de software se reunió con un destino más compleja: el vídeo y software de diseño gráfico fue importante en el desarrollo de software de vídeo digital, [ cita requerida ], pero más tarde, sus esfuerzos se eclipsado por la competencia de Microsoft . La competencia entre Intel y Microsoft se reveló en el testimonio de IAL Vicepresidente Steven McGeady en el juicio antimonopolio contra Microsoft .

[ editar ] unidades de estado sólido (SSD)

El 8 de septiembre de 2008, Intel comenzó a vender su primer principales unidades de estado sólido , el X18-M y X25-M con 80GB y 160GB de almacenamiento. [47] Estos MLC unidades basadas recibió el aplauso de la crítica por su desempeño superior. [ 48] [49] [50] [51] Intel lanzó su SLC basada en la empresa E X25-SSD extrema el 15 de octubre de ese mismo año en capacidades de 32GB y 64GB. [52]

En julio de 2009, Intel actualiza su X25-M y X18-M de líneas al pasar de un 50 nanómetros a un proceso de 34 nanómetros. Estas nuevas unidades, apodado por la prensa como el X25-M y X18-M G2 [53] [54] (o la generación de 2), precios reducidos hasta en un 60 por ciento, mientras que ofrece una menor latencia y mayor rendimiento. [55]

El 1 de febrero de 2010, Intel y Micron anunciaron que estaban preparando para la producción de memoria NAND flash usando un nuevo proceso de 25 nanómetros. [56] En marzo de ese mismo año, Intel entró en el segmento de SSD presupuesto con el X25-V unidades con una capacidad inicial de 40 GB. [57] Los 310 SSD, primero de Intel mSATA disco fue lanzado en diciembre de 2010, proporcionando X25-M G2 de rendimiento en un paquete mucho más pequeño. [58] [59]

03 2011 vio la introducción de dos nuevas líneas de SSD de Intel. El primero, el SSD 510, utiliza un SATA de 6 Gigabits por segundo interface con el fin de alcanzar velocidades de hasta 500 megabytes por segundo. [60] El disco, que utiliza un controlador de Marvell, [61] fue lanzado con 34 nm NAND Flash y vino en capacidades de 120GB y 250GB. El anuncio de producto en segundo lugar, el SSD de 320, es el sucesor del anterior de Intel X25-M. Utiliza el nuevo proceso de 25 nm que Intel y Micron anunció en 2010, y fue lanzado en capacidades de 40 GB, 80 GB, 120 GB, 160 GB, 300 GB y 600 GB. [62] el rendimiento de lectura secuencial maxes a 270 MB / s, debido a la mayor SATA de 3 Gb / s interfaz , y el rendimiento de escritura secuencial varía mucho en función del tamaño de la unidad con un rendimiento de escritura secuencial de la modelo de 40 GB alcanzando un máximo de 45 MB / s, y el 600 GB a 220 MB / s . [63]

Micron e Intel anunciaron que iban a producir sus primeros 20 nm flash NAND MLC de 14 de abril de 2011. [64]

