MTV

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MTV
MTV Logo 2010.png
Puso en marcha 01 de agosto 1981
Propiedad de MTV Networks ( Viacom )
Formato de imagen 480i ( SDTV )
1080i ( HDTV )
País Estados Unidos
Lengua Inglés
Sede Ciudad de Nueva York
Anteriormente conocido como Music Television (agosto 1, 1981 a noviembre 16, 2008)
Hermana del canal (s) MTV2 , Tr3s , mtvU , VH1 ,
Nickelodeon , canales de otros países hermanos
Sitio web mtv.com
Disponibilidad
Satélite
DirecTV Canal 331 (SD / HD)
Canal 1331 (VOD)
Dish Network Canal 160 (SD / HD)
Cable
Charter Communications Canal 28
UPC Polonia Canal 570
Canal 24 (Xfinity / Comcast)
canal 884 (Xfinity / Comcast)
Parte de una serie de

MTV
   en los Estados Unidos   

MTV canales
MTV2 · Tr3s · mtvU

Programas de MTV

MTV personalidades

La censura en la MTV

MTV Networks

MTV, anteriormente una sigla de Music Television, es una red americana con sede en la ciudad de Nueva York que puso en marcha el 1 de agosto de 1981. [1] El propósito original de la cadena era para jugar videos de la música guiados por el aire host conocidos como VJs . [2]

Al mismo tiempo, MTV tuvo un profundo impacto en la industria de la música y la cultura popular . Consignas como: "Quiero que mi MTV" y "MTV está aquí", se insertaron en el pensamiento público, el concepto de los VJ se popularizó la idea de una salida de vídeo que se dedica a la música se introdujo, y los artistas y los aficionados encontraron una ubicación central para conciertos eventos musicales, noticias , y la promoción . MTV también ha sido mencionado en innumerables ocasiones en la cultura popular de los músicos, otros canales de televisión y programa de televisión , películas y libros.

MTV ha dado lugar a numerosos canales hermanos en los EE.UU. y canales afiliados a nivel internacional , algunos de los cuales, como el ex Tempo MTV ahora se conoce como redes de TEMPO , han ido independientes. La influencia moral de MTV sobre los jóvenes, incluidas las cuestiones relacionadas con la censura y el activismo social , ha sido un tema de debate durante años. Elección de MTV, para centrarse en la programación no musical también ha sido impugnada sin descanso desde la década de 1990, lo que demuestra el impacto del canal anterior en la cultura popular.

Contenido

[ editar ] El lanzamiento de MTV

[ editar ] Conceptos previos

MTV es la pre-historia comenzó en 1977, Warner Cable (una división de Warner Communications), y un ancestro de Warner-Amex satélite Entretenimiento (WASEC) puso en marcha las dos primeras vías interactivas de televisión por cable del sistema, QUBE , en Columbus, Ohio . El sistema ofrece muchas QUBE canales especializados. Uno de estos canales especializados fue vista en el sonido, un canal de música que incluyó escenas de los conciertos y programas de televisión orientado a la música, con el servicio interactivo de QUBE, los espectadores pudieron votar por sus canciones y artistas favoritos.

El formato de programación original de MTV fue creado por los medios de comunicación ejecutivo Robert W. Pittman , quien más tarde se convirtió en presidente y director ejecutivo (CEO) de MTV Networks. [3] Pittman se había basado en pruebas el formato de música con la producción y de alojamiento a 15 minutos espectáculo, las canciones del álbum, en WNBC a finales de 1970.

Jefe de Pittman, WASEC Vicepresidente Ejecutivo de falta de John, había pastoreado PopClips , una serie de televisión creada por el ex Monkee convertido artista solista Nesmith Michael , cuya atención se había convertido en el formato de video musical a finales de 1970. [4] La inspiración para PopClips vino de un programa similar en Nueva Zelanda 's TVNZ red, radio con imágenes , que se estrenó en 1976. El concepto en sí había sido en las obras desde 1966, cuando grandes compañías discográficas empezaron a suministrar la de Nueva Zelanda Broadcasting Corporation , con clips de música promocional para jugar en el aire sin costo alguno. (Pocos artistas hicieron el largo viaje a Nueva Zelanda para aparecer en vivo.)

Además, en el libro The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, autor Mason Williams afirma que lanzó la idea de CBS para un programa de televisión que ofreció el "video-radio", donde los disc jockeys jugaría vanguardistas obras de arte a la música en el aire . CBS canceló la idea, pero Williams estrenó su propia composición musical, " Classical Gas ", en el Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour , donde fue jefe de escritores. El libro en el que se hace esta afirmación fue publicada por primera vez en 1971, diez años antes de MTV por primera vez en el aire.

Los Beatles habían utilizado videos musicales desde mediados de 1960 y su película debut, "Noche de un día duro" a partir de 1964 se dice a menudo que la verdadera inspiración de la red.

[ editar ] Music Television estrena

El logotipo de MTV negro con las palabras "Music" y "Televisión", utilizada en diferentes formas Diversas 1981 - 2010
Las primeras imágenes muestran en MTV fueron un montaje de la Apolo 11 aterrizaje en la Luna

El 1 de agosto de 1981, a las 12:01 am, MTV lanzó con las palabras "Damas y caballeros, rock and roll", hablado por la falta de John, y tocó sobre el material de la cuenta regresiva de lanzamiento espacial primera lanzadera de Columbia (que tuvo lugar a principios de ese año) y del lanzamiento de Apollo 11 . Esas palabras fueron seguidas de inmediato por la canción del tema original de MTV, una melodía clásica crujido compuesta por Jonathan Elias y John Petersen, jugando sobre las fotos del Apolo 11 aterrizaje en la Luna, con la bandera con el logo de MTV, cambiando varios colores, texturas y diseños. MTV productores Alan Goodman y Fred Seibert utilizado este dominio público material de archivo como la vanidad, la asociación de MTV con el momento más famoso en la historia del mundo de la televisión. [5] Seibert dijo que había planeado originalmente para el uso Neil Armstrong 's "Un pequeño paso", cita, pero los abogados, dijo Armstrong es dueño de su nombre e imagen, y Armstrong se había negado, por lo que la cita fue reemplazado con un pitido. [6] En el momento de su lanzamiento, sólo unos pocos miles de personas en un sistema de cable único en el norte de Nueva Jersey podría verlo. Kenneth M. Miller es reconocido como el primer Director Técnico para el lanzamiento oficial de MTV desde su sede en Nueva York Red de Servicio de Operaciones. [7]

El primer video musical que aparece en MTV fue The Buggles "Video Killed the Radio Star". El segundo vídeo muestra fue Pat Benatar "s" You Better Run ". Esporádicamente, la pantalla en negro cuando se iba un empleado de MTV inserta una cinta en una grabadora . [8] Video del lanzamiento de MTV fue subido a YouTube en 2009, con los comerciales originales, y el "pantallas en negro", entre vídeos. El "letras de MTV" diferían en su primer día, e incluyó información discográfica como año y nombre de la etiqueta. [9]

" Carouselambra "de Led Zeppelin fue jugado como los créditos de cierre enrollado cuando MTV se emitió por primera vez.

Como jefe de programación, Robert W. Pittman reclutados y dirigió un equipo para la puesta en marcha que incluía a Tom Freston (que sucedió a Pittman como director general de MTV Networks), Fred Seibert , John Sykes, Carolyn Baker (cabeza original de talento y de la adquisición), [10 ] Marshall Cohen (director de investigación original), [11] Gail Sparrow (de talento y de la adquisición), Sue Steinberg (productor ejecutivo), [12] Julian Goldberg, los productores de estudio / MTV News Escritores Liz Nealon, Diamond y Brian Zorn Robin, Steve Casey (creador del nombre de MTV y su director del primer programa), [13] Marcy Brafman, Ronald E. "Buzz" Brindle, y Robert Morton. [13]

MTV efecto fue inmediato en las zonas donde podría ser el canal de música nuevo video recogido. En cuestión de un par de meses, las tiendas de discos en las zonas donde se dispone de MTV se encontraron venta de música que las emisoras de radio locales no estaban jugando, como los hombres en el trabajo , Bow Wow Wow y The Human League . [14]

[ editar ] Después de los conceptos

HBO también tenía un programa de 30 minutos de videos de música, llamado Video Jukebox , que se estrenó en el momento del lanzamiento de MTV y se prolongará hasta finales de 1986. También por esta época, HBO vez en cuando jugar uno o algunos videos musicales de las películas. [ cita requerida ]

