Judaísmo

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Judaísmo
Portal | Categoría
Movimientos religiosos judíos
Ortodoxas ( Haredi · jasídico · Moderno )
Conservador · Reforma
Caraíta · reconstruccionista · Renovación · humanista
La filosofía judía
Principios de la fe · Cábala · Mesías · Ética
Pueblo elegido · Nombres de Dios · Musar
Los textos religiosos
Tanaj ( Torá · Nevi'im · Ketuvim )
?umash · Siddur · Piyutim · Zohar
Rabínica literatura ( Talmud · Midrash · Tosefta )
Ley religiosa
Mishné Torá · Tur
Shulján Aruj · Mishná Berurah
Kashrut · Tzniut · Tzedaká · Nidda · Noé leyes
Santo ciudades
Jerusalén · Safed · Hebrón · Tiberias
Figuras importantes
Abraham · Isaac · Jacob
Moisés · Aaron · David · Salomón
Sarah · Rebeca · Raquel · Leah
Ciclo de vida de los judíos
Brit · Pidión haben · Bar / Bat Mitzvah
Matrimonio · Duelo
Los sabios rabínicos
Chazal ( Tannaim · Amoraim · Savoraim )
Gueonim · Rishonim · Ajaronim
Funciones religiosas
Rabino · Rebe · Posek · Hazzan / Cantor
Dayan · Rosh Ieshivá · Mohel · Kohen / Sacerdote
Edificios religiosos y las instituciones
Sinagoga · Bet Midrash · Mikveh
Sucá · Chevra kadishá
Santo Templo / Tabernáculo
La educación judía
Yeshiva · Kollel · jeder
Artículos religiosos
Sefer Torá · Tallit · Tefilín · Tzitzit · Kippah
Mezuzá · Hanukiah / Menorah · Shofar
4 Especies · Kittel · Gartel
Oraciones judías y servicios
Shema · Amidá · Aleinu · Kadish · Minyan
Birkat Hamazón · Sheejeianu · Hallel
Havdalá · Tachanun · Kol Nidre · Selijot
El judaísmo y otras religiones
Cristianismo · Islam · judeo-cristiana
Religiones abrahámicas · Pluralismo · Otros
Temas relacionados
Antisemitismo · Crítica · Holocausto · Israel · sionismo
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El judaísmo es la " religión , la filosofía y forma de vida "de la gente judía . [1] de origen en la Biblia Hebrea (también conocido como el Tanaj ) y explorado en textos posteriores como el Talmud , que es considerado por los Judios que se la expresión de la relación del pacto de Dios desarrollado con el pueblo de Israel . De acuerdo a la tradicional judaísmo rabínico , Dios reveló sus leyes y mandamientos a Moisés en el Monte Sinaí en forma de tanto por escrito y oral de la Torá . [2] Esto fue cuestionado históricamente por los caraítas , un movimiento que floreció en la época medieval, conserva algunos miles de seguidores de hoy y sostiene que sólo la Torá Escrita fue revelado. [3] En los tiempos modernos, los movimientos liberales como Judaísmo Humanista puede ser no-teísta. [4]

El judaísmo afirma una continuidad histórica que abarca más de 3.000 años . Es uno de los más antiguos monoteístas religiones, [5] y el más antiguo de sobrevivir en el día de hoy. [6] [7] Los hebreos / israelitas que ya se mencionaban como Judios en los últimos libros del Tanaj , como el Libro de Ester , con los Judios plazo reemplazar el título de "Hijos de Israel." [8] del judaísmo textos, tradiciones y valores fuertemente influenciado más tarde las religiones abrahámicas , incluyendo el cristianismo , el Islam y la Fe Bahá'í . [9] [10] Muchos aspectos del judaísmo también han influido directa o indirectamente secular occidental la ética y el derecho civil. [11]

Judios son un grupo de ethnoreligious [12] y se incluyen los nacidos judíos y conversos al judaísmo. En 2010, la población judía mundial se estimó en 13,4 millones, o aproximadamente el 0,2% de la población mundial total. Alrededor del 42% de todos los Judios residen en Israel y alrededor del 42% residen en el Estados Unidos y Canadá , con la mayoría de los que viven en el resto de Europa . [13] El más grande los movimientos religiosos judíos son el judaísmo ortodoxo ( Hareidi el judaísmo y el judaísmo ortodoxo moderno ), El judaísmo conservador y el judaísmo reformista . Una fuente importante de diferencia entre estos grupos es su enfoque de la ley judía . [14] El judaísmo ortodoxo sostiene que la Torá y la ley judía son de origen divino, eterno e inalterable, y que debe ser seguido estrictamente. Conservador y el judaísmo reformista son más liberales, con el judaísmo conservador en general, la promoción de una interpretación "tradicional" del judaísmo de los requisitos de la Reforma del Judaísmo. Una posición típica es la reforma que la ley judía debe ser visto como un conjunto de directrices generales y no como un conjunto de restricciones y obligaciones cuyo cumplimiento se requiere de todos los Judios. [15] [16] Históricamente, los tribunales especiales aplican la ley judía , hoy en día, estos tribunales siguen existiendo, pero la práctica del judaísmo es voluntaria. [17] Autoridad sobre cuestiones teológicas y jurídicas no corresponde a ninguna persona u organización, pero en los textos sagrados y de los muchos rabinos y estudiosos que interpretan estos textos. [18 ]

Contenido

Carácter y la definición de los principios de la fe

Definir el carácter

Bandeja de cristal con la inscripción de la palabra hebrea zakhreinu - vamos a recordar

A diferencia de otros antiguos Cerca de dioses orientales, el Dios de los hebreos se presenta como única y solitaria, en consecuencia, las principales relaciones del Dios de los hebreos no están con otros dioses, sino con el mundo y, más concretamente, con el pueblo que Él creó. [19] el judaísmo por lo tanto comienza con un monoteísmo ético:. la creencia de que Dios es uno, y preocupados por las acciones de la humanidad [20] De acuerdo con la Biblia hebrea, Dios prometió a Abraham . para hacer de sus descendientes una gran nación [21] Muchas generaciones después, ordenó a la nación de Israel a amar y adorar a un solo Dios;. es decir, la nación judía es de corresponder la preocupación de Dios para el mundo [22] Él también ordenó al pueblo judío a amarnos unos a otros, es decir, Judios son de imitar a Dios es amor por la gente. [23] Estos mandamientos son sólo dos de un gran corpus de mandamientos y leyes que conforman esta alianza , que es la sustancia del judaísmo.

Por lo tanto, aunque existe una tradición esotérica del judaísmo ( la Cábala ), erudito rabínico Max Kadushin ha caracterizado el judaísmo normativo como "misticismo normal", porque se trata de todos los días las experiencias personales de Dios a través de formas o modos que son comunes a todos los Judios. [ 24] Esto se desarrolla a través de la observancia de las halajot y teniendo en cuenta la expresión verbal en el Birkat Ha-Mizvot , las bendiciones corto que se habla cada vez que un mandamiento positivo es que se cumplan.

Lo común, las cosas familiares, todos los días y sucesos, hemos constituyen ocasiones para la experiencia de Dios. Cosas tales como su sustento diario, el mismo día en sí mismo, se sienten como manifestaciones de Dios misericordia, pidiendo la Berajot. Kedushah, la santidad, que es otra cosa que la imitación de Dios, tiene que ver con la conducta diaria, de ser amable y misericordioso, con el mantenimiento de uno mismo de contaminación por la idolatría, el adulterio y el derramamiento de sangre. La Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evoca la conciencia de la santidad en un rito rabínica, pero los objetos empleados en la mayoría de estos ritos no son santo y de carácter general, mientras que los objetos sagrados varios no teúrgica. Y no sólo hacer las cosas ordinarias y sucesos traen consigo la experiencia de Dios. Todo lo que sucede a un hombre que evoca la experiencia, el mal como el bien, para un Berakah se dice también en malas nuevas. Por lo tanto, aunque la experiencia de Dios es como ninguna otra, las ocasiones para disfrutar de él, por tener una conciencia de él, son múltiples, incluso si tenemos en cuenta sólo aquellos que requieren Berakot. [25]

Mientras que los filósofos judíos a menudo el debate de si Dios es inmanente o trascendente, y si las personas tienen libre albedrío y su vida se determina, Halajá es un sistema mediante el cual cualquier Judio actos a llevar a Dios en el mundo.