Intel SSD
Modelo Nombre en clave Capacidades (GB) NAND tipo Interfaz Factor de forma Controlador Ss. de lectura / escritura MB / s Ronda de 4 KB de lectura / escritura IOPS Introducido Comentario / Fuente
X18-M/X25-M Efraín 80/160 50 nm MLC SATA 3 Gb / s 1.8 "/ 2.5" Intel 250/70 35,000 / 3,300-350 09 2008 (ahora EOL ) [47] [65]
X25-E Efraín 32/64 50 nm SLC SATA 3 Gb / s 2.5 " Intel 250 / 170 35,000 / 3,300 10 2008 [52] [54]
X18-M G2 / X25-M G2 Postville 80/160 34 nm MLC SATA 3 Gb / s 1.8 "/ 2.5" Intel 250 / 100 35,000 / 6,600-300 07 2009 [53] [54]
X25-V Glenbrook 40 25 nm MLC SATA 3 Gb / s 2.5 " Intel 170/35 25000 / 2500 -? 03 2010 [57] [66]
310 Soda Creek 40/80 25 nm MLC mSATA Mini-PCIe Intel 12 2010 [58] [67]
510 Elmcrest 120/250 34 nm MLC SATA 6 Gbit / s 2.5 " Marvell 03 2011 [60] [68]
320 Postville Actualizar 40/80/120/160/300/600 25 nm MLC SATA 3 Gb / s 2.5 " Intel [69] 03 2011 Originalmente para ser lanzado 10 2010, llamado X18-M y X25 G3 M-G3 y el 1,8 "no fue revelada [54] [62] [70]
311 Larsen Creek 20 34 nm SLC SATA 3 Gb / s 2.5 "/ mSATA Intel 200/105 37,000 / 3300 05 2011 Especiales de baja capacidad de SLC SSD para su uso con la tecnología Intel respuesta inteligente [71] [72] [73]
710 Lyndonville 100/200/300 25 nm MLC-HET SATA 3 Gb / s Posiblemente julio 2011 [74] [75]
720 Ramsdale 200/400 34 nm SLC PCIe 2.0x8 PCIe 2200/1800 Posiblemente Q3 de 2011 [74] [75]

[ editar ] Los superordenadores

El procesador Intel Científico división Computación fue fundada en 1984 por Justin Rattner , con el fin de diseñar y producir ordenadores paralelos basados ??en microprocesadores Intel conectados en hipercubo topologías. [76] En 1992 se cambió el nombre a la División de Sistemas de Supercomputación de Intel, y el desarrollo de la iWARP arquitectura fue incluido también. [77] La división diseñado una serie de supercomputadoras de sistemas, incluyendo el IPSC Intel / 1, de IPSC / 2 , iPSC/860 , Paragon y Red ASCI .

[ editar ] La competencia, antimonopolio y de espionaje

Dos factores se combinaron para poner fin a este dominio: la desaceleración de la PC a partir del crecimiento de la demanda en 2000 y el ascenso de los PC de bajo costo. A finales de la década de 1990, un microprocesador de rendimiento ha superado la demanda de software para que el poder de la CPU. Aparte de los sistemas de servidores de gama alta y el software, la demanda de que se redujo con el fin de la " burbuja punto-com ", los sistemas de consumo cada vez más funcionó con eficacia en sistemas de bajo costo a partir de 2000. La estrategia de Intel de producir cada vez más poderosos procesadores y obsolescencia de sus predecesores, tropezó, [ cita requerida ] dejando una oportunidad para un rápido aumento de los competidores, especialmente AMD. Esto a su vez redujo la rentabilidad [ cita requerida ] de la línea de procesadores y puso fin a una era de dominio sin precedentes del hardware de PC de Intel. [ cita requerida ]

El dominio de Intel en el 86 mercado de microprocesadores llevó a numerosos cargos de antimonopolio violaciónes en los últimos años, incluida la FTC investigaciones, tanto en la década de 1980 y en 1999, y las acciones civiles, tales como la demanda de 1997 por Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) y un traje de patente Intergraph . Dominio de Intel en el mercado (en un momento [ cuando? ] que controlaba más del 85% del mercado de microprocesadores de 32 bits x86), combinado con tácticas duras de Intel es legal (por ejemplo, su traje infame patente 338 frente a los fabricantes de PC) [78] lo hizo un blanco atractivo para el litigio, pero algunas de las demandas cada vez a nada. [ aclaración necesaria ]

Un caso de espionaje industrial surgió en 1995, que involucró tanto Intel como AMD. Bill Gaede , un argentino ex empleados, tanto de AMD y de Intel en Arizona central, fue arrestado por intentar en 1993 a vender el i486 y P5 diseños Pentium de AMD y de ciertos foreign powers. [ 79 ] Gaede videotaped data from his computer screen at Intel and mailed it to AMD, which immediately alerted Intel and authorities, resulting in Gaede's arrest. Gaede was convicted and sentenced to 33 months in prison in June 1996. [ 80 ] [ 81 ]