WTBS Superstation lanzó Tracks noche del 3 de junio de 1983, con un máximo de 14 horas de vídeo radial de música cada fin de semana la noche antes de 1985. Su diferencia más notable es que negro artistas que fueron puestos al aire MTV inicialmente ignoradas. El programa duró hasta finales de mayo de 1992. A pocos mercados también puso en marcha la música-sólo los canales, sobre todo en Las Vegas KVMY Canal 21, que se estrenó en el verano de 1984 como KRLR-TV Vusic 21. El primer vídeo jugó en ese canal era Michael Jackson "Thriller". [ cita requerida ]

Poco después de TBS comenzó Tracks noche, NBC lanzó su programa de videos musicales llamado Friday Night Videos que se consideró respuesta a la cadena de televisión MTV. Más tarde, su denominación por la noche del viernes, el programa se desarrolló entre 1983 y 2002. La contribución de la cadena ABC en el género de la música del programa de vídeo en 1984, Rocas ABC , fue mucho menos éxito, que dura sólo un año. [ cita requerida ]

TBS fundador Ted Turner comenzó el canal de música por cable en 1984, diseñado para reproducir una mayor variedad de videos musicales de formato de rock de MTV está permitido. Pero después de un mes a una empresa que pierde dinero, Turner vendió a MTV, el canal que reconstruido en VH1 . [15]

[ editar ] videos de música en MTV

El propósito original de MTV fue como "Music Television", jugando videos musicales las 24 horas del día, 7 días a la semana, guiados por las personalidades conocidas como VJs , o jinetes de video. La frases originales del canal fueron "Nunca vas a ver la música de la misma manera", y "En el cable. En estéreo". Aunque el primer canal de MTV ya no pasa videos de música 24 / 7, varios canales de spin-off que lo hagan, MTV Hits y MTV Jams. Además, los videos se pueden reproducir a la carta en su página web.

A nivel internacional, la estación sigue prestando apoyo a una amplia selección de música, incluyendo 4 canales en el Reino Unido que emiten 23 horas de vídeo de la música por día.

[ editar ] VJs y formato original

Formato a principios de MTV fue modelado después de los 40 principales radio. Rostro fresco hombres y mujeres jóvenes fueron contratadas para recibir la programación de la red e introducir los vídeos que se está reproduciendo. El término VJ (video jockey) fue acuñado, una obra de teatro en la sigla DJ ( disc jockey ). VJs muchos de ellos eventualmente se convirtieron en celebridades por derecho propio. El original de cinco VJs de MTV en 1981 fueron Nina Blackwood , Goodman Marcos , Alan Hunter , JJ Jackson y Martha Quinn . En 2005, este grupo (a excepción de JJ Jackson, quien murió en 2004) se convirtió en las máquinas de Sirius XM Radio Canal 8 ( 80 a 8 ). [16]

Los videos de música antigua que constituían el grueso de la programación de MTV en la década de 1980 eran videos promocionales [llamadas "promociones" en el Reino Unido] que las compañías discográficas habían encargado para el uso internacional o fragmentos de conciertos de las fuentes que pudo encontrar.

Un gran número de bandas de rock y artistas de la década de 1980 se hizo popular por MTV. Estos actos van desde la nueva ola de rock duro o bandas de heavy metal [17] , tales como Adam Ant , Eurythmics , [18] Culture Club , [19] The Fixx , Split Enz , el Príncipe , Ultravox , Duran Duran , [20] Van Halen , [21] Bon Jovi , Ratt , [22] Def Leppard , [23] La Policía y los coches . La red también rotar los videos de "Weird Al" Yankovic , que hizo una carrera fuera de la parodia de vídeos de otros artistas. [24]

MTV también algunos clásicos del rock actúa desde la década de 1980 y las décadas anteriores, incluyendo David Bowie , Dire Straits (1985 cuya canción y el video " Dinero para nada "hace referencia tanto a MTV y también se incluye el lema" Yo quiero mi MTV "en sus letras), viaje , de Rush , John Mellencamp , Billy Joel , Génesis , Billy Squier , Robert Palmer , de los Rolling Stones , Rod Stewart , The Who y ZZ Top , solo recientemente los actos tales como Robert Plant , Phil Collins , Paul McCartney , David Lee Roth , y Pete Townshend , supergrupo de actos tales como Asia , Power Station , The Firm , y Traveling Wilburys , así como actos olvidado como Michael banda Stanley , zapatos , Blotto y Taxxi . La banda de rock duro beso públicamente apareció sin su maquillaje marca por primera vez en la MTV en 1983.

Asimismo, durante los primeros días de la canal, los VJs permitiría tomar otras estrellas a través del canal dentro de una hora como "VJ invitada" de los músicos ( Adam Ant , Billy Idol , Phil Collins , Simon LeBon y Nick Rhodes de Duran Duran , Tina Turner ) a los cómicos ( Eddie Murphy , Martin Short , Dan Aykroyd , Steven Wright ), ya que recoger sus videos favoritos.

[ editar ] Rompiendo la "barrera del color"

Michael de Jackson suspense generado varios videos musicales importantes, como Billie Jean y Thriller.

Durante los primeros años de MTV en el aire, muy pocas negro artistas fueron incluidos en la rotación en el canal. Los que estaban en la rotación de MTV incluye Eddy Grant , Tina Turner y Donna Summer . El primer acto de no-blancos en MTV en los EE.UU. fue el Reino Unido la banda The Specials , que contó con un sistema integrado de line-up de músicos en blanco y negro y vocalistas. The Specials "video" Rat Race "fue interpretado como el video 58a en el primer día de la estación de radiodifusión. [25]

MTV rechazó otros videos, como el negro artistas Rick James " Super Freak ", porque no se ajustaban a la roca del canal dominado el formato en el momento. La exclusión enfurecido James, defendió públicamente la adición de videos artistas más negro "en el canal. La leyenda del rock David Bowie también cuestionó la falta de MTV de artistas negro durante una entrevista en vivo con VJ Mark Goodman en 1983. [26] cabeza original de MTV, de talento y de la adquisición, Carolyn B. Baker, que era negro, había preguntado por qué la definición de música tenía que ser tan estrecha, al igual que algunos otros.

Antes de 1983, Michael Jackson también tuvo problemas para recibir tiempo aire en MTV. [27] Para resolver la lucha y, finalmente, "romper la barrera del color", el presidente de CBS Records en ese momento, Walter Yetnikoff denunciados, MTV en un comunicado fuerte, profano, amenaza con quitarle la capacidad de MTV para jugar en cualquiera de los videos musicales del sello discográfico. [27] [28] Sin embargo, Les Garland , entonces jefe de adquisiciones, dijo que había decidido aire de Jackson " Billie Jean "vídeo sin la presión de la cadena CBS. [26] Esto se contradice con la cabeza CBS de Asuntos de Negocios David Benjamin en la revista Vanity Fair. [6] En todo caso, MTV comenzó a mostrar el "Billie Jean" de video en rotación regular en 1983, formando una asociación larga con Jackson y ayudar a otros artistas de la música negro. [29]

De acuerdo con The Austin Chronicle , video de Jackson para la canción "Billie Jean" era "el video que rompió la barrera del color, a pesar de que el propio canal se encargó de levantar esa barrera en el primer lugar." [30] Después de transmitir videos de Jackson música , Jackson se hizo aún más popular. Este movimiento ayudó a otros artistas de negro, como el príncipe , Whitney Houston , y la hermana menor de Jackson, Janet Jackson entrar en rotación en el canal. Jonathan Cohen de la revista Billboard comentó: "El sonido accesible y videos espectaculares coreografías eran irresistibles para MTV, y ayudó a desarrollar el canal de la programación de roca a una más amplia, beat-impulsado mezcla musical." Janet Jackson [31]

[ editar ] Otras críticas iniciales

Ya en 1983, debido a la visibilidad de MTV como una herramienta de promoción para la industria de la grabación , el canal fue acusado de devaluar la importancia de la música, en sustitución de la calidad con una estética puramente visual y evitando igualmente popular, sino que actúa menos centrada en la imagen o de un solo base . Ese año, la revista Rolling Stone 's Steven Levy escribió, "el mayor logro de MTV ha sido la de convencer a rock & roll en la arena de vídeo en el que no puede distinguir entre el entretenimiento y la promoción de ventas." [32] Un músico que también criticó a MTV estas razones se Jello Biafra de los Dead Kennedys , la banda lanzó una canción en 1985, titulado " MTV, Get Off the Air ". Varios grupos e individuos, desde entonces han criticado a MTV por razones similares, insistiendo en que el canal tiene una responsabilidad como "Music Television" para jugar más videos de música y mantener un mejor nivel crítico para los videos musicales que eligen para figurar en la rotación.