El monoteísmo ético es fundamental en todos los textos sagrados del judaísmo o normativo. Sin embargo, el monoteísmo no siempre se ha seguido en la práctica. La Biblia judía ( Tanaj ) y los registros condena repetidamente la adoración generalizada de los otros dioses en el antiguo Israel . [26] En la época greco-romana, muchas interpretaciones diferentes del monoteísmo existía en el judaísmo, incluyendo las interpretaciones que dieron origen al cristianismo. [27 ]

Por otra parte, como una religión no-credo, algunos han argumentado que el judaísmo no requiere que uno crea en Dios. Para algunos, la observancia de la ley judía es más importante que la creencia en Dios por sí mismo. [28] En los tiempos modernos, algunos movimientos judíos liberales no aceptan la existencia de una deidad personificada activo en la historia. [29]

Principios básicos

13 Principios de Fe:

  1. Yo creo con fe que el Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre, es el Creador y Guía de todo lo que se ha creado, Él solo ha hecho, que lo hace, y hará todas las cosas.
  2. Yo creo con fe que el Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre, es Uno, y que no hay ninguna unidad de ninguna manera como la suya, y que sólo Él es nuestro Dios, que fue, es y será.
  3. Yo creo con fe que el Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre, no tiene cuerpo, y que está libre de todas las propiedades de la materia, y que no puede haber comparación (física) a lo que sea.
  4. Yo creo con fe que el Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre, es el primero y el último.
  5. Yo creo con fe perfecta que al Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre, y sólo a Él, que es derecho de rezar, y que no es derecho a rezar a un ser fuera de él.
  6. Yo creo con fe perfecta que todas las palabras de los profetas son verdaderas.
  7. Creo con fe firme que la profecía de Moisés, nuestro maestro, la paz sea con él , era cierto, y que él era el jefe de los profetas, tanto los que le precedieron y los que le seguían.
  8. Yo creo con fe perfecta que toda la Torá que está en nuestro poder es la misma que fue dada a Moisés, nuestro maestro, la paz sea con él.
  9. Yo creo con fe perfecta que esta Torah no será cambiada, y que nunca habrá ninguna otra Torá del Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre.
  10. Yo creo con fe que el Creador, Bendito sea Su nombre, conoce todos los hechos de los seres humanos y todos sus pensamientos, como está escrito: "¿Quién formó el corazón de todos ellos, que comprende todas sus acciones" ( Salmos 33: 15).
  11. Yo creo con fe que el Creador, Bendito sea Su Nombre, recompensa a los que guardan sus mandamientos y castiga a aquellos que las transgreden.
  12. Creo con perfecta fe en la venida del Mesías , y aunque puede permanecer, sin embargo, espero todos los días para su venida.
  13. Yo creo con fe perfecta que habrá una resurrección de los muertos en el momento en que le plazca al Creador, Bendito sea Su nombre, y su mención será ensalzado por los siglos de los siglos.
- Maimónides

Los eruditos a lo largo de la historia judía han propuesto numerosas formulaciones de principios fundamentales del judaísmo, todo lo cual se han reunido con la crítica. [30] La formulación más común es Maimónides ' trece principios de fe , desarrollada en el siglo 12. De acuerdo a Maimónides, cualquier Judio para rechazar incluso uno de estos principios sería considerado un apóstata y hereje. [31] [32] Los eruditos judíos han mantenido puntos de vista divergentes en varios aspectos de los principios de Maimónides. [33] [34]

En tiempo de Maimónides, su lista de postulados ha sido criticada por Hasday Crescas y Joseph Albo . Albo y Raavad la afirmarse que los principios de Maimónides contiene también muchos artículos que, aunque es cierto, no fueron los fundamentos de la fe.

En este sentido, el antiguo historiador Josefo hizo hincapié en las prácticas y observancias en lugar de las creencias religiosas, la asociación de la apostasía con la inobservancia de la ley judía y el mantenimiento que los requisitos para la conversión al judaísmo incluye la circuncisión y la observancia de las costumbres tradicionales. Principios de Maimónides fueron ignoradas durante los próximos siglos. [35] Más tarde, las dos regularizaciones poética de estos principios (" Ani Ma'amin "y" Yigdal ") se integraron en muchas liturgias judía, [36] [ cita requerida ] los principales a su eventual aceptación casi universal. [37] [38]

En los tiempos modernos, el judaísmo no tiene una autoridad central que dictaría un dogma religioso exacta. [18] [39] Debido a esto, muchas variaciones en las creencias básicas se consideran dentro del ámbito del judaísmo. [33] A pesar de ello, todos los judíos movimientos religiosos son, en mayor o menor medida, en base a los principios de la Biblia hebrea y comentarios diversos, como el Talmud y el Midrash . El judaísmo también reconoce universalmente la Biblia Pacto entre Dios y el patriarca Abraham , así como los aspectos adicionales del Pacto reveló a Moisés , quien es considerado el más grande del judaísmo profeta . [33] [40] [41] [42] [43] En el Mishnah , un texto fundamental del judaísmo rabínico , la aceptación de los orígenes divinos de este pacto se considera un aspecto esencial del judaísmo y los que rechazan la Alianza perderá su participación en el mundo vienen a . [44]

Los textos religiosos judíos

La siguiente es una lista básica, estructura de las obras centrales de la práctica y el pensamiento judío.

La literatura judía legal

La base de la ley y la tradición judía (halajá) es la Torá (también conocido como el Pentateuco o los cinco libros de Moisés). Según la tradición rabínica hay 613 mandamientos de la Torá. Algunas de estas leyes están dirigidas sólo a los hombres oa las mujeres, algunos sólo para los grupos sacerdotales antiguos, los Cohanim y Leviyim (miembros de la tribu de Levi ), algunos sólo a los agricultores dentro de la Tierra de Israel . Muchas leyes sólo se aplican cuando el Templo de Jerusalén existía, y menos de 300 de estos mandamientos siguen siendo aplicables hoy en día.

Si bien ha habido grupos judíos cuyas creencias se afirma que se basará en el texto escrito de la Torá solo (por ejemplo, los saduceos , y los caraítas ), la mayoría de los Judios cree en lo que ellos llaman la ley oral . Estas tradiciones orales transmitidas por el fariseo secta del judaísmo antiguo, y se registraron más tarde en forma escrita y ampliada por los rabinos.

El judaísmo rabínico (que deriva de los fariseos) ha sostenido siempre que los libros de la Torá (llamada ley escrita) siempre han sido transmitidos en paralelo con una tradición oral. Para justificar este punto de vista, punto de Judios en el texto de la Torá, en donde muchas palabras se deja sin definir, y muchos de los procedimientos mencionados sin dar explicaciones o instrucciones, lo que, según ellos, significa que el lector se supone que esté familiarizado con los detalles de otros, es decir, oral, las fuentes. Este conjunto paralelo de material fue transmitido originalmente por vía oral, y llegó a ser conocido como "la ley oral ".

En el momento del rabino Judá HaNasi (200 CE), después de la destrucción de Jerusalén, gran parte de este material fue editado junto a la Mishná . Durante los siguientes cuatro siglos, esta ley se sometieron a discusión y debate en las dos principales comunidades judías del mundo (en Israel y Babilonia ), y los comentarios de la Mishná de cada una de estas comunidades con el tiempo llegó a ser editado, junto a las compilaciones conocidas como los dos Talmud . Estos han sido expuestas por los comentarios de varios estudiosos de la Torá durante las edades.

Halajá, la forma rabínica judía de la vida, entonces, se basa en una lectura conjunta de la Torá y la tradición oral - la Mishná, la Halajá Midrash , el Talmud y sus comentarios. La Halajá se ha desarrollado lentamente, a través de un sistema basado en los precedentes. La literatura de preguntas a los rabinos, y sus respuestas consideradas, se conoce como responsa (en hebreo ., Sheelot U-teshuvot) Con el tiempo, como las prácticas de desarrollo, los códigos de la ley judía han escrito para que se basan en la responsa, el más importante código, el Shulján Aruj , determina en gran medida la práctica religiosa ortodoxa en la actualidad.

La filosofía judía

La filosofía judía se refiere a la conjunción entre el estudio serio de la filosofía y la teología judía. Grandes filósofos judíos son Salomón ibn Gabirol , Saadia Gaon , Judá Halevi , Maimónides , y Gersónides . Los cambios importantes se produjeron en respuesta a la Ilustración (finales del 18 al siglo 19), lo que los filósofos posteriores a la Ilustración judía. La filosofía judía moderna consiste en la filosofía orientada a ortodoxos y no ortodoxos. Notables entre los filósofos judíos ortodoxos son Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler , Joseph B. Soloveitchik y Hutner Itzjak . Conocido no ortodoxos filósofos judíos son Martin Buber , Franz Rosenzweig , Kaplan Mardoqueo , Abraham Joshua Heschel , Herberg voluntad , y Emmanuel Lévinas .