[ edit ] Partnership with Apple

On June 6, 2005, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that Apple would be transitioning from its long favored PowerPC architecture to the Intel x86 architecture, because the future PowerPC road map was unable to satisfy Apple's needs. The first Macintosh computers containing Intel CPUs were announced on January 10, 2006, and Apple had its entire line of consumer Macs running on Intel processors by early August 2006. The Apple Xserve server was updated to Intel Xeon processors from November 2006, and was offered in a configuration similar to Apple's Mac Pro. [ 82 ]

[ edit ] Core 2 Duo advertisement controversy

In 2007, the company released a print advertisement for its Core 2 Duo processor featuring six African American runners appearing to bow down to a Caucasian male inside of an office setting (due to the posture taken by runners on starting blocks ). According to Nancy Bhagat, Vice President of Intel Corporate Marketing, the general public found the ad to be "insensitive and insulting." [ 83 ] The campaign was quickly pulled and several Intel executives made public apologies on the corporate website. [ 84 ]

[ edit ] Classmate PC

Intel's Classmate PC is the company's first low-cost netbook computer.

[ edit ] Mobile processor

In March 2011, Intel introduced the first, and so far the only one, mobile Celeron processor with Sandy Bridge core. [ 85 ]

[ edit ] Plans for tablets and smartphones

Intel planned to introduce Medfield – a processor for tablets and smartphones – to the market in 2012, as an effort to compete with ARM. [ 86 ] As a 32-nanometer processor, Medfield is designed to be energy-efficient, which is one of the core features in ARM's chips. [ 87 ]

[ edit ] Server chips

In July 2011, Intel announced that its server chips will use new sensors that can improve data center cooling efficiency. [ 88 ]

[ edit ] Personal Office Energy Monitor (POEM)

As part of its efforts in the Positive Energy Buildings Consortium, Intel has been developing an application, called Personal Office Energy Monitor (POEM), to help office buildings to be more energy-efficient. With this application, employees can get the power consumption info for their office machines, so that they can figure out a better way to save energy in their working environment. [ 89 ]

[ edit ] IT Manager 3: Unseen Forces

IT Manager III: Unseen Forces is a web-based IT simulation game from Intel. In it you manage a company's IT department. The goal is to apply technology and skill to enable the company to grow from a small business into a global enterprise. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Car Security System

In 2011, Intel announced that it is working on a Car Security system that connects to smartphones via an application. The application works by streaming video to a cloud service if your car is broken into. [ 90 ]

[ edit ] Corporate affairs

In September 2006, Intel had nearly 100,000 employees and 200 facilities world wide. Its 2005 revenues were $38.8 billion and its Fortune 500 ranking was 49th. Its stock symbol is INTC, listed on the NASDAQ . As of February 2009 the biggest customers of Intel are Hewlett-Packard and Dell . [ 91 ]

[ edit ] Leadership and corporate structure

Robert Noyce was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1968, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore in 1975. Andy Grove became the company's President in 1979 and added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became Chairman. In 1998 Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman, and Craig Barrett , already company president, took over. On May 18, 2005, Barrett handed the reins of the company over to Paul Otellini , who previously was the company president and was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM PC . The board of directors elected Otellini CEO, and Barrett replaced Grove as Chairman of the Board . Grove stepped down as Chairman, but is retained as a special adviser. In May 2009, Barrett stepped down as chairman and Jane Shaw was elected as the new Chairman of the Board.

Current members of the board of directors of Intel are Craig Barrett, Charlene Barshefsky , Susan Decker , James Guzy, Reed Hundt , Paul Otellini, James Plummer, David Pottruck, Jane Shaw, John Thornton, and David Yoffie. [ 92 ]

[ edit ] Employment

Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica was responsible in 2006 for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP. [ 93 ]

The firm promotes very heavily from within, most notably in its executive suite. The company has resisted the trend toward outsider CEOs. Paul Otellini was a 30-year veteran of the company when he assumed the role of CEO. All of his top lieutenants have risen through the ranks after many years with the firm. In many cases, Intel's top executives have spent their entire working careers with Intel, a very rare occurrence in volatile Silicon Valley [ citation needed ] .