[ editar ] serie de videos de música

MTV presentó 120 minutos en 1986, un espectáculo que cuentan con baja rotación, rock alternativo y otros "underground" videos de los próximos 14 años en MTV y tres años más en la hermana de canal MTV2 . El programa entonces se conocía como subterráneos en MTV2. A continuación, el 31 de julio de 2011, 120 minutos fue resucitado en la actualidad con Matt Pinfield hacerse cargo de tareas de alojamiento, una vez más y dar a conocer mensualmente en MTV2 .

Otra muestra de horas después se añadió en 1987, Headbangers Ball . Este popular programa contó con música heavy metal y de prensa. Antes de su abrupta cancelación en 1995, ofreció varios equipos, sobre todo Riki Rachtman y Curry de Adán . Headbangers Ball sigue siendo un identificador de ídolos de la música heavy metal. Un bloque semanal de videos musicales con el Balón de Headbangers nombre se ha emitido desde 2003 en el canal MTV2 hermana.

En 1988, MTV estrenó Yo! MTV Raps , un programa hip-hop/rap formato. El programa continuó hasta agosto de 1995. Su nombre se cambió a simplemente Yo! Y jugó durante una hora a partir de 1995 hasta 1999. El concepto fue reintroducido como efecto directo en el año 2000, que se convirtió en Sucker Free en 2006 y fue cancelado en 2008, tras una breve celebración del 20 aniversario de Yo! MTV Raps durante los meses de abril y mayo de 2008. A pesar de su cancelación en la MTV, una cuenta atrás semanal de videos de hip-hop conocido como Sucker gratis aún se emite en MTV2.

A comienzos de la década de 1990, el canal estrenó Marcar MTV , un diario de los diez mejores vídeos musicales muestran la cuenta atrás para que los espectadores pueden llamar al teléfono gratuito número 1-800-DIAL-MTV para solicitar un video musical. A pesar de marcación MTV fue de corta duración, el número de teléfono se mantuvo en uso de las solicitudes de vídeo hasta el año 2006.

[ editar ] Conciertos en vivo

A lo largo de su historia, MTV ha cubierto una serie de conciertos mundiales beneficio directo. Para la mayoría de 13 de julio de 1985, MTV mostró el Live Aid, los conciertos, que se celebró en Londres y Filadelfia y organizado por Bob Geldof y Midge Ure para recaudar fondos para aliviar la hambruna en Etiopía . Mientras que el ABC de la red sólo mostró aspectos destacados durante el horario estelar, MTV transmisión de 16 horas de cobertura. [33]

En 1989, MTV comenzó a estreno de la música basada en especialidades tales como MTV Unplugged , un espectáculo de rendimiento acústico, que ha contado con decenas de actos como a sus clientes y se ha mantenido activo en numerosas repeticiones en varias plataformas desde hace más de 20 años.

Junto con VH1, MTV transmitió el concierto Live 8 conciertos, una serie de conciertos establecidos en el G8 y los Estados de África del Sur , el 2 de julio de 2005. [34] Live 8 precedió a la 31a reunión del G8 y el 20 aniversario de Live Aid. MTV han suscitado fuertes críticas por su cobertura de Live 8 . La red de corte a comerciales, el comentario de VJ, o de otras actuaciones durante las actuaciones. Las quejas surgieron en Internet a través de MTV interrumpir la reunión de Pink Floyd . [35] En respuesta, el presidente de MTV Van Toeffler declaró que quería transmitir aspectos más destacados de cada lugar de Live 8 en MTV y VH1, y aclaró que máquinas de la red sólo hablaron de actuaciones en transición a los comerciales, segmentos informativos, u otras actuaciones musicales. [36] Toeffler reconoció que "MTV no ??debería haber hecho como una alta prioridad en mostrar tantos actos, a expensas de transmitir series completas de los artistas clave." [35] También culpó a la interrupción de rosa Floyd en una rotura de cable afiliados obligatorios. [36] MTV un promedio de 1,4 millones de espectadores por su original 02 de julio de difusión de Live 8. [35] En consecuencia, MTV y VH1 emitió cinco horas de ininterrumpida cobertura de Live 8 de julio 9 de cada canal al aire los diferentes bloques de los artistas. [37]

El 7 de julio de 2007, MTV transmitió el Live Earth de conciertos, que se llevó a cabo en todo el mundo para crear conciencia sobre el cambio climático .

[ editar ] La rebelión de los directores

A comienzos de 1990, MTV estaba jugando una combinación de pop de usar grupos de rock duro, las listas de éxitos de metal y hard rock actúa como Metallica , Nirvana y Guns N 'Roses , los cantantes pop como Michael Jackson , Madonna , 2 Unlimited y Nueva Kids on the Block , y los cuartetos de R & B, tales como New Edition , Bell Biv Devoe , tonos de Tony Toni , y Boyz II Men , mientras que la introducción de los raperos golpe de Vanilla Ice y MC Hammer . MTV aumentado progresivamente su emisión de hip hop actos, como LL Cool J , Naughty By Nature , Onyx y Sir Mix-A-Lot- , y en 1993, agregó el canal de la costa oeste raperos previamente asociados con el gangsta rap , con menos pop de usar el sonido, como Tupac Shakur , Ice Cube , Warren G , Dr. Dre y Snoop Dogg .

Para acompañar a los nuevos sonidos, una nueva forma de videos musicales, fue así: más creativo, divertido, artístico, experimental, y técnicamente que los de la década de 1980 [. cita requerida ] Varios señalaron los directores de cine tuvieron su inicio la creación de videos musicales. Después de la presión de la MVPA (Music Video Asociación de Productores - más tarde cambió de Música Asociación de Producción de video) MTV empezó a publicar los nombres de los directores de los videos "en la parte inferior de los créditos en diciembre de 1992. Como resultado, los televidentes de MTV, se familiarizó con los nombres de Spike Jonze , Michel Gondry , David Fincher , Bayer Samuel , Mahurin Matt , Mark Romanek , Jonathan Dayton y Valerie Faris , Corbijn Anton , Mark Pellington , Tarsem , Hype Williams , Scott, Jake , Jonathan Glazer , Marcus Nispel , F. Gary Gray , Jim Yukich, Russell Mulcahy , Steve Barron y Callner Marty , entre otros.

A medida que la PBS la serie de primera línea explorada, MTV fue una fuerza impulsora que catapultó a los vídeos musicales a un público general, convirtiendo videos de música en una forma de arte, así como una máquina de marketing que se convirtió en beneficio de los artistas. Danny Goldberg , presidente y CEO de Artemis Records , dijo lo siguiente sobre el arte de los videos musicales: "Sé que cuando he trabajado con Nirvana , Kurt Cobain . preocupaba tanto de los videos como lo hizo sobre los registros Escribió los guiones de ellos, se encontraba en la sala de edición, y formaban parte de su arte. Y creo que se ponen de pie como parte de su arte, y creo que eso es cierto de los grandes artistas de hoy. No todos los artistas es un gran artista y no todos los vídeos es un buen video, pero en general tienen disponible como una herramienta, para mí, se suma a la empresa. Y me gustaría que había videos de la música en el apogeo de los Beatles y los Rolling Stones . creo que se ha añadido a su contribución creativa, no le resta. " [38] The Beatles produjo videos de música específicamente para la televisión una vez que su gran popularidad hace que sea menos práctico para que puedan comparecer en persona.

[ editar ] Alternativa es la corriente principal

Nirvana encabezó una transición de barrido en el aumento de rock alternativo de música en MTV en 1991 con su video populares de " Smells Like Teen Spirit ". A finales de 1991 va en 1992, MTV comenzó con frecuencia al aire videos de su muy promocionado " zumbido Bin ", como Nirvana , Pearl Jam , Alice in Chains , Soundgarden , Nine Inch Nails , Tori Amos , PM Dawn , Arrested Development , Björk , y Gin Blossoms . MTV mayor rotación de su programa semanal de música alternativa 120 minutos y se añade el diario Nación Alternativa para reproducir vídeos de estos y otros actos de música underground. Posteriormente, el grunge y el rock alternativo había un aumento en los gustos de la corriente principal, mientras que 1980 estilo cintas para el pelo y los rockeros tradicionales fueron eliminados, con algunas excepciones tales como Aerosmith y Tom Petty . Mayores actos como REM y U2 sigue siendo pertinente, haciendo su música más experimental o inesperados.