Temas relacionados

Rabínica hermenéutica

13 principios de la hermenéutica:

  1. Una ley que opera bajo ciertas condiciones, seguramente será operativo en otras situaciones en las mismas condiciones que están presentes en una forma más aguda
  2. Una ley que operan en una situación también estará operativo en otra situación, si el texto caracteriza tanto a las situaciones en términos idénticos.
  3. Una ley que expresa claramente el propósito que fue creado para servir también será aplicable a otras situaciones en que puede ser el objeto idéntico servido.
  4. Cuando una regla general es seguida de la ilustración, sólo estos datos han de ser abrazado por él.
  5. Una ley que comienza con la especificación de los casos particulares, y luego procede a una generalización que abarca todo, se va a aplicar a los casos particulares no se especifica, pero lógicamente caer en la misma generalización.
  6. Una ley que se inicia con una generalización respecto a las aplicaciones previstas, continúa con la especificación de los casos particulares, y luego concluye con una reafirmación de la generalización, se puede aplicar sólo a los casos particulares especificado.
  7. Las reglas sobre la generalización de ser seguido o precedido de la indicación especifica (artículos 4 y 5) no se aplicará si es evidente que la especificación de los casos particulares o la declaración de la generalización que se entiende exclusivamente para el logro de una mayor claridad del lenguaje.
  8. Un caso particular ya se trata en una generalización que se tratan por separado, sin embargo sugiere que el mismo tratamiento particularizado se aplicará a todos los demás casos que se tratan en esa generalización.
  9. Una pena señalada para una categoría general de hacer el mal no se aplica automáticamente a un caso particular que se retira de la regla general que se prohíbe expresamente, pero sin ninguna mención de la pena.
  10. Una prohibición general seguida por una sanción especifica puede ser seguido por un caso particular, normalmente se incluyen en la generalización, con una modificación de la pena, ya sea hacia la flexibilización es o lo que es más grave.
  11. Un caso lógicamente caer en una ley general, sino que tratan por separado permanece fuera de las disposiciones de la ley general, excepto en aquellos casos en los que se incluye específicamente en ellos.
  12. Oscuridades en los textos bíblicos pueden ser aclaradas por el contexto inmediato o de los pasajes que ocurran subsecuentemente
  13. Contradicciones en los pasajes bíblicos puede ser removido a través de la mediación de otros pasajes.
- R. Ismael [46]

Judios ortodoxos y otros muchos no creen que el revelado la Torá consiste únicamente en su contenido por escrito, sino de sus interpretaciones también. El estudio de la Torá (en su sentido más amplio, que incluye tanto la poesía, la narrativa, y la ley, y tanto la Biblia Hebrea y el Talmud ) es en el judaísmo en sí un acto sagrado de importancia central. Para los sabios de la Mishná y el Talmud , y de sus sucesores de hoy, el estudio de la Torá, por lo tanto no sólo un medio para aprender el contenido de la revelación de Dios, sino un fin en sí mismo. Según el Talmud,

Estas son las cosas por las que una persona goza de los dividendos en este mundo, mientras que el principal sigue siendo la persona a disfrutar en el mundo por venir, que son: honrar a los padres, amando actos de bondad, y hacer la paz entre una persona y otra. Pero el estudio de la Torá es igual a todos ellos. (Talmud Shabbat 127a).

. En el judaísmo, "el estudio de la Torá puede ser un medio de experimentar a Dios" [47] Al reflexionar sobre la contribución de la Amoraim y Tanaim para el judaísmo contemporáneo, el profesor Jacob Neusner observó:

Investigación lógica y racional del rabino no es mera lógica de cortar. Se trata de un esfuerzo más serio y de fondo para localizar en trivialidades de los principios fundamentales de la voluntad revelada de Dios para guiar y santificar las acciones más específicas y concretas en el mundo laboral .... Aquí está el misterio del judaísmo talmúdico:. La convicción ajeno y lejano que el intelecto es un instrumento, no de la incredulidad y la desacralización, sino de la santificación " [48]

Para el estudio de la Torá Escrita y la Torá Oral a la luz el uno del otro es, pues, también para estudiar la forma de estudiar la palabra de Dios.

En el estudio de la Torá, los sabios formulado y seguido diversos lógica y hermenéutica principios. De acuerdo con David Stern, todo lo demás hermenéutica rabínica en dos axia básicos:

En primer lugar, la creencia en la omnisignificance de la Escritura, en el significado de cada una de sus palabra, letra, incluso (según un informe conocido) florecen los escribas, en segundo lugar, la afirmación de la unidad esencial de la Escritura como la expresión de la voluntad divina única. [49]

Estos dos principios hacen posible una gran variedad de interpretaciones. Según el Talmud,

Un verso tiene varios significados, pero no hay dos versos tienen el mismo significado. Que se enseña en la escuela de R. Ismael: He aquí, mi palabra es como el fuego-oráculo del Señor-y como un martillo que rompe la roca "(Jer. 23:29). Al igual que este martillo produce muchas chispas (cuando se golpea la roca), por lo que un solo verso tiene varios significados. "(Talmud Sanedrín 34a).

Judios observantes de la Torá por lo tanto ver como algo dinámico, ya que contiene en su interior una serie de interpretaciones [50]

Según la tradición rabínica, todas las interpretaciones válidas de la Torá escrita se reveló a Moisés en el Sinaí en forma oral y transmitido de maestro a alumno (La revelación oral es en efecto la misma extensión con el propio Talmud). Cuando los rabinos diferentes remitido interpretaciones contradictorias, a veces se apeló a los principios de hermenéutica para legitimar sus argumentos, algunos afirman los rabinos que estos principios se fueron revelados por Dios a Moisés en el Sinaí. [51]

Por lo tanto, Hillel llamó la atención a siete de uso común en la interpretación de las leyes ( baraita al principio de Sifra ), R. Ismael , trece (baraita al principio de Sifra, esta colección es en gran medida una ampliación de la de Hillel). [52] Eliezer b. José ha-Gelili lista 32, muy utilizados para la exégesis de los elementos narrativos de la Torá. Todas las reglas de la hermenéutica dispersos a través de la Talmudim y Midrashim han sido recogidos por Malbim en Ayyelet ha-Shachar, la introducción a su comentario sobre el Sifra . Sin embargo, R. Ismael 's 13 principios son quizás los más conocidos, sino que constituyen un elemento importante, y uno de los primeros del judaísmo, las contribuciones a la lógica , la hermenéutica y la jurisprudencia . [53] Judá Hadasi incorporado Ismael principios en caraíta el judaísmo en el siglo 12 . [54] En la actualidad R. Ismael 's 13 principios están incorporados en el libro de oraciones judío para ser leído por Judios observantes sobre una base diaria. [55] [56] [57] [58]

La identidad judía

Origen del término "judaísmo"

El término judaísmo se deriva de la Iudaismus América, derivado del griego ?????????? Ioudaïsmos , y en última instancia del hebreo ?????, Yehuda, " Judá ", [59] [60] en hebreo: ????????, Yahadut. En primer lugar, aparece como el iudaismos griego helenístico en Macabeos 2 º en el segundo siglo AEC. En el contexto de la edad y el período en que ocupó el significado de la búsqueda o que forman parte de una entidad cultural, que de iudea, el derivado del griego de Persia Yehud, y puede ser comparado con hellenismos, lo que significa la aceptación de las normas Cultural Helénico (el conflicto entre iudaismos y hellenismos había detrás de la revuelta Maccabeean y por lo tanto la invención de la iudaismos plazo). [61] El primer ejemplo de la palabra en Inglés, que se utiliza para significar "la profesión y la práctica de la religión judía, el sistema religioso o política de la Judios ", es Robert Fabyan de la cronycles Newe de Englande y de un Fraunce 1513. Como una traducción al Inglés de la América, la primera instancia en Inglés es una traducción de 1611 de la apócrifos ( deuterocanónicos en católicos y ortodoxos el cristianismo ), 2 Macabeos. ii. 21 "Los que se comportaron valientemente themselues a su honor por Iudaisme." [62]

Distinción entre los Judios, como pueblo y el judaísmo

De acuerdo con Daniel Boyarin , la distinción fundamental entre la religión y la etnicidad es ajeno al judaísmo, y es una forma de dualismo entre espíritu y carne, que tiene su origen en la filosofía platónica y que impregnó el judaísmo helenístico . [63] En consecuencia, a su juicio , el judaísmo no encajan fácilmente en las categorías convencionales de Occidente, como la religión, la etnia o la cultura. Boyarin sugiere que esto en parte refleja el hecho de que gran parte del judaísmo más de 3.000 años de historia precede al surgimiento de la cultura occidental y se produjo fuera de Occidente (es decir, Europa , especialmente Europa medieval y moderna). Durante este tiempo, Judios han sufrido la esclavitud, anárquico y teocrático de auto-gobierno, la conquista, la ocupación y el exilio, en la diáspora, que han estado en contacto con y han sido influenciados por los antiguos egipcios, babilónicos, persas, y la cultura helénica, como así como los movimientos modernos como la Ilustración (ver Haskalah ) y el auge del nacionalismo, que daría sus frutos en forma de un estado judío en el Levante. También vieron una élite convertirse al judaísmo (los jázaros ), sólo para desaparecer a medida que los centros de poder en las tierras que una vez ocupó la élite que se redujo a la gente de Rus y los mongoles. Por lo tanto, Boyarin ha sostenido que "el judaísmo altera las categorías de la identidad, ya que no es nacional, no genealógico, no religiosa, pero todas ellas, en tensión dialéctica." [64]

En contraste con este punto de vista, prácticas como el Judaísmo Humanista rechazar los aspectos religiosos del judaísmo, pero conservando ciertas tradiciones culturales.

¿Quién es un Judio?

De acuerdo con la ley tradicional judía, un Judio es cualquier persona nacida de madre judía o convertida al judaísmo , de acuerdo con la ley judía. Americana Reforma del Judaísmo y británicos judaísmo liberal aceptar al niño de un padre judío (padre o madre) como judío si los padres criar al niño con una identidad judía. Todas las formas de la corriente principal del judaísmo de hoy están abiertos a los conversos sinceros, aunque la conversión ha sido tradicionalmente desalentado desde la época del Talmud. El proceso de conversión es evaluado por una autoridad, y el converso es examinado por su sinceridad y conocimiento. [65] Los conversos son el nombre de "ben Abraham" o "bat Abraham", (hijo de Abraham).