Intel has a mandatory retirement policy for its CEOs when they reach age 65, Andy Grove retired at 62, while both Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore retired at 58. Grove retired as Chairman and as a member of the board of directors in 2005 at age 68.

No one has an office; everyone, even Otellini, sits in a cubicle . This is designed to promote egalitarianism among employees, but some new hires have difficulty adjusting to this change [ citation needed ] . Intel is not alone in this policy. Dell Computers , Hewlett-Packard and NVIDIA have similar no-office policy.

The company is headquartered in California's Silicon Valley and has operations around the world . Outside of California, the company has facilities in China, Costa Rica, Malaysia , Israel, Ireland, India, Russia and Vietnam , 63 countries and regions internationally. In the US Intel employs significant numbers of people in California, Colorado , Massachusetts , Arizona , New Mexico , Oregon , Texas, Washington , and Utah . In Oregon, Intel is the state's largest private employer with over 15,000 employees, primarily in Hillsboro. [ 94 ] The company is the largest industrial employer in New Mexico while in Arizona the company has over 10,000 employees. [ citation needed ]

Intel invests heavily in research in China and about 100 researchers – or 10% of the total number of researchers from Intel – are located in Beijing. [ 95 ]

In 2011, the Israeli government offered Intel $290 million to expand in the country. As a condition, Intel will have to employ 1,500 more workers in Kiryat Gat and between 600-1000 workers in the north. [ 96 ]

[ edit ] Diversity

Intel has a Diversity Initiative, including employee diversity groups as well as supplier diversity programs. [ 97 ] Like many companies with employee diversity groups, they include groups based on race and nationality as well as sexual identity and religion. In 1994, Intel sanctioned one of the earliest corporate Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender employee groups, [ 98 ] and supports a Muslim employees group, [ 99 ] a Jewish employees group, [ 100 ] and a Bible-based Christian group. [ 101 ] [ 102 ]

Intel received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002. It has maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2005 by Working Mother magazine.

[ edit ] Funding of a school

In Rio Rancho, New Mexico , Intel is the leading employer. [ 103 ] In 1997, a community partnership between Sandoval County and Intel Corporation funded and built Rio Rancho High School . [ 104 ] [ 105 ]

[ edit ] Ultrabook Fund

In 2011, Intel Capital announced a new fund to support startups working on technologies in line with the company's concept for next generation notebooks. [ 106 ] The company is setting aside a $300 million fund to be spent over the next three to four years in areas related to ultrabooks. [ 106 ] Intel announced the ultrabook concept at Computex in 2011. The ultrabook will be a thin notebook that also incorporates tablet features such as a touch screen. [ 106 ]

[ edit ] Finances

Intel stock price, Nov 1986 – Nov 2006

Intel's market capitalization is $122.41 billion (Feb. 22, 2011). It publicly trades on NASDAQ with the symbol INTC. A widely held stock, the following indices include Intel shares: Dow Jones Industrial Average , S&P 500 , NASDAQ-100 , Russell 1000 Index , Russell 1000 Growth Index and SOX (PHLX Semiconductor Sector).

On July 15, 2008, Intel announced that it had achieved the highest earnings in the history of the company during Q2 2008. [ 107 ]

[ edit ] Advertising and brand management

[ edit ] Intel Inside

Intel has become one of the world's most recognizable computer brands following its long-running Intel Inside campaign . The campaign, which started in 1991, was created by Intel marketing manager Dennis Carter. [ 108 ] The five-note jingle was introduced the following year and by its tenth anniversary was being heard in 130 countries around the world. The initial branding agency for the Intel Inside campaign was DahlinSmithWhite Advertising of Salt Lake City . The Intel swirl logo was the work of DahlinSmithWhite art director Steve Grigg under the direction of Intel president and CEO Andy Grove .