En 1993, el más golpeado de rock alternativo se encontraban en la rotación pesada, como Stone Temple Pilots , Soul Asylum , Rage Against the Machine , herramienta , Beck , la Terapia? , Radiohead y The Smashing Pumpkins . Otros actos de éxito como Weezer , Collective Soul , Blind Melon , The Cranberries , George W. Bush , y Silverchair se siga en los próximos dos años. Bandas de música alternativa que apareció en Beavis y Butthead también saltó a la fama, sobre todo de White Zombie .

Por los próximos años, de 1994 a 1996, MTV comenzó a promocionar los nuevos actos de power pop, con más éxito de Green Day y The Offspring , y el ska-rock actúa como No Doubt , The Mighty Mighty Bosstones y Sublime . Cantantes de pop se han añadido a la rotación con el éxito, siempre y cuando se consideran "alternativos", como Alanis Morissette , Joya , Fiona Apple , y Sarah McLachlan .

[ editar ] Electrónica y pop

En 1997, MTV está muy enfocado a la introducción de la electrónica actúa en la corriente principal, y agregó que su rotación musical. Algunos de los músicos más populares de este grupo fueron The Prodigy , The Chemical Brothers , Moby , Aphex Twin , Daft Punk , The Crystal Method , y Fatboy Slim . Algunos otros músicos establecidos procedió a experimentar con la electrónica y se jugará en la MTV, en particular Madonna , U2 , David Bowie , Radiohead y The Smashing Pumpkins . Ese año, MTV también intentó introducir neo-swing bandas, pero no cumplió con mucho éxito.

Sin embargo, a finales de 1997, MTV comenzó a cambiar progresivamente hacia el más pop de música, inspirado por el éxito de las Spice Girls y el surgimiento de bandas de chicos en Europa. Entre 1998 y 1999, el contenido musical MTV consistía en gran medida de los videos de bandas de chicos, como los Backstreet Boys y 'N Sync , así como del pop "princesas", como Britney Spears , Christina Aguilera , Mandy Moore y Jessica Simpson . Airplay de rock, electrónica, y los actos alternativos se redujo. Hip-hop, continuó en la rotación pesada, a través de la talla de Puff Daddy , Master P , DMX , Busta Rhymes , Jay Z , Missy Elliott , Eminem , Ja Rule y sus asociados. R & B fue también una fuerte presencia con actos como el niño del destino y el Brandy .

[ editar ] Total Request Live

También en 1997, MTV fue duramente criticado por no jugar como videos musicales, como lo había hecho en el pasado. En respuesta, MTV ha creado cuatro espectáculos que en torno a videos musicales: MTV Live , Total Request , ¿Cómo? , y 12 televidentes furiosos . También en este tiempo, MTV lanzó su nueva estudios de Times Square . Un año más tarde, en 1998, se fusionó MTV Total Request Live en MTV y un programa más vivo todos los días de cuenta atrás diez años, Total Request Live , que sería conocido como TRL y asegurar su lugar como el canal no oficial de buque insignia del programa.

El anfitrión original de TRL, Carson Daly , trajo popularidad de la serie. TRL pasó su primer año el desarrollo de un culto de tipo, y cada día de la semana, cientos de aficionados que están en Times Square fuera de los estudios TRL. En el otoño de 1999, un público en vivo fue introducido en el programa. En la primavera de 2000, la cuenta regresiva llegó a su apogeo, convirtiéndose en un icono reconocible de la cultura popular en sus dos primeros años de existencia. El programa tuvo un éxito de juego entre los diez primeros pop, rock, R & B y hip-hop videos musicales.

Korn "s" Got the Life "es considerado como el primer" retiro "de video de TRL. [39] [40]

Durante el 11 de septiembre , en el World Trade Center y el Pentágono , MTV suspendió toda su programación, junto con su hermana, el canal de cable VH1 , y comenzó la difusión simultánea de la cadena CBS News la cobertura de su entonces su cadena hermana, hasta que alrededor de las 11:00 horas de ese por la noche. Los canales se jugó una serie en bucle de vídeos musicales sin interrupción comercial hasta un MTV News edición especial de TRL emitido el 14 de septiembre de 2001.

En 2002, Carson Daly dejó MTV TRL y seguir un programa de entrevistas nocturno de la NBC , después de su partida, la pertinencia y el impacto de Total Request Live TRL disminuido lentamente en última instancia, siendo una parte de la programación regular de MTV durante diez años.. La serie llegó a su fin con un episodio final especial, Total Final en vivo, que se emitió 16 de noviembre 2008, y contó con muchos invitados especiales de la historia de la serie y jugar su último vídeo musical, "... Baby One More Time" por Britney Spears . [41]

[ editar ] El retorno del rock

A partir de finales de 1997, MTV reducir progresivamente su emisión de los vídeos musicales de rock, dando lugar a la consigna entre los escépticos, "Rock está muerto." [42] El hecho de que en el tiempo de fanáticos de la música de rock eran menos materialistas y compró menos de música basada en la televisión sugerencias fueron citados como razones por las que abandonó su música MTV vez primera necesidad. MTV lugar dedicó su tiempo de emisión musical en su mayoría a la música pop y hip-hop / R & B. Todos los programas centrados en la roca y se eliminaron las categorías de rock de los Derechos de los Video Music Awards se redujeron a uno.

Desde este momento hasta el año 2004, MTV tuvo algunos intentos de volver a introducir periódicamente pop videos musicales de rock en el canal. En 1998 y 1999, la banda de punk-rock Blink-182 recibió tiempo de emisión regular en en gran parte debido a su "MTV Las cosas pequeñas "de vídeo que se burlaba de los grupos de chicos que MTV se emitía en ese momento. Mientras tanto, algunos grupos de rock que no estaban recibiendo el apoyo de MTV, como Korn y Creed , continuó vendiendo discos. Luego, tras la publicación de Korn de rock / rap álbum híbrido Follow the Leader , MTV comenzó a jugar videos de Korn " Got the Life "y" Freak on a Leash ", que se hizo popular.

Un grupo patrocinado por Korn, Limp Bizkit , recibió tiempo de uso para la cubierta de George Michael "s" Fe ", que se convirtió en un éxito. Posteriormente, MTV comenzó a transmitir más de rap / rock actos híbridos, tales como Limp Bizkit y Kid Rock . Algunas rocas actos con los vídeos más cómicos, como Rob Zombie , Red Hot Chili Peppers y Foo Fighters , tiempo en el aire también recibió.

En el otoño de 1999, MTV anunció una declaración especial del fin de semana Rock, [43] en el que los nuevos actos de rock tiempo en el aire recibido, después de que un álbum recopilatorio fue lanzado. System of a Down , Staind , Godsmack , Green Day , Incubus , Papa Roach , POD , Sevendust , Powerman 5000 , Slipknot , Kittie , y X estática estaban entre las bandas incluidas. Estas bandas recibido algún tiempo al aire en MTV y más aún en MTV2 , aunque ambos canales le dio énfasis a los grupos de rock / rap.

En el año 2000, Sum 41 , Linkin Park , Jimmy Eat World , Mudvayne , frío , At The Drive-In , Granja Alien Ant , y otros actos se han añadido a la rotación musical. MTV también lanzó cable digital canal MTVX para reproducir vídeos de música rock en exclusiva, un experimento que duró hasta 2002. [44] Un programa de videos musicales MTV todos los días en que llevaba el nombre de retorno de la Roca funcionó hasta principios de 2001, reemplazado por un sucesor, todos los Cosas Rock, desde 2002 hasta 2004.

[ editar ] Hitos y especiales

Alrededor de 1999 a 2001, como MTV salió al aire menos videos musicales durante todo el día, con regularidad transmitido dos especiales sobre la compilación de sus entonces 20 años de historia para mirar hacia atrás en sus raíces. Un especial que todo lo abarca, MTV Uncensored, estrenado en 1999 y fue liberado más tarde como un libro. [45] [46]

MTV celebra su 20 aniversario el 1 de agosto de 2001, comenzando con una retrospectiva de 12 horas convocada MTV20: Buggles a Bizkit, que contó con más de 100 videos clásico jugado en orden cronológico, organizado por VJs varias reproducciones de viejos estudios de MTV. The day of programming culminated in a 3-hour celebratory live event called MTV20: Live and Almost Legal , which was hosted by Carson Daly and featured numerous guests from MTV's history, including the original VJs from 1981. Various other related MTV20 specials aired in the months surrounding the event.

Janet Jackson became the inaugural honoree of the " mtvICON " award, "an annual recognition of artists who have made significant contributions to music, music video and pop culture while tremendously impacting the MTV generation." [ 47 ] Subsequent recipients included Aerosmith , Metallica , and The Cure .