El judaísmo tradicional mantiene que un Judio, ya sea por nacimiento o conversión, es un Judio siempre. Así, un Judio que afirma ser ateo o se convierte a otra religión sigue siendo considerado por el judaísmo tradicional de ser judío. Sin embargo, el movimiento de la Reforma sostiene que un Judio que ha convertido a una religión ya no es un Judio, [66] [67] y el Gobierno de Israel también ha tomado esa postura después de casos del Tribunal Supremo y de los estatutos. [68]

The question of what determines Jewish identity in the State of Israel was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David Ben-Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide in order to settle citizenship questions. This is still not settled, and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics .

Jewish demographics

The total number of Jews worldwide is difficult to assess because the definition of "who is a Jew" is problematic; not all Jews identify themselves as Jewish, and some who identify as Jewish are not considered so by other Jews. According to the Jewish Year Book (1901), the global Jewish population in 1900 was around 11 million. The latest available data is from the World Jewish Population Survey of 2002 and the Jewish Year Calendar (2005). In 2002, according to the Jewish Population Survey, there were 13.3 million Jews around the world. The Jewish Year Calendar cites 14.6 million. Jewish population growth is currently near zero percent, with 0.3% growth from 2000 to 2001.

Jewish religious movements

Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions, Rabbinism) (Hebrew: "Yahadut Rabanit" - ????? ?????) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Talmud . It is characterised by the belief that the Written Torah (Law) cannot be correctly interpreted without reference to the Oral Torah and by the voluminous literature specifying what behavior is sanctioned by the law (called halakha , "the way").

The Jewish Enlightenment of the late 18th century resulted in the division of Ashkenazi (Western) Jewry into religious movements or denominations, especially in North America and Anglophone countries. The main denominations today outside Israel (where the situation is rather different) are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

A Reform synagogue with mixed seating and equal participation of men and women

Jewish movements in Israel

Most Jewish Israelis classify themselves as "secular" ( hiloni ), "traditional" ( masorti ), "religious" ( dati ) or Haredi . The term "secular" is more popular as a self-description among Israeli families of western (European) origin, whose Jewish identity may be a very powerful force in their lives, but who see it as largely independent of traditional religious belief and practice. This portion of the population largely ignores organized religious life, be it of the official Israeli rabbinate (Orthodox) or of the liberal movements common to diaspora Judaism (Reform, Conservative).

The term "traditional" ( masorti ) is most common as a self-description among Israeli families of "eastern" origin (ie, the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa). This term, as commonly used, has nothing to do with the official Masorti (Conservative) movement. There is a great deal of ambiguity in the ways "secular" and "traditional" are used in Israel: they often overlap, and they cover an extremely wide range in terms of ideology and religious observance. The term "Orthodox" is not popular in Israeli discourse, although the percentage of Jews who come under that category is far greater than in the diaspora. What would be called "Orthodox" in the diaspora includes what is commonly called dati (religious) or haredi (ultra-Orthodox) in Israel. The former term includes what is called "Religious Zionism" or the "National Religious" community, as well as what has become known over the past decade or so as haredi-leumi ( nationalist haredi ), or "Hardal", which combines a largely haredi lifestyle with nationalist ideology. (Some people, in Yiddish , also refer to observant Orthodox Jews as frum , as opposed to frei (more liberal Jews)).

Haredi applies to a populace that can be roughly divided into three separate groups along both ethnic and ideological lines: (1) "Lithuanian" (non-hasidic) haredim of Ashkenazic origin; (2) Hasidic haredim of Ashkenazic origin; and (3) Sephardic haredim .

Alternative Judaism

Karaite Judaism defines itself as the remnants of the non-Rabbinic Jewish sects of the Second Temple period, such as the Sadducees . The Karaites ("Scripturalists") accept only the Hebrew Bible and what they view as the Peshat ("simple" meaning); they do not accept non-biblical writings as authoritative. Some European Karaites do not see themselves as part of the Jewish community at all, although most do. The Samaritans , a very small community located entirely around Mount Gerizim in the Nablus / Shechem region of the West Bank and in Holon , near Tel Aviv in Israel, regard themselves as the descendants of the Israelites of the Iron Age kingdom of Israel . Their religious practices are those of Judaism, but they regard only the written Torah as authoritative scripture (with a special regard also for the Book of Joshua ).

Jewish observances

Jewish ethics

Jewish ethics may be guided by halakhic traditions, by other moral principles, or by central Jewish virtues. Jewish ethical practice is typically understood to be marked by values such as justice, truth, peace, loving-kindness ( chesed ), compassion, humility, and self-respect. Specific Jewish ethical practices include practices of charity ( tzedakah ) and refraining from negative speech ( lashon hara ). Proper ethical practices regarding sexuality and many other issues are subjects of dispute among Jews.

Prayers

A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin

Traditionally, Jews recite prayers three times daily, Shacharit , Mincha , and Ma'ariv with a fourth prayer, Mussaf added on Shabbat and holidays . At the heart of each service is the Amidah or Shemoneh Esrei . Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema Yisrael (or Shema ). The Shema is the recitation of a verse from the Torah ( Deuteronomy 6:4): Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad —"Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God! The Lord is One!"

Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be recited in solitary prayer, although communal prayer is preferred. Communal prayer requires a quorum of ten adult Jews, called a minyan . In nearly all Orthodox and a few Conservative circles, only male Jews are counted toward a minyan ; most Conservative Jews and members of other Jewish denominations count female Jews as well.

In addition to prayer services, observant traditional Jews recite prayers and benedictions throughout the day when performing various acts . Prayers are recited upon waking up in the morning , before eating or drinking different foods, after eating a meal , and so on.

The approach to prayer varies among the Jewish denominations. Differences can include the texts of prayers, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, the use of musical instruments and choral music, and whether prayers are recited in the traditional liturgical languages or the vernacular. In general, Orthodox and Conservative congregations adhere most closely to tradition, and Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations and contemporary writings in their services. Also, in most Conservative synagogues, and all Reform and Reconstructionist congregations, women participate in prayer services on an equal basis with men, including roles traditionally filled only by men, such as reading from the Torah . In addition, many Reform temples use musical accompaniment such as organs and mixed choirs.

Religious clothing

A kippah (Hebrew: ???????, plural kippot ; Yiddish: ????????, yarmulke ) is a slightly rounded brimless skullcap worn by many Jews while praying, eating, reciting blessings, or studying Jewish religious texts, and at all times by some Jewish men. In Orthodox communities, only men wear kippot; in non-Orthodox communities, some women also wear kippot. Kippot range in size from a small round beanie that covers only the back of the head, to a large, snug cap that covers the whole crown.

Tzitzit (Hebrew: ???????) ( Ashkenazi pronunciation : tzitzis ) are special knotted "fringes" or "tassels" found on the four corners of the tallit (Hebrew: ???????) (Ashkenazi pronunciation: tallis ), or prayer shawl . The tallit is worn by Jewish men and some Jewish women during the prayer service. Customs vary regarding when a Jew begins wearing a tallit. In the Sephardi community, boys wear a tallit from bar mitzvah age. In some Ashkenazi communities it is customary to wear one only after marriage. A tallit katan (small tallit) is a fringed garment worn under the clothing throughout the day. In some Orthodox circles, the fringes are allowed to hang freely outside the clothing.

Tefillin (Hebrew: ?????????), known in English as phylacteries (from the Greek word ???????????, meaning fortress or protection ), are two square leather boxes containing biblical verses, attached to the forehead and wound around the left arm by leather straps. They are worn during weekday morning prayer by observant Jewish men and some Jewish women. [ 71 ]

A kittel (Yiddish: ????), a white knee-length overgarment, is worn by prayer leaders and some observant traditional Jews on the High Holidays . It is traditional for the head of the household to wear a kittel at the Passover seder in some communities, and some grooms wear one under the wedding canopy. Jewish males are buried in a tallit and sometimes also a kittel which are part of the tachrichim (burial garments).

Jewish holidays

Jewish holidays are special days in the Jewish calendar, which celebrate moments in Jewish history, as well as central themes in the relationship between God and the world, such as creation , revelation , and redemption .

Shabbat

Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal

Shabbat , the weekly day of rest lasting from shortly before sundown on Friday night to nightfall Saturday night, commemorates God's day of rest after six days of creation. [ 72 ] It plays a pivotal role in Jewish practice and is governed by a large corpus of religious law. At sundown on Friday, the woman of the house welcomes the Shabbat by lighting two or more candles and reciting a blessing. The evening meal begins with the Kiddush, a blessing recited aloud over a cup of wine, and the Mohtzi, a blessing recited over the bread. It is customary to have challah , two braided loaves of bread, on the table. During Shabbat Jews are forbidden to engage in any activity that falls under 39 categories of melakhah , translated literally as "work". In fact the activities banned on the Sabbath are not "work" in the usual sense: They include such actions as lighting a fire, writing, using money and carrying in the public domain. The prohibition of lighting a fire has been extended in the modern era to driving a car, which involves burning fuel, and using electricity.