The Intel Inside advertising campaign sought public brand loyalty and awareness of Intel processors in consumer computers. [ 109 ] Intel paid some of the advertiser's costs for an ad that used the Intel Inside logo and jingle. [ 110 ]

In 2008, Intel planned to shift the emphasis of its Intel Inside campaign from traditional media such as television and print to newer media such as the Internet. [ 111 ] Intel required that a minimum of 35% of the money it provided to the companies in its co-op program be used for online marketing. [ 111 ] The Intel 2010 annual financial report indicated that $1.8 billion (6% of the gross margin and nearly 16% of the total net income) was allocated to all advertising with Intel Inside being part of that. [ 112 ]

[ edit ] Logos

Intel Brand Logos
Corporate Logo Fecha Intel Inside Logo Fecha Comentarios
Original Intel corporate logo 1968–2005 Original Intel Inside brand logo Intel Pentium with MMX logo 1991–2003 The original "Intel Inside" logo. It was used both stand alone and with the associated processor brand name.
Modified Intel Inside logo with drop "e" Modified Intel Inside logo with included product name 2003–2005 Highly similar Intel Inside logo, but changed to resemble the original Intel logo with lowering of the Intel "e" and changing the typeface.
Intel-logo.svg


Intel Leap ahead.png
2005-presente Intel Core Duo brand logo Intel Core 2 Quad brand logo 2006–2009 Intel phased out the original corporate Intel and Intel Inside logos in favor of a new base Intel logo clearly inspired by the older Intel Inside logo, but omitted the word inside . The typeface was changed to Neo Sans Intel . In some instances the slogan Leap ahead was added to the corporate logo.
Generic Intel Inside with exposed silicon Intel Inside Core i7 variation 2009–2011 In 2009, the Intel Inside logos were updated to a horizontal shape with a visual exposure of silicon below the label to help portray the idea that Intel is in the chips inside the computer. The various brand names were used on this basic shape including Core, i3, i5, i7, Atom, Pentium, and Xeon. Other logos included the names Chipset , Server Board , and Workstation Board .
Intel Inside Core i7 with horizontal exposed silicon Intel Inside Core i7 Extreme Edition with horizontal variation 2011–present The Intel Inside logos are slightly modified to move the exposed silicon image to the middle of the logo. This also moved the inside word up next to the Intel logo more closely associating them. The product brand name is displayed at the bottom of the logo.

Some artists have incorporated Intel brand culture into their works. For example, evil inside or Satan inside stickers, [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Intel inside, idiot outside [ 115 ] and a tombstone with RIP Intel Inside . [ 116 ] The sticker on the supercomputer Hex of Terry Pratchett 's Discworld books reads "Anthill inside".

[ edit ]

The famous D? D? G? D? A? jingle , sonic logo, tag, audio mnemonic ( MP3 file of sonic logo ) was produced by Musikvergnuegen and written by Walter Werzowa from the Austrian 1980s sampling band Edelweiss . [ 117 ] The Sonic logo has undergone substantial changes in tone since the introduction of the Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Core processors, yet keeps the same jingle.

[ edit ] Naming strategy

In 2006, Intel expanded its promotion of open specification platforms beyond Centrino , to include the Viiv media center PC and the business desktop Intel vPro .

In mid January 2006, Intel announced that they were dropping the long running Pentium name from their processors. The Pentium name was first used to refer to the P5 core Intel processors (Pent refers to the 5 in P5,) and was done to circumvent court rulings that prevent the trademarking of a string of numbers, so competitors could not just call their processor the same name, as had been done with the prior 386 and 486 processors. (Both of which had copies manufactured by both IBM and AMD). They phased out the Pentium names from mobile processors first, when the new Yonah chips, branded Core Solo and Core Duo, were released. The desktop processors changed when the Core 2 line of processors were released. By 2009 Intel was using a good-better-best strategy with Celeron being good, Pentium better, and the Intel Core family representing the best the company has to offer. [ 118 ]