Five years later, on August 1, 2006, MTV celebrated its 25th anniversary. On their website, MTV.com, visitors could watch the very first hour of MTV, including airing the original promos and commercials from Mountain Dew , Atari , Chewels gum, and Jovan . Videos were also shown from The Buggles , Pat Benatar , Rod Stewart , and others. The introduction of the first five VJs was also shown. Additionally, MTV.com put together a "yearbook" consisting of the greatest videos of each year from 1981 to 2006. MTV itself only mentioned the anniversary once on TRL .

[ edit ] Fewer music videos

Despite targeted efforts to play certain types of music videos in limited rotation, MTV greatly reduced its overall rotation of music videos throughout the early-mid 2000s. While music videos were featured on MTV up to eight hours per day in 2000, 2008 saw an average of just three hours of music videos per day on MTV. The rise of the Internet as a convenient outlet for the promotion and viewing of music videos signaled this reduction. [ 48 ]

As the decade progressed, MTV continued to play some music videos instead of relegating them exclusively to its sister channels , but around this time, the channel began to air music videos only in the early morning hours or in a condensed form on Total Request Live . As a result of these programming changes, Justin Timberlake challenged MTV to "play more damn videos!" while giving an acceptance speech at the 2007 Video Music Awards . [ 49 ]

Despite the challenge from Timberlake, MTV continued to decrease its total rotation time for music videos in 2007, and the channel eliminated its long-running special tags for music videos such as "Buzzworthy" (for under-represented artists), "Breakthrough" (for visually stunning videos), and "Spankin' New" (for brand new videos). Additionally, the historic Kabel typeface, which MTV displayed at the beginning and end of all music videos since 1981, was phased out in favor of larger text and less information about the video's record label and director. The classic font can still be seen in "prechyroned" versions of old videos on sister network VH1 Classic , which had their title information recorded onto the same tape as the video itself.

For most of 2008, MTV's main source of music video programming was still Total Request Live , airing four times per week, featuring short clips of music videos along with VJs and guests. TRL aired its last episode in November 2008. [ 50 ] A hip-hop music video show, Sucker Free , also ended earlier in 2008.

[ edit ] FNMTV Premieres

In the summer of 2008, MTV premiered new music video programming blocks called FNMTV and a weekly special event called FNMTV Premieres , hosted from Los Angeles by Pete Wentz of the band Fall Out Boy , which was designed to premiere new music videos and have viewers provide instantaneous feedback. [ 51 ]

The FNMTV Premieres event ended before the 2008 Video Music Awards in September. With the exception of a holiday themed episode in December 2008 and an unrelated Spring Break special in March 2009 with the same title, FNMTV Premieres never returned, leaving MTV without any VJ-hosted music video programs for the first time in its history.

On most weekdays during the rest of 2008, a music video block called FNMTV aired in the early morning hours. It consisted of abbreviated clips of music videos, approximately 60 seconds each. MTV cancelled the early morning FNMTV block in January 2009, replacing it with encore airings of other programs.

[ edit ] AMTV and late 2000s - early 2010s trends

AMTV , the name of MTV's music programming since 2009

Music video programming returned to MTV in March 2009 as AMTV , an early morning block of music videos that originally aired from 3 am to 9 am on most weekdays; see AMTV for current schedule). [ 52 ] Unlike the FNMTV block that preceded it, AMTV features many full-length music videos, including some older videos that have been out of regular rotation for many years on MTV. It also features music news updates, interviews, and performances. [ 52 ]

During the rest of the day, MTV also plays excerpts from music videos, usually the hook , in split screen format during the closing credits of most programs, along with the address of a website to encourage the viewer to watch the full video online. MTV has positioned its website, MTV.com, as one of its primary destinations for music videos (see Beyond MTV , below, for more information about MTV.com and the channel's related Internet ventures).

MTV launched a live talk show, It's On with Alexa Chung , on June 15, 2009. The host of the program, Alexa Chung , has been described as a "younger, more Web 2.0 " version of Jimmy Fallon . [ 53 ] Although it is filmed in the same Times Square studio where TRL used to be located, the network stated that "the only thing the two shows have in common is the studio location." [ 54 ] It's On was cancelled in December of the same year, which again eliminated the only live in-studio programming from MTV's schedule, just one year after TRL was also cancelled.

Shortly after music and pop culture icon Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, MTV briefly returned to its original music video format to celebrate his work. [ 55 ] The channel aired many hours of Jackson's music videos, accompanied by live news specials featuring reactions from MTV personalities and other celebrities. The temporary shift in MTV's programming culminated the following week with the channel's live coverage of Jackson's memorial service. [ 56 ]

MTV again resurrected the long-running series MTV Unplugged in 2009 with performances from acts such as Adele , Katy Perry , and Paramore . [ 57 ] However, unlike past Unplugged specials, these new recordings usually only air in their entirety on MTV's website, MTV.com. Nevertheless, short clips of the specials are shown on MTV during the AMTV block of music videos in the early morning hours.

In May 2010, MTV launched 10 on Top , a weekly program that counts down the top 10 most trending and talked about topics of the week. MTV's web site describes the program as, "a half-hour countdown of the top 10 most texted and talked about young celebs at the moment. Their ranking will be influenced by the audience - based on the chatter they elicit, and the headlines they create each week, as well as the amount of buzz about their upcoming projects and events." The show went on hiatus in mid-June 2011. According to host Lenay Dunn 's Twitter feed, the show will return August 20, 2011 with new shows.

In September 2010, MTV tried its hand again at a live half hour program called The Seven . The Seven counted down the top seven things you should know about, having aired weekdays at 5 pm with a weekend wrap-up at 10 am The show was slightly retooled as it dropped host Julia Alexander and kept host Kevin Manno . The Saturday show was eliminated as well. Like its predecessor, "The Seven" saw its cancellation on June 13, 2011. Manno, per The Seven ' s Twitter feed, said he is still with MTV.

On June 12, 2011, MTV did a traditional TV premiere of a new installment of MTV Unplugged instead of a web debut. The featured artist was rapper Lil Wayne and the show debuted both on MTV and MTV2.

Although MTV is in their 30th year of broadcasting (as of August 1, 2011), the network apparently ignored this milestone in favor of its current programming schedule. They've outsourced all of their 30th Anniversary Celebrations to its sister networks MTV2 and VH1 Classic . Nathaniel Brown, senior vice president of communications for MTV, confirmed that there were no plans for an on-air MTV celebration like what they did 10 years ago when MTV celebrated its 20th Anniversary. Brown explained, "MTV as a brand doesn't age with our viewers. We are really focused on our current viewers, and our feeling was that our anniversary wasn't something that would be meaningful to them, many of whom weren't even alive in 1981." [ 58 ]

In October 2011, Beavis and Butt-Head will return to MTV with new episodes. [ 59 ]

[ edit ] Censorship

MTV has edited a number of music videos to remove references to drugs , [ 60 ] sex , violence , weapons , racism , homophobia , or advertising . [ 61 ] Many music videos aired on the channel were censored, moved to late-night rotation, or banned entirely from the channel.

In the 1980s, parent-media watchdog groups such as the Parents Music Resource Center criticized MTV over certain music videos that were claimed to have explicit imagery of satanism . MTV has developed a strict policy on refusal to air videos that may depict devil worship or anti-religious themes. [ 62 ] This policy led MTV to ban music videos such as " Jesus Christ Pose " by Soundgarden in 1991 [ 63 ] and " Megalomaniac " by Incubus in 2004. [ 64 ]

[ edit ] Other programs on MTV

As MTV expanded, music videos were no longer the centerpiece of its programming. Conventional TV shows came to replace the VJ-guided music video programming. Today, MTV presents a wide variety of non-music-related television shows aimed primarily at the 12 to 18 year old demographic.

[ edit ] Award shows

In 1984, the network produced its first MTV Video Music Awards show, or VMAs. Perceived by some as a fit of self-indulgence by a fledgling network at the time, the VMAs developed into a music-industry showcase marketed as a more relevant youth-targeted antidote to the Grammy awards. The first award show, in 1984, was punctuated by a live performance by Madonna of " Like A Virgin ". The statuettes that were handed out were of the MTV moonman, their logo at the time. The award was called "The Elvis".

MTV added the MTV Movie Awards in 1992 with similar success. MTV also created an award show for Europe after the success of the VMAs. The MTV Europe Music Awards , or the EMAs, were created in 1994, ten years after the debut of the VMAs.

[ edit ] First format evolution

In 1985, Viacom bought Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment , which owned MTV and Nickelodeon, renaming the company MTV Networks and beginning this expansion. Before 1987, MTV featured almost exclusively music videos, but as time passed, they introduced a variety of other shows, including some that were originally intended for other channels.