Three pilgrimage festivals

Sukkahs in Jerusalem

Jewish holy days ( chaggim ), celebrate landmark events in Jewish history, such as the Exodus from Egypt and the giving of the Torah, and sometimes mark the change of seasons and transitions in the agricultural cycle. The three major festivals, Sukkot, Passover and Shavuot, are called "regalim" (derived from the Hebrew word "regel", or foot). On the three regalim, it was customary for the Israelites to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices in the Temple.

High Holy Days

Jews praying in a synagogue on Yom Kippur , from an 1878 painting by Maurycy Gottlieb

The High Holidays ( Yamim Noraim or "Days of Awe") revolve around judgment and forgiveness.

Hanukkah

Hanukkah ( Hebrew : ???????? ?, "dedication") also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev ( Hebrew calendar ). The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each of the festival's eight nights, one on the first night, two on the second night and so on.

The holiday was called Hanukkah (meaning "dedication") because it marks the re-dedication of the Temple after its desecration by Antiochus IV Epiphanes . Spiritually, Hanukkah commemorates the "Miracle of the Oil". According to the Talmud, at the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem following the victory of the Maccabees over the Seleucid Empire , there was only enough consecrated oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days - which was the length of time it took to press, prepare and consecrate new oil.

Hanukkah is not mentioned in the Bible and was never considered a major holiday in Judaism, but it has become much more visible and widely celebrated in modern times, mainly because it falls around the same time as Christmas and has national Jewish overtones that have been emphasized since the establishment of the State of Israel.

Purim

Purim street scene in Jerusalem

Purim ( Hebrew : Acerca de este sonido ????? Pûrîm " lots ") is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from the plot of the evil Haman , who sought to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther . It is characterized by public recitation of the Book of Esther, mutual gifts of food and drink, charity to the poor, and a celebratory meal (Esther 9:22). Other customs include drinking wine, eating special pastries called hamantashen , dressing up in masks and costumes, and organizing carnivals and parties.

Purim is celebrated annually on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Adar , which occurs in February or March of the Gregorian calendar.

Other holidays

Tisha B'Av ( Hebrew : ???? ??? ? or ?? ??? , "the Ninth of Av ,") is a holiday of mourning and fasting commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temples and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain .

The modern holidays of Yom Ha-shoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) and Yom Ha'atzmaut (Israeli Independence Day) commemorate the horrors of the Holocaust and the achievement of Israel independence, respectively.

Torah readings

The core of festival and Shabbat prayer services is the public reading of the Torah , along with connected readings from the other books of the Tanakh , called Haftarah . Over the course of a year, the whole Torah is read, with the cycle starting over in the autumn, on Simchat Torah .

Synagogues and religious buildings

Synagogues are Jewish houses of prayer and study. They usually contain separate rooms for prayer (the main sanctuary), smaller rooms for study, and often an area for community or educational use. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. The Reform movement mostly refer to their synagogues as temples. Some traditional features of a synagogue are:

In addition to synagogues, other buildings of significance in Judaism include yeshivas , or institutions of Jewish learning, and mikvahs , which are ritual baths.

Dietary laws: Kashrut

The Jewish dietary laws are known as kashrut . Food prepared in accordance with them is termed kosher , and food that is not kosher is also known as treifah or treif . People who observe these laws are colloquially said to be "keeping kosher". [ 73 ]

Many of the laws apply to animal-based foods. For example, in order to be considered kosher, mammals must have split hooves and chew their cud . The pig is arguably the most well-known example of a non-kosher animal. [ 74 ] Although it has split hooves, it does not chew its cud. [ 75 ] For seafood to be kosher, the animal must have fins and scales . Certain types of seafood, such as shellfish , crustaceans , and eels , are therefore considered non-kosher. Concerning birds, a list of non-kosher species is given in the Torah . The exact translations of many of the species have not survived, and some non-kosher birds' identities are no longer certain. However, traditions exist about the kashrut status of a few birds. For example, both chickens and turkeys are permitted in most communities. Other types of animals, such as amphibians , reptiles , and most insects , are prohibited altogether. [ 73 ]

In addition to the requirement that the species be considered kosher, meat and poultry (but not fish) must come from a healthy animal slaughtered in a process known as shechitah . Without the proper slaughtering practices even an otherwise kosher animal will be rendered treif . The slaughtering process is intended to be quick and relatively painless to the animal. Forbidden parts of animals include the blood , some fats , and the area in and around the sciatic nerve . [ 73 ]

Jewish law also forbids the consumption of meat and dairy products together. The waiting period between eating meat and eating dairy varies by the order in which they are consumed and by community, and can extend for up to six hours. Based on the Biblical injunction against cooking a kid in its mother's milk, this rule is mostly derived from the Oral Torah , the Talmud and Rabbinic law . [ 73 ] Chicken and other kosher birds are considered the same as meat under the laws of kashrut , but the prohibition is Rabbinic, not Biblical. [ 76 ]

The use of dishes , serving utensils, and ovens may make food treif that would otherwise be kosher. Utensils that have been used to prepare non-kosher food, or dishes that have held meat and are now used for dairy products, render the food treif under certain conditions. [ 73 ]

Furthermore, all Orthodox and some Conservative authorities forbid the consumption of processed grape products made by non-Jews, due to ancient pagan practices of using wine in rituals. [ 73 ] Some Conservative authorities permit wine and grape juice made without rabbinic supervision. [ 77 ]

The Torah does not give specific reasons for most of the laws of kashrut . [ 73 ] However, a number of explanations have been offered, including maintaining ritual purity, teaching impulse control, encouraging obedience to God, improving health, reducing cruelty to animals and preserving the distinctness of the Jewish community. [ 78 ] The various categories of dietary laws may have developed for different reasons, and some may exist for multiple reasons. For example, people are forbidden from consuming the blood of birds and mammals because, according to the Torah, this is where animal souls are contained. [ 79 ] In contrast, the Torah forbids Israelites from eating non-kosher species because "they are unclean." [ 80 ] The Kabbalah describes sparks of holiness that are released by the act of eating kosher foods, but are too tightly bound in non-kosher foods to be released by eating. [ 81 ]

Survival concerns supersede all the laws of kashrut , as they do for most halakhot . [ 82 ] [ 83 ]

Laws of ritual purity

The Tanakh describes circumstances in which a person who is tahor or ritually pure may become tamei or ritually impure. Some of these circumstances are contact with human corpses or graves , seminal flux, vaginal flux, menstruation , and contact with people who have become impure from any of these. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] In Rabbinic Judaism, Kohanim , members of the hereditary caste that served as priests in the time of the Temple, are mostly restricted from entering grave sites and touching dead bodies. [ 86 ]

Family purity

An important subcategory of the ritual purity laws relates to the segregation of menstruating women . These laws are also known as niddah , literally "separation", or family purity. Vital aspects of halakha for traditionally observant Jews, they are not usually followed by Jews in liberal denominations. [ 87 ]

Especially in Orthodox Judaism , the Biblical laws are augmented by Rabbinical injunctions. For example, the Torah mandates that a woman in her normal menstrual period must abstain from sexual intercourse for seven days. A woman whose menstruation is prolonged must continue to abstain for seven more days after bleeding has stopped. [ 84 ] The Rabbis conflated ordinary niddah with this extended menstrual period, known in the Torah as zavah , and mandated that a woman may not have sexual intercourse with her husband from the time she begins her menstrual flow until seven days after it ends. In addition, Rabbinical law forbids the husband from touching or sharing a bed with his wife during this period. Afterwards, purification can occur in a ritual bath called a mikveh . [ 87 ]

Traditional Ethiopian Jews keep menstruating women in separate huts and, similar to Karaite practice , do not allow menstruating women into their temples because of a temple's special sanctity. Emigration to Israel and the influence of other Jewish denominations have led to Ethiopian Jews adopting more normative Jewish practices. [ 88 ] [ 89 ]

Life-cycle events

Life-cycle events, or rites of passage , occur throughout a Jew's life that serve to strengthen Jewish identity and bind him/her to the entire community.

Community leadership

Classical priesthood

The role of the priesthood in Judaism has significantly diminished since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices. The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have any but ceremonial duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities. Many Orthodox Jewish communities believe that they will be needed again for a future Third Temple and need to remain in readiness for future duty.

Prayer leaders

From the time of the Mishnah and Talmud to the present, Judaism has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies. A Jew can fulfill most requirements for prayer by himself. Some activities—reading the Torah and haftarah (a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings), the prayer for mourners, the blessings for bridegroom and bride, the complete grace after meals—require a minyan , the presence of ten Jews.

The most common professional clergy in a synagogue are:

Jewish prayer services do involve two specified roles, which are sometimes, but not always, filled by a rabbi and/or hazzan in many congregations. In other congregations these roles are filled on an ad-hoc basis by members of the congregation who lead portions of services on a rotating basis:

Many congregations, especially larger ones, also rely on a:

The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal kriyah , and this is still typically the case in many Conservative and Reform congregations. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople on a rotating or ad-hoc basis. Although most congregations hire one or more Rabbis, the use of a professional hazzan is generally declining in American congregations, and the use of professionals for other offices is rarer still.