According to spokesman Bill Calder, since 2009, Intel has maintained only the Celeron brand, the Atom brand for netbooks and the vPro lineup for businesses. Upcoming processors will carry the Intel Core brand, but will be known as the Intel Core i7, or Core i3 depending on their segment of the market. vPro products will carry the Intel Core i7 vPro processor or the Intel Core i5 vPro processor name. [ 119 ] Intel Core i7 is featured in MSI's 14-inch X460 - the lightest laptop that uses core i7 processor, according to MSI. [ 120 ]

Beginning in 2010 "Centrino" will only be applied to Intel's WiMAX and Wi-Fi technologies; it won't be a PC brand anymore. This will be an evolutionary process taking place over time, Intel acknowledges that multiple brands will be in the market including older ones throughout the transition. [ 119 ]

[ edit ] Open source support

Intel has a significant participation in the open source communities. For example, in 2006 Intel released MIT-licensed X.org drivers for their integrated graphic cards of the i965 family of chipsets. Intel released FreeBSD drivers for some networking cards, [ 121 ] available under a BSD-compatible license, which were also ported to OpenBSD . Intel ran the Moblin project until April 23, 2009, when they handed the project over to the Linux Foundation . Intel also runs the LessWatts.org campaigns. [ 122 ]

However, after the release of the wireless products called Intel Pro/Wireless 2100, 2200BG/2225BG/2915ABG and 3945ABG in 2005, Intel was criticized for not granting free redistribution rights for the firmware that must be included in the operating system for the wireless devices to operate. [ 123 ] As a result of this, Intel became a target of campaigns to allow free operating systems to include binary firmware on terms acceptable to the open source community. Linspire - Linux creator Michael Robertson outlined the difficult position that Intel was in releasing to open source , as Intel did not want to upset their large customer Microsoft . [ 124 ] Theo de Raadt of OpenBSD also claimed that Intel is being "an Open Source fraud" after an Intel employee presented a distorted view of the situation on an open-source conference. [ 125 ] In spite of the significant negative attention Intel received as a result of the wireless dealings, the binary firmware still has not gained a license compatible with free software principles.

[ edit ] Environmental record

In 2003, there were 1.4 tons of carbon tetrachloride measured from one of Intel's many acid scrubbers. However, Intel reported no release of carbon tetrachloride for all of 2003. [ 126 ] Intel's facility in Rio Rancho, New Mexico overlooks a nearby village, and the hilly contours of its location create a setting for chemical gases heavier than air to move along arroyos and irrigation ditches in that village. Release of chemicals in such an environment reportedly caused adverse effects in both animals and humans. Deceased dogs in the area were found to have high levels of toluene , hexane , ethylbenzene , and xylene isomers in lungs. [ 127 ] More than 1,580 pounds (720 kg) of VOC were released in June and July 2006, the company stated. [ 128 ] Intel's environmental performance is published annually in their corporate responsibility report. [ 129 ]

[ edit ] Religious controversy

Orthodox Jews have protested against Intel operating in Israel on Saturday, Shabbat . Intel ringed its office with barbed wire before the protest, but there was no violence. [ 130 ] As of December 2009, the situation has been stable for Intel Israel while some employees reported working overtime on Shabbat .

[ edit ] Age discrimination

Intel has faced complaints of age discrimination in firing and layoffs. Intel was sued by nine former employees, over allegations that they were laid off because they were over the age of 40. [ 131 ]

A group called FACE Intel (Former and Current Employees of Intel) claims that Intel weeds out older employees. FACE Intel claims that more than 90 percent of people who have been terminated by Intel are over the age of 40. Upside magazine requested data from Intel breaking out its hiring and terminations by age, but the company declined to provide any. [ 132 ] Intel has denied that age plays any role in Intel's employment practices. [ 133 ] FACE Intel was founded by Ken Hamidi, who was terminated by Intel in 1995 at the age of 47. [ 132 ] Hamidi was blocked in a 1999 court decision from using Intel's email system to distribute criticism of the company to employees. [ 134 ]

[ edit ] Competition

In the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors (10th in 1987) in the world. In 1991, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position ever since. Other top semiconductor companies include AMD, Samsung , Texas Instruments , Toshiba and STMicroelectronics .