Non-music video programming began in the late 1980s with the introduction of a music news show The Week in Rock , which was also the beginning of MTV's news division, MTV News . Around this time, MTV also introduced a dance show, Club MTV , and a game show, Remote Control .

These new shows would be just the beginning of new genres of shows to impact MTV. As the format of the network continued to evolve, more genres of shows began to appear. In the early 1990s, MTV debuted its first reality shows , The Real World and Road Rules .

[ edit ] Animated shows

Steve Fiorilla 's sculpture for the MTV logo "Guillotine"

In a continuing bid to become a more diverse network, focusing on youth and culture, as well as music, MTV introduced animated shows to its line-up in the early 1990s. The animation showcase Liquid Television (originally a BBC import, later acquired and produced by MTV) was one of the networks first programs to focus on the medium. In addition to airing original shows created specifically for MTV, the network also occasionally aired episodes of original cartoon series created by sister-station Nickelodeon ( Nicktoons ) in the early 1990s.

MTV has a history of cartoons with mature themes, notably Beavis and Butthead , Æon Flux , Grimmy , Celebrity Deathmatch , Undergrads , Clone High and Daria . Although the channel has gone on to debut many other animated shows, few of MTV's other cartoon series have been renewed for additional seasons, regardless of their reception.

In the wake of controversy that followed a child burning down his house after allegedly watching Beavis and Butthead , "producers moved the show from its original 7 pm time slot to a late-night, 11 pm slot. Also, Beavis' tendency to flick a lighter and scream the word " fire " was removed from new episodes, and controversial scenes were removed from existing episodes before rebroadcast. [ 65 ] Some of the edits were so extensive that when series creator Mike Judge compiled his Collection DVDs he found out that "some of those episodes may not even exist actually in their original form." [ 66 ]

In September 2009, the channel aired Popzilla , which showcased and imitated celebrities in an animated form.

[ editar ] Los reality shows

Christina, a contestant on the pilot episode of MTV's Fear

In the mid- to late 1990s and early 2000s, MTV placed a stronger focus on reality shows and related series, building on the success of The Real World and Road Rules in the 1990s. The first round of these shows came in the mid-1990s, with game shows such as Singled Out , and talk shows such as Loveline and The Jon Stewart Show .

The next round of these shows came in approximately the late 1990s, as MTV shifted its focus to prank/comedic shows such as The Tom Green Show and Jackass , soap operas such as Undressed , and game shows such as Real World/Road Rules Challenge , The Blame Game , webRIOT , and Say What? Karaoke . A year later, in 2000, MTV's Fear became one of the first scare-based reality shows and the first reality show in which contestants filmed themselves.

Some of the reality shows on the network also followed the lives of musicians. The Osbournes , a reality show based on the everyday life of Black Sabbath frontman Ozzy Osbourne , his wife Sharon , and two of their children, Jack and Kelly , premiered on MTV in 2002. The show went on to become one of the network's biggest-ever success stories and was also recognized for the Osbourne family members' heavy use of profanity, which MTV bleeped for broadcast. [ 67 ] It also kick-started a musical career for Kelly Osbourne , [ 68 ] while Sharon Osbourne went on to host her own self-titled talk show on US television. [ 69 ] Ozzy Osbourne announced that production for his show would cease in November 2004. [ 70 ] In the fall of 2004, Ozzy Osbourne's reality show Battle for Ozzfest aired; the show hosted competitions between bands vying to play as part of Ozzfest , a yearly heavy metal music tour across the United States hosted by Osbourne.

In 2003, MTV added Punk'd , a project by Ashton Kutcher to play pranks on various celebrities, and Pimp My Ride , a show about adding aesthetic and functional modifications to cars and other vehicles. Another popular show was Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica , a reality TV show that followed the lives of pop singers Jessica Simpson and Nick Lachey , a music celebrity couple. It began in 2003, ran for four seasons. and ended in early 2005. The couple later divorced. The success of Newlyweds was followed in June 2004 by The Ashlee Simpson Show , which documented the beginnings of the music career of Ashlee Simpson , Jessica Simpson's younger sister.

In 2005 and 2006, MTV continued its focus on reality shows, with the debuts of popular shows such as 8th & Ocean , Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County , NEXT , Two-A-Days , My Super Sweet 16 , and Parental Control . Another popular show was Viva La Bam , featuring Bam Margera .

MTV shifted its focus back to Real World -style reality programming in late 2009 with the premiere of Jersey Shore , which brought unprecedented ratings success to the channel and also caused controversy due to some of its content (see Jersey Shore controversy , below). [ 71 ] MTV also aired a new show around this time called 16 and Pregnant, which documented the lives of teenagers expecting to have babies. This had a follow up show after the first season called Teen Mom.

MTV Hired follows the interviewing process, candidates meet with career coach Ryan Kahn from University of Dreams and at the end of each episode one candidate lands the job of their dreams. [ 72 ] [ 73 ]

[ edit ] Rebroadcast programs and movies

In recent years, MTV has re-aired other programs from Viacom -owned TV networks, such as BET's College Hill and VH1 programs I Love New York and Flavor of Love . [ 74 ] Other programs from non-Viacom networks include reruns of the shows Fastlane (from Fox ), [ 75 ] Life As We Know It (from ABC ), [ 76 ] Scrubs (from ABC and NBC ), and CW programs America's Next Top Model , Beauty and the Geek , [ 77 ] and Hidden Palms . MTV also began showing movies targeted toward the young adult demographic, including 8 Mile , [ 78 ] My Boss's Daughter , Shaun of the Dead , and Napoleon Dynamite (the latter of which the network had a hand in producing). The channel has also broadcast several of its own productions of its film-producing division MTV Films , such as Crossroads and Jackass: The Movie , [ 79 ] and airs original made-for-television movies from MTV Studios such as Super Sweet 16: The Movie .

In 2007, MTV aired the reality show A Shot at Love with Tila Tequila , chronicling MySpace sensation Tila Tequila 's journey to find a companion. Her bisexuality played into the series—both male and female contestants were vying for love—and was the subject of criticism. [ 80 ] It was the second-most popular show at that time, behind The Hills . [ 81 ] A spin-off series from Shot of Love , That's Amoré! , followed a similar pursuit from previous Shot at Love contestant Domenico Nesci. MTV also welcomed Paris Hilton to their lineup in October 2008 with the launch of her new reality series, Paris Hilton's My New BFF . [ 82 ] In 2009, MTV aired Snoop Dogg's second reality show with the channel, Dogg After Dark , and the show College Life , based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison .

[ edit ] Scripted programming

MTV expanded its programming focus in 2009 to include scripted comedy programs. The channel was reported to be developing a number of scripted half-hour projects, including an animated series and five additional pilots. [ 83 ] With backlash towards what some consider too much superficial content on the network, a recent New York Times article also stated the intention of MTV to shift its focus towards more socially conscious media, which the article labels "MTV for the Obama era." [ 84 ] Shows in that vein included TI's Road to Redemption and Fonzworth Bentley 's finishing school show From G's to Gents . Western Europa programs such as Deutschland Liebt Günther and (separately based tagging them) series Das ist so Togo became a big hit in Europe in 2004 and 2006. There was more success for MTV when another (reality) show entitled The Buried Life was a great success for the station. It's about four friends traveling across the country to check off a list of "100 things to do before I die" and help others along the way, was another example of MTV's revised programming focus.

[ edit ] Image and branding

MTV is widely considered the first television network to develop itself as a "brand," with a unified vocabulary, voice, and visual identity. Senior management, including John Lack , Bob Pittman , and Fred Seibert , all started their careers in radio, which had developed station brands as a critical audience development tool for decades, and Seibert led the teams that became directly responsible for the brand's creation.

MTV's logo, the large block letter "M" with graffiti-style letters "TV" superimposed and the words "Music Television" underneath, quickly became ubiquitous and instantly recognizable in popular culture. The last three decades have brought some change and evolution to MTV's iconic image and branding.