Specialized religious roles

Historia

Orígenes

Scenes from the Book of Esther decorate the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE

At its core, the Tanakh is an account of the Israelites ' relationship with God from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 535 BCE). Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people. As a reward for his act of faith in one God, he was promised that Isaac , his second son, would inherit the Land of Israel (then called Canaan ). Later, Jacob and his children were enslaved in Egypt , and God commanded Moses to lead the Exodus from Egypt. At Mount Sinai they received the Torah - the five books of Moses. These books, together with Nevi'im and Ketuvim are known as Torah Shebikhtav as opposed to the Oral Torah , which refers to the Mishna and the Talmud. Eventually, God led them to the land of Israel where the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years to rally the nation against attacking enemies. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle. The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they needed to be governed by a permanent king, and Samuel appointed Saul to be their King. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead.

The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple . The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.

Once King David was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son, Solomon , to build the first permanent temple and the throne would never depart from his children.

Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law , were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God told Moses on Mount Sinai. However, as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi Judah haNasi (Judah the Prince) in the Mishnah , redacted circa 200 CE. The Talmud was a compilation of both the Mishnah and the Gemara , rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The Gemara originated in two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud . It was compiled sometime during the 4th century in Israel. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled from discussions in the houses of study by the scholars Ravina I , Ravina II , and Rav Ashi by 500 CE, although it continued to be edited later.

Some critical scholars oppose the view that the sacred texts, including the Hebrew Bible , were divinely inspired. Many of these scholars accept the general principles of the documentary hypothesis and suggest that the Torah consists of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] Many suggest that during the First Temple period, the people of Israel believed that each nation had its own god, but that their god was superior to other gods. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Some suggest that strict monotheism developed during the Babylonian Exile, perhaps in reaction to Zoroastrian dualism. [ 95 ] In this view, it was only by the Hellenic period that most Jews came to believe that their god was the only god, and that the notion of a clearly bounded Jewish nation identical with the Jewish religion formed. [ 96 ]

John Day argues that the origins of biblical Yahweh , El , Asherah , and Ba'al , may be rooted in earlier Canaanite religion , which was centered on a pantheon of gods much like the Greek Pantheon . [ 97 ]

Antiquity

The United Monarchy was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon with its capital in Jerusalem . After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel (in the north) and the Kingdom of Judah (in the south). The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Sargon II in the late 8th century BCE with many people from the capital Samaria being taken captive to Media and the Khabur River valley. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship. The Judean elite were exiled to Babylonia and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora. Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity . A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed.

During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book of Ezra. Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed.

Hellenistic Judaism spread to Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BCE, and became a notable religio licita throughout the Roman Empire , until its decline in the 3rd century parallel to the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity .

After a Jewish revolt against Roman rule in 66 CE, the Romans all but destroyed Jerusalem . Following a second revolt, Jews were not allowed to enter the city of Jerusalem and most Jewish worship was forbidden by Rome. Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities (see Jewish diaspora ).

Historical Jewish groupings (to 1700)

Around the 1st century CE there were several small Jewish sects: the Pharisees , Sadducees , Zealots , Essenes , and Christians . After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, these sects vanished. Christianity survived, but by breaking with Judaism and becoming a separate religion ; the Pharisees survived but in the form of Rabbinic Judaism (today, known simply as "Judaism"). The Sadducees rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophets and the Writings , relying only on the Torah as divinely inspired. Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system (which became the basis for modern Judaism), were also dismissed by the Sadducees. (The Samaritans practiced a similar religion, which is traditionally considered separate from Judaism.)

Like the Sadducees who relied only on the Torah, some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law as recorded in the Mishnah (and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds ), relying instead only upon the Tanakh . These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites , and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous.

Over a long time, Jews formed distinct ethnic groups in several different geographic areas — amongst others, the Ashkenazi Jews (of central and Eastern Europe ), the Sephardi Jews (of Spain, Portugal , and North Africa ), the Beta Israel of Ethiopia , and the Yemenite Jews from the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula . Many of these groups have developed differences in their prayers, traditions and accepted canons; however these distinctions are mainly the result of their being formed at some cultural distance from normative (rabbinic) Judaism, rather than based on any doctrinal dispute.

Persecutions

Antisemitism arose during the Middle Ages , in the form of persecutions, pogroms , forced conversion , expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization .

This was different in quality to any repressions of Jews in ancient times. Ancient repression was politically motivated and Jews were treated no differently than any other ethnic group would have been. With the rise of the Churches, attacks on Jews became motivated instead by theological considerations specifically deriving from Christian views about Jews and Judaism. [ 98 ]

Hasidism

Hasidic Judaism was founded by Yisroel ben Eliezer (1700–1760), also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov (or Besht ). It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people, when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy. His disciples attracted many followers; they themselves established numerous Hasidic sects across Europe. Hasidic Judaism eventually became the way of life for many Jews in Europe. Waves of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United States. The movement itself claims to be nothing new, but a refreshment of original Judaism. Or as some have put it: "they merely re-emphasized that which the generations had lost" . [ 99 ] Nevertheless, early on there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as Misnagdim , (lit. "opponents"). Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the overwhelming exuberance of Hasidic worship, its untraditional ascriptions of infallibility and alleged miracle-working to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect. Since then differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism .

The Enlightenment and New Religious Movements

In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment . The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience. A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment", began, especially in Central Europe and Western Europe , in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation many Jews saw no reason to continue to observe Jewish law and increasing numbers of Jews assimilated into Christian Europe. Modern religious movements of Judaism all formed in reaction to this trend.

In Central Europe , followed by Great Britain and The United States , Reform Judaism and Liberal Judaism developed, relaxing legal obligations (especially those that limited Jewish relations with non-Jews), emulating Protestant decorum in prayer, and emphasizing the ethical values of Judaism's Prophetic tradition. Modern Orthodox Judaism developed in reaction to Reform Judaism, by leaders who argued that Jews could participate in public life as citizens equal to Christians, while maintaining the observance of Jewish law. Meanwhile, in the United States, wealthy Reform Jews helped European scholars, who were Orthodox in practice but critical (and skeptical) in their study of the Bible and Talmud, to establish a seminary to train rabbis for immigrants from Eastern Europe. These left-wing Orthodox rabbis were joined by right-wing Reform rabbis who felt that Jewish law should not be entirely abandoned, to form the Conservative movement . Orthodox Jews who opposed the Haskalah formed Haredi Orthodox Judaism . After massive movements of Jews following The Holocaust and the creation of the state of Israel , these movements have competed for followers from among traditional Jews in or from other countries.

Spectrum of observance

Judaism has spread to all corners of the world. Seen here is a synagogue in downtown Mumbai .

Countries such as the United States , Israel , Canada , United Kingdom , Argentina and South Africa contain large Jewish populations. Jewish religious practice varies widely through all levels of observance. According to the 2001 edition of the National Jewish Population Survey , in the United States' Jewish community—the world's second largest—4.3 million Jews out of 5.1 million had some sort of connection to the religion. Of that population of connected Jews, 80% participated in some sort of Jewish religious observance, but only 48% belonged to a synagogue, and fewer than 16% attend regularly. [ 100 ]

Birth rates for American Jews have dropped from 2.0 to 1.7. [ 101 ] (Replacement rate is 2.1.) Intermarriage rates range from 40-50% in the US, and only about a third of children of intermarried couples are raised as Jews. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.5 million in 1990 to 5.1 million in 2001. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora , but a focus on total population obscures growth trends in some denominations and communities, such as Haredi Judaism . The Baal teshuva movement is a movement of Jews who have "returned" to religion or become more observant.

Judaism and other religions

Christianity and Judaism

Historians and theologians regularly review the changing relationship between some Christian groups and the Jewish people; the article on Christian-Jewish reconciliation studies one recent issue.