Competitors in PC chip sets include AMD, VIA Technologies , SiS , and Nvidia . Intel's competitors in networking include Freescale , Infineon , Broadcom , Marvell Technology Group and AMCC , and competitors in flash memory include Spansion , Samsung , Qimonda , Toshiba , STMicroelectronics , and Hynix .

The only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time. [ 135 ] However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover. [ 136 ] Some smaller competitors such as VIA and Transmeta produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment.

[ edit ] Lawsuits

Intel has often been accused by competitors of using legal claims to thwart competition. Intel claims that it is defending its intellectual property. Intel has been plaintiff and defendant in numerous legal actions.

In September 2005, Intel filed a response to an AMD lawsuit , [ 137 ] disputing AMD's claims, and claiming that Intel's business practices are fair and lawful. In a rebuttal, Intel deconstructed AMD's offensive strategy and argued that AMD struggled largely as a result of its own bad business decisions, including underinvestment in essential manufacturing capacity and excessive reliance on contracting out chip foundries. [ 138 ] Legal analysts predicted the lawsuit would drag on for a number of years, since Intel's initial response indicated its unwillingness to settle with AMD. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] In 2008 a court date was finally set, [ 141 ] but in 2009 Intel settled with a $1.25 billion payout to AMD (see below). [ 142 ]

In October 2006, a Transmeta lawsuit was filed against Intel for patent infringement on computer architecture and power efficiency technologies. [ 143 ] The lawsuit was settled in October 2007, with Intel agreeing to pay US$150 million initially and US$20 million per year for the next five years. Both companies agreed to drop lawsuits against each other, while Intel was granted a perpetual non-exclusive license to use current and future patented Transmeta technologies in its chips for 10 years. [ 144 ]

On November 4, 2009, New York's attorney general filed an antitrust lawsuit against Intel Corp, claiming the company used "illegal threats and collusion" to dominate the market for computer microprocessors.

On November 12, 2009, AMD agreed to drop the antitrust lawsuit against Intel in exchange for $1.25 billion. [ 142 ] A joint press release published by the two chip makers stated "While the relationship between the two companies has been difficult in the past, this agreement ends the legal disputes and enables the companies to focus all of our efforts on product innovation and development." [ 145 ] [ 146 ]

[ edit ] Anti-competitive allegations

[ editar ] Japón

In 2005, the local Fair Trade Commission found that Intel violated the Japanese Antimonopoly Act . The commission ordered Intel to eliminate discounts that had discriminated against AMD. To avoid a trial, Intel agreed to comply with the order. [ 147 ] [ 148 ] [ 149 ] [ 150 ]

[ edit ] European Union

In July 2007, the European Commission accused Intel of anti-competitive practices , mostly against AMD . [ 151 ] The allegations, going back to 2003, include giving preferential prices to computer makers buying most or all of their chips from Intel, paying computer makers to delay or cancel the launch of products using AMD chips, and providing chips at below standard cost to governments and educational institutions. [ 152 ] Intel responded that the allegations were unfounded and instead qualified its market behavior as consumer-friendly. [ 152 ] General counsel Bruce Sewell responded that the Commission had misunderstood some factual assumptions as to pricing and manufacturing costs. [ 153 ]