[ edit ] Original logos and IDs

An early MTV station ID

The MTV logo was designed in 1981 by Manhattan Design , a collective formed by Frank Olinsky, [ 85 ] Pat Gorman, and Patty Rogoff, under the guidance of MTV's original creative director, Fred Seibert . The 'M' was sketched by Rogoff, with the 'TV' spray painted by Olinksky. [ 86 ]

Throughout MTV's early days, the channel's main logo was a large yellow "M" with red letters "TV," but unlike most networks' logos, the MTV logo constantly morphed and adapted with different colors, patterns, and images filling in the large block letter. The very first moments of MTV featured an adaptation of the first landing on the moon, directly from NASA still images (a concept of Seibert's, executed by Buzz Potamkin and Perpetual Motion Pictures). [ 87 ] After the "moon landing," as well as the top of every hour until at least the mid-1980s (which ran "more than 15,000" times each year, according to Seibert), [ 87 ] featured a rapidly changing station ID logo that changed its appearance several times per second. The only constant aspects of MTV's logo at the time were its general shape and proportions; everything else was dynamic. [ 88 ]

The channel's most popular image and branding campaign, " I want my MTV! ," was launched in 1982. The media strategy and creative executions were developed by Dale Pon, leader of the MTV advertising agency LPG/Pon, based on a variation of a well known cereal commercial from the 1950s, "I want my Maypo!" [ 89 ] Over the years the campaign featured known artists and celebrities including Pete Townshend , Pat Benatar , Adam Ant , David Bowie , The Police , Kiss , Culture Club , Billy Idol , Hall & Oates , Cyndi Lauper , Madonna , Lionel Richie , Ric Ocasek , John Mellencamp , Peter Wolf , Joe Elliot , Stevie Nicks , Rick Springfield and Mick Jagger interacting with the MTV logo on-air, encouraging viewers to call their cable or satellite providers and request that MTV be added to their local channel lineups. [ 88 ] Eventually, the slogan became so ubiquitous it became incorporated as a sung (by Sting ) lyric in the Mark Knofler penned Dire Straits ' record " Money for Nothing ."

[ edit ] 1990s and 2000s updates

MTV's original 1981 and revised 2009 logos both feature dynamic patterns and images

Once MTV's original morphing logo had run its course, the channel began to use a solid color white logo that was otherwise the same as the original. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, MTV updated its on-air appearance at the beginning of every year and again each summer, creating a consistent brand across all of its music-related shows. This style of channel-wide branding came to an end as MTV drastically reduced its number of music-related shows in the early to mid-2000s. At this time, MTV introduced a static, single-color digital on-screen graphic during all of its other programming.

[ edit ] 2010 rebranding

Since the premiere of the short-lived FNMTV in 2008, MTV has used a revised, chopped version of its traditional logo during most of its on-air programming. The revised logo is largely the same as MTV's original logo, but it excludes the "Music Television" caption, the bottom section of the "M" block letter, and the trailing letter "V" that branched off to the side of the original logo. [ 90 ] However, much like the ever-changing patterns that filled MTV's original 1981 logo, the new 2010 logo is designed to be filled in with an unlimited variety of pictures and images. This new logo formally became MTV's official brand mark on February 8, 2010, when it debuted on MTV's website. [ 91 ] The channel's long-running official tagline "Music Television" was officially dropped at this time. [ 90 ] It is used worldwide, except for several countries, as of July 1, 2011. It was first adopted for MTV Films with the 2010 release Jackass 3D .

MTV's rebranding was overseen by Popkern. [ 92 ]

[ edit ] Moral influence and controversies

MTV's near-ubiquitous presence in popular culture for 30 years has led the channel to be in the center of the ongoing debate over the cultural and moral influence of music and television on young people and society. The channel has thus found itself a target of criticism by various groups about programming choices, social issues, political correctness , sensitivity, censorship , and a perceived negative moral influence on young people. [ 93 ]

In 2005, the Parents Television Council released a study titled MTV Smut Peddlers , which sought to expose what PTC believed was excessive sexual, profane, and violent content on the channel, based on MTV's Spring Break programming from 2004. [ 94 ] Jeanette Kedas, an MTV network executive, called the PTC report "unfair and inaccurate" and "underestimating young people's intellect and level of sophistication," while L. Brent Bozell III , then-president of the PTC, stated that "the incessant sleaze on MTV presents the most compelling case yet for consumer cable choice ," referring to the practice of cable and satellite companies to allow consumers to pay for channels à la carte . [ 95 ]

The Christian right organization American Family Association has also criticized MTV from perceptions of negative moral influence, [ 96 ] even going as far as to describe MTV as promoting a "pro- sex , anti- family , pro-choice , drug culture." [ 97 ]

In April 2008, PTC released The Rap on Rap , a study covering hip-hop and R&B music videos rotated on programs 106 & Park and Rap City , both shown on BET , and Sucker Free on MTV. PTC urged advertisers to withdraw sponsorship of those programs, whose videos PTC stated targeted children and teenagers "with adult content...once every 38 seconds." [ 98 ] [ 99 ]

[ edit ] Super Bowl controversy

On the heels of parent company Viacom 's purchase of CBS , MTV was selected to produce the halftime show at Super Bowl XXXV , airing on CBS and featuring Britney Spears , 'N Sync and Aerosmith . [ 100 ] Due to its success, MTV was invited back to produce another Super Bowl halftime show, which would spark a moral influence debate and lead to sweeping changes in Super Bowl halftime shows, MTV's own programming, and even music played on the radio.

When CBS aired Super Bowl XXXVIII in 2004, its sister network was again chosen to produce the halftime show, with performances by such artists as Nelly , Diddy , Janet Jackson , and Justin Timberlake . The show became controversial after Timberlake tore off part of Jackson's outfit while performing his hit song " Rock Your Body " with her, revealing her right breast . All involved parties apologized for the incident, and Timberlake referred to the incident as a " wardrobe malfunction ". [ 101 ]

Michael Powell , then-chairman of the Federal Communications Commission , ordered an investigation of the show the day after its broadcast. [ 101 ] In the weeks following the controversial halftime show, MTV censored much of its programming. Several music videos, including " This Love " by Maroon 5 and " I Miss You " by Blink-182 , were edited for sexual content. [ 64 ] In September 2004, the FCC ruled that the halftime show was indecent and fined CBS $550,000. [ 102 ] The FCC upheld its decision in 2006, [ 103 ] but federal judges reversed the fine in 2008. [ 104 ]

The Super Bowl itself would not feature another modern act for its halftime show until The Black Eyed Peas performed at Super Bowl XLV in 2011.

[ edit ] Jersey Shore controversy

MTV received a significant amount of criticism from Italian American organizations for the show Jersey Shore , which premiered in December 2009. [ 105 ] The controversy was due in large part to the manner in which MTV marketed the show, as it liberally used the word Guido to describe the cast members. The word Guido is generally regarded as an ethnic slur when referring to Italians and Italian Americans. One promotion stated that the show was to follow, "eight of the hottest, tannest, craziest Guidos," [ 106 ] while yet another advertisement stated, "[the show] exposes one of the tri-state area's most misunderstood species... the GUIDO. Yes, they really do exist! Our Guidos and Guidettes will move into the ultimate beach house rental and indulge in everything the Seaside Heights, New Jersey scene has to offer." [ 107 ]

Prior to the series debut, UNICO National (which is the largest Italian American organization) formally requested that MTV cancel the show. [ 108 ] In a letter to the network, UNICO called the show a "...direct, deliberate and disgraceful attack on Italian Americans..." [ 109 ] UNICO National President Andre DiMino said in a statement "MTV has festooned the 'bordello-like' house set with Italian flags and red, white and green maps of New Jersey while every other cutaway shot is of Italian signs and symbols. They are blatantly as well as subliminally bashing Italian-Americans with every technique possible..." [ 110 ] Around this time, other Italian organizations joined the fight, including the NIAF , [ 111 ] the Order Sons of Italy in America and the internet watch-dog. [ 112 ] [ 113 ]

MTV responded to the controversy by issuing a press release which stated in part, "the Italian-American cast takes pride in their ethnicity. We understand that this show is not intended for every audience and depicts just one aspect of youth culture." [ 105 ] Since the calls for the show's removal, several sponsors have requested that their ads not be aired during the show. These sponsors include Dell, Domino's and American Family Insurance. [ 114 ] Despite the loss of certain advertisers, MTV has not canceled the show. Moreover, the show has seen its audience gradually increase from its premiere in December 2009.

[ edit ] Dude, This Sucks stunt

A pilot for a show called Dude, This Sucks was canceled after teens attending a taping at the Snow Summit Ski Resort in January 2001 were sprayed with liquid fecal matter by the group The Shower Rangers . The teens later sued. [ 115 ] MTV later apologized and said that the segment would not air. [ 116 ] [ 117 ]

[ edit ] Social activism

In addition to its regular programming, MTV has a long history of promoting social, political, and environmental activism in young people. The channel's vehicles for this activism have been Choose or Lose , encompassing political causes and encouraging viewers to vote in elections; Fight For Your Rights , encompassing anti-violence and anti-discrimination causes; and think MTV , the newest umbrella for all of MTV's social activism.