Islam and Judaism

The relationship between Islam and Judaism is special and close. Both religions claim to arise from the patriarch Abraham , and are therefore considered Abrahamic religions . As fellow monotheists, Muslims view Jews as " people of the book ", a term that Jews have subsequently adopted as a way of describing their own connection to the Torah and other holy texts. [ 102 ] In turn, many Jews maintain that Muslims adhere to the Seven Laws of Noah . Thus, Judaism views Muslims as righteous people of God. [ 103 ] Jews have interacted with Muslims since the 7th century, when Islam originated and spread in the Arabian peninsula , and many aspects of Islam's core values, structure, jurisprudence and practice are based on Judaism. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] Muslim culture and philosophy have heavily influenced practitioners of Judaism in the Islamic world . [ 106 ]

In premodern Muslim countries, Jews rarely faced martyrdom, exile or forcible conversion, and were mostly free in their choice of residence and profession. [ 107 ] Indeed, the years 712 to 1066 CE under the Ummayad and the Abbasid rulers have been called the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain . Non-Muslim monotheists living in these countries, including Jews, were known as dhimmis . Dhimmis were allowed to practice their religion and to administer their internal affairs, but subject to certain restrictions that were not imposed on Muslims. [ 108 ] For example, they had to pay the jizya , a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-Muslim males, [ 108 ] and were also forbidden from bearing arms or testifying in court cases involving Muslims. [ 109 ] Many of the laws regarding dhimmis were highly symbolic. For example, dhimmis in some countries were required to wear distinctive clothing , a practice not found in the Qur'an or hadiths but invented in early medieval Baghdad and inconsistently enforced. [ 110 ] Jews in Muslim countries were not entirely free from persecution—for example, many were killed, exiled or forcibly converted in the 12th century, in Persia and by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in North Africa and Al-Andalus . [ 111 ] At times, Jews were also restricted in their choice of residence—in Morocco , Jews were confined to walled quarters ( mellahs ) beginning in the 15th century and increasingly since the early 19th century. [ 112 ]

In the late 20th century, Jews were expelled from nearly all the Arab countries. Most have chosen to live in Israel . Today, antisemitic themes have become commonplace in the propaganda of Arab Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas , in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran , and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi . [ 113 ]

Syncretic movements incorporating Judaism

There are some organizations that combine elements of Judaism with those of other religions. The most well-known of these is the Messianic Judaism , which arose in the 1960s. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ] It a blends evangelical Christian theology with elements of Jewish terminology and ritual. [ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ] [ 121 ] The movement states that Jesus is part of the Trinity , [ 122 ] [ 123 ] and salvation is only achieved through acceptance of Jesus as one's savior. [ 124 ] Some members of the movement are ethnically Jewish, and some of them argue that Messianic Judaism is a sect of Judaism. [ 125 ] Jewish organizations and religious movements reject this, stating that Messianic Judaism is a Christian sect. [ 126 ] The most controversial of these groups is the American Jews for Jesus , which actively proselytizes ethnic Jews through numerous missionary campaigns in major American cities.

Other examples of syncretism include Judeo-Paganists , a loosely organized set of Jews who incorporate pagan or Wiccan beliefs with some Jewish religious practices, like Messianic Judaism; Jewish Buddhists , another loosely organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism , Sufism , Native American religion, and other faiths.

The Kabbalah Centre , which employs teachers from multiple religions, is a New Age movement that claims to popularize the kabbalah , the Jewish esoteric tradition.