In February 2008, Intel stated that its office in Munich had been raided by European Union regulators. Intel reported that it was cooperating with investigators. [ 154 ] Intel faced a fine of up to 10% of its annual revenue, if found guilty of stifling competition. [ 155 ] AMD subsequently launched a website promoting these allegations. [ 156 ] [ 157 ] In June 2008, the EU filed new charges against Intel. [ 158 ] In May 2009, the EU found that Intel had engaged in anti-competitive practices and subsequently fined Intel €1.06 billion (US$1.44 billion), a record amount. Intel was found to have paid companies, including Acer , Dell , HP , Lenovo and NEC , [ 159 ] to exclusively use Intel chips in their products, and therefore harmed other companies including AMD. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] [ 161 ] The European Commission said that Intel had deliberately acted to keep competitors out of the computer chip market and in doing so had made a "serious and sustained violation of the EU's antitrust rules". [ 159 ] In addition to the fine, Intel was ordered by the Commission to immediately cease all illegal practices. [ 159 ] Intel has stated that they will appeal against the Commission's verdict. [ 159 ]

[ editar ] Corea del Sur

In September 2007, South Korean regulators accused Intel of breaking antitrust law. The investigation began in February 2006, when officials raided Intel's South Korean offices. The company risked a penalty of up to 3% of its annual sales, if found guilty. [ 162 ] In June 2008, the Fair Trade Commission ordered Intel to pay a fine of US$25.5 million for taking advantage of its dominant position to offer incentives to major Korean PC manufacturers on the condition of not buying products from AMD. [ 163 ]

[ editar ] Estados Unidos

New York started an investigation of Intel in January 2008 on whether the company violated antitrust laws in pricing and sales of its microprocessors. [ 164 ] In June 2008, the Federal Trade Commission also began an antitrust investigation of the case. [ 165 ] In December 2009 the FTC announced it would initiate an administrative proceeding against Intel in September 2010. [ 166 ] [ 167 ] [ 168 ] [ 169 ]

In November 2009, following a two year investigation, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo sued Intel, accusing them of bribery and coercion, claiming that Intel bribed computer makers to buy more of their chips than those of their rivals, and threatened to withdraw these payments if the computer makers were perceived as working too closely with its competitors. Intel has denied these claims. [ 170 ]

On July 22, 2010, Dell agreed to a settlement with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to pay $100M in penalties resulting from charges that Dell did not accurately disclose accounting information to investors. In particular, the SEC charged that from 2002 to 2006, Dell had an agreement with Intel to receive rebates in exchange for not using chips manufactured by AMD. These substantial rebates were not disclosed to investors, but were used to help meet investor expectations regarding the company's financial performance; the SEC said that in the first quarter of 2007 they amounted to 70% of Dell's operating income. Dell eventually did adopt AMD as a secondary supplier in 2006, and Intel subsequently stopped their rebates, causing Dell's financial performance to fall. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] [ 173 ]

[ edit ] Market share

According to IDC , while Intel still enjoys the most market share in both the overall worldwide PC microprocessor market (79.3%) and the mobile PC microprocessor (84.4%) in the second quarter of 2011, the numbers decreased by 1.5% and 1.9% compared to the first quarter. [ 174 ] [ 175 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

  1. ^ "The History of Intel" . 2009—2010 . http://www.webhostingreport.com/learn/intel.html . Retrieved November 29, 2010 .  
  2. ^ Intel Corporation Company Profile . Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "2010 Form 10-K, Intel Corporation" . US Securities and Exchange  
  4. ^ "Intel 2007 Annual Report" . Intel . Retrieved July 6, 2011 .  
  5. ^ Goodin, Dan (September 23, 1998). "Microsoft's holy war on Java" . news.com (CNET News.com) . http://www.news.com/2009-1001-215854.html . Retrieved January 7, 2008 .  
  6. ^ Graham, Lea (December 14, 1998). "USA versus Microsoft: the fourth week" . BBC News . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/04/98/microsoft/215645.stm . Retrieved January 7, 2008 .  
  7. ^ "Brandz Ranking 2010" . Millward Brown Optimor . 2010 . http://www.millwardbrown.com/Sites/mbOptimor/Ideas/BrandZTop100/BrandZTop100.aspx . Retrieved June 22, 2010 .  
  8. ^ AFP (August 21, 2008). "Intel cuts electric cords with wireless power system" . Google . http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iSCa-6QNqHQ7MfRAjCk2vPtCvzOQ . Retrieved July 10, 2011 .  
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