[ edit ] Choose or Lose

MTV Choose or Lose logo

In 1992, MTV started a pro-democracy campaign called Choose or Lose , to encourage up to 20 million people to register to vote, and the channel hosted a town hall forum for then-candidate Bill Clinton . [ 118 ]

In recent years, other politically diverse programs on MTV have included True Life , which documents people's lives and problems, and MTV News specials, which center on very current events in both the music industry and the world. One special show covered the 2004 US Presidential election, airing programs focused on the issues and opinions of young people, including a program where viewers could ask questions of Senator John Kerry . [ 119 ] MTV worked with P. Diddy 's " Vote or Die " campaign, designed to encourage young people to vote. [ 120 ]

Additionally, MTV aired a documentary covering a trip by the musical group Sum 41 to the Democratic Republic of Congo , documenting the conflict there. The group ended up being caught in the midst of an attack outside of the hotel and were subsequently flown out of the country. [ 121 ]

The channel also began showing presidential campaign commercials for the first time during the 2008 US presidential election . [ 122 ] This has led to criticism from the right, with Jonah Goldberg opining that "MTV serves as the Democrats' main youth outreach program." [ 123 ]

[ edit ] Fight For Your Rights

In the 1990s and early 2000s, MTV promoted annual campaigns known as Fight For Your Rights , with the slogan "Speak Out/Stand Up Against Violence," to bring forth awareness on America's crime, drugs and violence issues.

On April 6, 2001, MTV voluntarily ceased regular programming for 24 hours as part of the year's hate crimes awareness campaign. On that night, MTV aired a made-for-TV movie Anatomy of a Hate Crime , based on a true story of the 1998 murder of 21-year old Matthew Shepard , a gay college student. After the film and a discussion, MTV went dark and showed names of hate crime victims.

[ edit ] think MTV

MTV's most recent activism campaign is think MTV , which discusses current political issues such as same-sex marriage , US elections , and war in other countries. The slogan of the program is "Reflect. Decide. Do." As part of think MTV , the channel also airs a series of pro-conservation ads called Break The Addiction , as a way of encouraging their viewers to find ways to use less fossil fuels and energy.

think MTV addresses twelve major issue areas: discrimination, environment, politics, health & self, crime & violence, poverty & disease, human rights, war & peace, relationships & sex, faith, substance abuse, and education. Young people are encouraged to choose the issues that resonate most and take action to make a positive change. The motto is, "Your cause. Your effect." think MTV is also integrated in MTV's current programming.

[ edit ] Beyond MTV

Since its launch in 1981, the brand "MTV" has expanded to include many additional properties beyond the original MTV channel, including a variety of sister channels in the US, dozens of affiliated channels around the world, and an Internet presence through MTV.com and related websites.

[ edit ] Sister channels in the US

MTV operates a group of channels under the name MTV Networks , a division of its corporate parent, Viacom . In 1985, MTV saw the introduction of its first true sister channel, VH1 , which was originally an acronym for "Video Hits One" and was designed to play adult contemporary music videos. Today, VH1 is aimed at celebrity and popular culture programming. Another sister channel, CMT , targets the country music and southern culture market.

The advent of satellite television and digital cable brought MTV greater channel diversity, including its current sister channels MTV2 and MTV Tr3s (now Tr3s), which initially played music videos exclusively but now focus on other programming. Music videos still occupy most of the schedule on two additional channels, MTV Hits and MTV Jams . MTV also broadcasts mtvU , a college -oriented channel on campus at various universities .

Recently, MTV began broadcasting "MTV HD," a 1080i high definition simulcast of MTV. However only the network's original series after 2010 (with some pre-2010 content) are aired in high definition, while music videos, despite being filmed for high definition presentation, are still presented in 4:3 standard definition, forcing them into a windowboxing type of presentation. DirecTV , Dish Network , Comcast , Time Warner Cable , U-verse , & Verizon FiOS carry the HD channel.

MTV Networks also operates Palladia , a high-definition channel that features original HD programming and HD versions of programs from MTV, VH1, and CMT. The station was launched in January 2006 as MHD (Music: High Definition) . The channel was officially rebranded as Palladia on September 1, 2008 to coincide with the shift to more exclusive HD programming. [ 124 ]

In 2005 and 2006, MTV launched a series of channels for Asian Americans . The first channel was MTV Desi , launched in July 2005, dedicated toward South-Asian Americans. Next was MTV Chi , in December 2005, which catered to Chinese Americans. The third was MTV K , launched in June 2006 and targeted toward Korean Americans. Each of these channels featured music videos and shows from MTV's international affiliates as well as original US programming, promos, and packaging. All three of these channels ceased broadcasting on April 30, 2007.

[ editar ] El Internet

MTV.com in 2008

In the late 1980s, before the World Wide Web , in the days of the Gopher protocol, MTV VJ Adam Curry began experimenting on the Internet. He registered the then-unclaimed domain name "MTV.com" in 1993 with the idea of being MTV's unofficial new voice on the Internet. Although this move was sanctioned by his supervisors at MTV Networks at the time, when Curry left to start his own web-portal design and hosting company, MTV subsequently sued him for the domain name, which led to an out-of-court settlement. [ 125 ]

The service hosted at the domain name was originally branded "MTV Online" during MTV's first few years of control over it in the mid-1990s. It served as a counterpart to the America Online portal for MTV content, which existed at AOL keyword MTV until approximately the end of the 1990s. After this time, the website became known as simply "MTV.com" and served as the Internet home base for all MTV and MTV News content.

MTV.com experimented with entirely video-based layouts between 2005 and 2007. The experiment began in April 2005 as MTV Overdrive , a streaming video service that supplemented the regular MTV.com website. [ 126 ] Shortly after the 2006 Video Music Awards , which were streamed on MTV.com and heavily utilized the MTV Overdrive features, MTV introduced a massive change for MTV.com, transforming the entire site into a Flash video-based entity. [ 127 ] Much of users' feedback about the Flash-based site was negative, demonstrating a dissatisfaction with videos that played automatically, commercials that could not be skipped or stopped, and the slower speed of the entire website. The experiment ended in February 2006 as MTV.com reverted to a traditional HTML -based website design with embedded video clips, in the style of YouTube and other popular video-based websites. [ 128 ]

Today, MTV.com is still the official website of MTV, and it expands on the channel's broadcasts by bringing additional content to its viewers. The site's notable features include an online version of MTV News , podcasts, and a video streaming service supported by commercials. There are also movie features, profiles and interviews with recording artists and from MTV's television programs.

The channel responded to the rise of the Internet as the new central place to watch music videos in October 2008 by launching MTV Music , a website that features thousands of music videos from MTV and VH1 's video libraries, dating back to the earliest videos from 1981.

A newly created division of the company, MTV New Media, announced in 2008 that it would produce its own original web series, in an attempt to create a bridge between old and new media. [ 129 ] The programming is available to viewers via personal computers, cell phones , iPods , and other digital devices. [ 130 ]

[ edit ] MTV around the world

MTV Networks has also launched numerous native-language MTV-branded music channels to dozens of countries around the world. MTV UK operates 16 channels solely in the United Kingdom . Other channels include, but are not limited to, MTV Belgium , MTV Brazil , MTV Canada , MTV Turkey , MTV Netherlands , MTV Ireland , MTV Greece , MTV Hungary , MTV Russia , MTV Spain , MTV Austria , MTV France , MTV Germany , MTV Europe , MTV Portugal , MTV Adria , MTV Denmark , MTV Finland , MTV Italy , MTV Israel , MTV Norway , MTV Poland , MTV Czech , MTV Romania , MTV Lithuania , MTV Latvia , MTV Estonia , MTV Sweden , MTV Asia , MTV Taiwan , MTV Korea , MTV Japan , MTV Thailand , MTV Indonesia , MTV India , MTV Philippines (closed from 16 February 2010), MTV Vietnam (just launched on July 1, 2011), MTV Pakistan , MTV Ukraine , MTV Latin America , MTV Australia , MTV New Zealand , and MTV Base in Africa, MTV Arabia and MTV Adria which includes MTV Slovenia , MTV Serbia and MTV Croatia . An international version of MTV known as MTV International was shown on the Internet from 2006 to 2007.sacWED MTV Lithuania, MTV Latvia and MTV Estonia (MTV Networks Baltic) was closed 2009.11.18 with about 3 000 000 EUR debt.

[ editar ] Reconocimiento

In 2010, a study by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation found that of the 207.5 hours of prime time programming, 42% included content reflecting the lives of gay, bisexual and transgendered people. This was the highest in the industry and the highest percentage ever. [ 131 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

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