Véase también


Referencias

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  2. ^ "What is the oral Torah?" . Torah.org . http://www.torah.org/learning/basics/primer/torah/oraltorah.html . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  3. ^ "Karaite Jewish University" . Kjuonline.com . http://www.kjuonline.com/To_Our_Fellow_Jews.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  4. ^ "Society for Humanistic Judaism" . Shj.org . http://www.shj.org/ . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
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  8. ^ Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism p. 59 by Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 2000 [1]
  9. ^ Heribert Busse (1998). Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: Theological and Historical Affiliations . Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 63–112. ISBN 9781558761445 .  
  10. ^ Irving M. Zeitlin (2007). The Historical Muhammad . Polity . pp. 92–93. ISBN 9780745639994 .  
  11. ^ Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate (book)
  12. ^ See, for example, Deborah Dash Moore , American Jewish Identity Politics , University of Michigan Press , 2008, p. 303; Ewa Morawska, Insecure Prosperity: Small-Town Jews in Industrial America, 1890-1940 , Princeton University Press , 1999. p. 217; Peter Y. Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews and politics in a changing world , Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press , 1995, p. 64; Ezra Mendelsohn, People of the city: Jews and the urban challenge , Volume 15 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press , 1999, p. 55; Louis Sandy Maisel, Ira N. Forman, Donald Altschiller, Charles Walker Bassett, Jews in American politics: essays , Rowman & Littlefield , 2004, p. 158; Seymour Martin Lipset , American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword , WW Norton & Company , 1997, p. 169.
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  15. ^ "Reform Judaism" . ReligionFacts . http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/denominations/reform.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
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  17. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Bet Din" . Britannica.com . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/63134/bet-din . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
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  19. ^ Nahum Sarna 1969 Understanding Genesis . New York: Schocken
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  21. ^ Gen. 17:3-8 Genesis 17: 3-8: Abram fell facedown, and God said to him, "As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. No longer will you be called Abram ; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God;" Gen. 22:17-18 Genesis 22: 17-18: I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me."
  22. ^ Exodus 20:3 "You shall have no other gods before me; Deut. 6:5 Deuteronomy 6:5 "Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength."
  23. ^ Lev. 19:18 Leviticus 19:18: "'Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord"
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  25. ^ Kadushin, Max, 1972 The Rabbinic Mind . New York: Bloch Publishing Company. 203
  26. ^ The Books of Melachim (Kings) and Book of Yeshaiahu (Isaiah) in the Tanakh contain a few of the many Biblical accounts of Israelite kings and segments of ancient Israel's population worshiping other gods. For example: King Solomon's "wives turned away his heart after other gods...[and he] did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD" (elaborated in 1 Melachim 11:4-10); King Ahab "went and served Baal, and worshiped him...And Ahab made the Asherah [a pagan place of worship]; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God of Israel, than all the kings of Israel that were before him" (1 Melachim 16:31-33); the prophet Isaiah condemns the people who "prepare a table for [the idol] Fortune, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto [the idol] Destiny" (Yeshaiahu 65:11-12). Translation: JPS ( Jewish Publication Society ) edition of the Tanakh, from 1917, available at Mechon Mamre .
  27. ^ The Jewish roots of Christological monotheism: papers from the St. Andrews conference on the historical origins of the worship of Jesus . Books.google.com. 1999. ISBN 9789004113619 . http://books.google.com/?id=9ST5wISvTaQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Jewish+monotheism#v=onepage&q=&f=false . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  28. ^ Steinberg, Milton 1947 Basic Judaism New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 36
  29. ^ "Judaism 101: Movements of Judaism" . Jewfaq.org . http://www.jewfaq.org/movement.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  30. ^ Rabbi S. of Montpelier, Yad Rama, Y. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah.
  31. ^ "Maimonides' 13 Foundations of Judaism" . Mesora . http://www.mesora.org/13principles.html . "However if he rejects one of these fundamentals he leaves the nation and is a denier of the fundamentals and is called a heretic, a denier, etc."  
  32. ^ Rabbi Mordechai Blumenfeld. "Maimonides, 13 Principles of Faith" . Aish HaTorah . http://www.aish.com/sp/ph/48923722.html . "According to the Rambam, their acceptance defines the minimum requirement necessary for one to relate to the Almighty and His Torah as a member of the People of Israel"  
  33. ^ a b c Daniel Septimus. "The Thirteen Principles of Faith" . MyJewishLearning.com . http://www.myjewishlearning.com/beliefs/Theology/Thinkers_and_Thought/Doctrine_and_Dogma/The_Middle_Ages/Principles_of_Faith.shtml .  
  34. ^ Ronald L. Eisenberg (2004). The JPS guide to Jewish traditions . Jewish Publication Society. p. 509. ISBN 0827607601 . http://books.google.com/?id=_qGHi_9K154C&pg=RA13-PA509&lpg=RA13-PA509&dq=Maimonides'+thirteen+principles+of+faith . "The concept of "dogma" is ... not a basic idea in Judaism."  
  35. ^ Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought, Menachem Kellner.
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  38. ^ The JPS guide to Jewish traditions, page 510, "The one that eventually secured almost universal acceptance was the Thirteen Principles of faith"
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  44. ^ M. San 10:1. Translation available here [2] .
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  46. ^ The Prayer book: Weekday, Sabbath, and Festival translated and arranged by Ben Zion Bokser. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. 9-10
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  48. ^ Neusner, Jacob 2003 Invitation to the Talmud Stipf and Son, Oregon xvii-xxii
  49. ^ Stern, David "Midrash and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry , Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), p. 151.
  50. ^ Neusner, Jacob 2003 Invitation to the Talmud Stipf and Son, Oregon xvii-vix; Steinsaltz, Adin 1976 The Essential Talmud New York: Basic Books. 3-9; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95; Stern, David "Midrash and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry , Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 132-161
  51. ^ Stern, David "Midrash and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry , Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), p. 147.
  52. ^ Cohen, Abner 1949 Everyman's Talmud New York: EP Dutton & Co. xxiv; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95
  53. ^ Cohen, Abner 1949 Everyman's Talmud New York: EP Dutton & Co. xxiv; Steinsaltz, Adin 1976 The Essential Talmud New Yorki: Basic Books. 222; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95
  54. ^ Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95
  55. ^ ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? Jerusalem: 1974, pp. 38-39
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  85. ^ Bamidbar (Numbers) 19.
  86. ^ Avi Kehat. "Torah tidbits" . Ou.org . http://www.ou.org/torah/tt/5767/shemot67/mikdash.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  87. ^ a b "Judaism 101: Kosher Sex" . Jewfaq.org . http://www.jewfaq.org/sex.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  88. ^ "Karaites" . Encyclopedia.com . http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3458001508.html . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  89. ^ Wasserfall, Rahel (1999). Women and water: menstruation in Jewish life and law . Brandeis University Press. ISBN 0874519608 .  
  90. ^ Yehezkal Kauffman, The Religion of Israel
  91. ^ Robert Alter The Art of Biblical Poetry
  92. ^ EA Speiser Genesis (The Anchor Bible)
  93. ^ John Bright A History of Israel
  94. ^ Martin Noth The History of Israel
  95. ^ Ephraim Urbach The Sages
  96. ^ Shaye Cohen The beginnings of Jewishness
  97. ^ John Day Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan , page 68.
  98. ^ Langmuir, Gavin (1993). History, religion, and antisemitism . University of California Press. ISBN 0520077288 .  
  99. ^ ""The Maggid of Mezritch" Chapter 7 - Opposition Intensifies" . Nishmas.org . http://www.nishmas.org/maggid/chapt7.htm . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  100. ^ http://www.harrisinteractive.com/vault/Harris-Interactive-Poll-Research-While-Most-Americans-Believe-in-God-Only-36-pct-A-2003-10.pdf Religious service attendance at least once a month
  101. ^ This is My Beloved, This is My Friend: A Rabbinic Letter on Intimate relations , p. 27, Elliot N. Dorff
  102. ^ Hence for example such books as People of the Book: Thirty Scholars Reflect on Their Jewish Identity (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997) and People of the Book: Canon, Meaning, and Authority (Harvard University Press, 1997).
  103. ^ "Jewish Rabbi admits Islam is the oldest religion" . YouTube . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PA2N2Iz5ExM . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  104. ^ Prager, D ; Telushkin, J . Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism . New York: Simon & Schuster , 1983. page 110-126.
  105. ^ Jewish-Muslim Relations, Past & Present , Rabbi David Rosen
  106. ^ "The Golden Age of Arab-Jewish Coexistence, The Golden Era" . The Peace FAQ. 1998-09-01 . http://www.peacefaq.com/golden.html#whatis . Consultado el 08/22/2010.  
  107. ^ Lewis (1999), p.131; (1984), pp.8,62
  108. ^ a b Lewis (1984), pp.10,20
  109. ^ Lewis (1987), p. 9, 27
  110. ^ Lewis (1999), p.131
  111. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 17, 18, 52, 94, 95; Stillman (1979), pp. 27, 77
  112. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 28
  113. ^ Muslim Anti-Semitism by Bernard Lewis (Middle East Quarterly) June 1998
  114. ^ Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism , Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 9780761989530 , p. 140 . "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose."
  115. ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism" . In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions . Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2 . Westport, Conn : Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 191. ISBN 978-0275987145 . OCLC 315689134 . LCCN 2006-022954 . http://books.google.com/books?id=ClaySHbUEogC&pg=RA1-PA191 . "In the late 1960s and 1970s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews."  
  116. ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism" . In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions . Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2 . Westport, Conn : Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 194. ISBN 978-0275987145 . OCLC 315689134 . LCCN 2006-022954 . http://books.google.com/books?id=oZiScvbS6-cC&pg=RA1-PA194&dq=When+the+term+resurfaced+in+Israel&hl=en&ei=ee9aTLToE8L-8AbUz_WyAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=When%20the%20term%20resurfaced%20in%20Israel&f=false . "The Rise of Messianic Judaism. In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mid-1970s, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative. Unlike the previous communities of Jewish Christians, Messianic Jewish congregations were largely independent of control from missionary societies or Christian denominations, even though they still wanted the acceptance of the larger evangelical community."  
  117. ^ a b Melton, J. Gordon . Encyclopedia of Protestantism . Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9780816054565 , p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews."
  118. ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism" . In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions . Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2 . Westport, Conn : Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 191. ISBN 978-0275987145 . OCLC 315689134 . LCCN 2006-022954 . http://books.google.com/books?id=ClaySHbUEogC&pg=RA1-PA191&dq=While+Christianity+started+in+the+first+century+of+the+Common+Era&hl=en&ei=o-9aTNSsKoL58AbC1tWMAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=While%20Christianity%20started%20in%20the%20first%20century%20of%20the%20Common%20Era&f=false . "While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained. But in the twentieth century groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish identity and customs with the Christian faith."  
  119. ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism" . In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions . Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2 . Westport, Conn : Greenwood Publishing Group . pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0275987145 . OCLC 315689134 . LCCN 2006-022954 . http://books.google.com/books?id=oZiScvbS6-cC&pg=RA1-PA194&dq=When+the+term+resurfaced+in+Israel&hl=en&ei=ee9aTLToE8L-8AbUz_WyAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=When%20the%20term%20resurfaced%20in%20Israel&f=false . "When the term resurfaced in Israel in the 1940s and 1950s, it designated all Jews who accepted Christianity in its Protestant evangelical form. Missionaries such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term nozrim , "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien, hostile religion. Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term, one that did not arouse negative feelings. They chose Meshichyim , Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term nozrim . Meshichyim as a term also had the advantage of emphasizing messianism as a major component of the Christian evangelical belief that the missions and communities of Jewish converts to Christianity propagated. It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that [sic] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians. The term Messianic Judaism was adopted in the United States in the early 1970s by those converts to evangelical Christianity who advocated a more assertive attitude on the part of converts towards their Jewish roots and heritage."  
  120. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). "Messianic Jewish mission" . Messianic Judaism . London : Continuum International Publishing Group . p. 179. ISBN 9780826454584 . OCLC 42719687 . http://books.google.com/books?id=5aOOlWdLpNwC&pg=PA169&dq=%22Messianic+Judaism%22+Christian+Jewish&hl=en&ei=IkthTJaKMMT48Aax_dDaCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Evangelism%20Jewish%20people%20heart%20movement&f=false . Retrieved August 10, 2010 . "Evangelism of the Jewish people is thus at the heart of the Messianic movement."  
  121. ^ Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism" ( Google Books ). Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000 . Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press . p. 223. ISBN 9780807848807 . OCLC 43708450 . http://books.google.com/books?id=r3hCgIZB790C&printsec=frontcover&vq=advocated+offspring+rhetoric+Shalom#v=onepage&q=advocated%20offspring%20rhetoric%20Shalom&f=false . Retrieved August 10, 2010 . "Messianic Judaism, although it advocated the idea of an independent movement of Jewish converts, remained the offspring of the missionary movement, and the ties would never be broken. The rise of Messianic Judaism was, in many ways, a logical outcome of the ideology and rhetoric of the movement to evangelize the Jews as well as its early sponsorship of various forms of Hebrew Christian expressions. The missions have promoted the message that Jews who had embraced Christianity were not betraying their heritage or even their faith but were actually fulfilling their true Jewish selves by becoming Christians. The missions also promoted the dispensationalist idea that the Church equals the body of the true Christian believers and that Christians were defined by their acceptance of Jesus as their personal Savior and not by their affiliations with specific denominations and particular liturgies or modes of prayer. Missions had been using Jewish symbols in their buildings and literature and called their centers by Hebrew names such as Emanuel or Beth Sar Shalom. Similarly, the missions' publications featured Jewish religious symbols and practices such as the lighting of a menorah. Although missionaries to the Jews were alarmed when they first confronted the more assertive and independent movement of Messianic Judaism, it was they who were responsible for its conception and indirectly for its birth. The ideology, rhetoric, and symbols they had promoted for generations provided the background for the rise of a new movement that missionaries at first rejected as going too far but later accepted and even embraced."  
  122. ^ "What are the Standards of the UMJC?" . FAQ . Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations . June 2004 . http://www.umjc.net/home-mainmenu-1/faqs-mainmenu-58/14-umjc-faq/19-what-are-the-standards-of-the-umjc . Retrieved 2000-07-03 . "1. We believe that there is one Gd, eternally existent in three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
    2. We believe in the deity of the L-RD Yeshua, the Messiah, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious and atoning death through His shed blood, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, and in His personal return in power and glory."
     
  123. ^ Israel b. Betzalel (2009). "Trinitarianism" . JerusalemCouncil.org . http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/apologetics/trinitarianism/ . Retrieved 2009-07-03 . "This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn't become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God's Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is “HaShem” who we interact with and not die."  
  124. ^ "Do I need to be Circumcised?" . JerusalemCouncil.org. Feb 10, 2009 . http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/faqs/do-i-need-to-be-circumcised/ . Retrieved August 18, 2010 . "To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one's heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.…Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!…As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God's commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted.…If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah."  
  125. ^
  126. ^
    Orthodox
    Simmons, Shraga. "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus" . Aish HaTorah . http://www.aish.com/jw/s/48892792.html . Retrieved July 28, 2010 . "Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because:
    1. Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies.
    2. Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah.
    3. Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations.
    4. Jewish belief is based on national revelation."  
    Conservador
    Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews Are Not Jews" . United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism . Archived from the original on June 28, 2006 . http://web.archive.org/web/20060628033541/http://www.uscj.org/Messianic_Jews_Not_J5480.html . Retrieved 2007-02-14 . "Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Christianity and Judaism, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side.…we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community."  
    Reform
    "Missionary Impossible" . Hebrew Union College . August 9, 1999 . http://www.huc.edu/news/mi.html . Retrieved 2007-02-14 . "Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus," "Messianic Jews," and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries."  
    Reconstructionist / Renewal
    "FAQ's About Jewish Renewal" . Aleph.org . 2007 . https://www.aleph.org/faq.htm . Retrieved 2007-12-20 . " What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that."  

Bibliography

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