Corea del Norte

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República Popular Democrática de Corea
?? ???? ?? ???
Choson Minjuju?i Inmin Konghwaguk [1]
Bandera Emblema
Lema : ?? ??
Nación poderosa y próspera
Himno : Aegukka (???)
("La Canción Patriótica")
Capital
(Y ciudad más grande)
Pyongyang
39 ° 2'N 125 ° 45'E / 39.033 ° N 125.75 ° E / 39.033, 125.75
El idioma oficial (s) Coreano
Scripts Oficial Chos?n'g?l
Gentilicio Corea del Norte, Corea
Gobierno Juche unitaria de un solo partido dictadura militar
- El presidente eterno Kim Il-sung
(Fallecido) [a]
- El líder supremo [2] [3] Kim Jong-il
- NDC Presidente Kim Jong-il
- Presidente del Presidium Kim Yong-nam [b]
- Primer ministro Choe Yong-rim
Legislatura Asamblea Popular Suprema de
Establecimiento
- Declaró la independencia 01 de marzo 1919
- Liberación 15 de agosto 1945
- Declaración formal 09 de septiembre 1948
Área
- Total 120.540 kilometros 2 ( 98a )
46.528 millas cuadradas
- De agua (%) 4.87
Población
- 2009 estiman 24051218 [4] ( 51a )
- Censo del 2008 24052231 [5]
- Densidad 198.3/km 2 ( 55a )
513.8/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2008 [6] estimación
- Total $ 40 mil millones ( 94a )
- Per cápita $ 1,900 (2009 est) [7] ( 154a )
PIB (nominal) 2009 [7] estimación
- Total $ 28,2 mil millones ( 88a )
- Per cápita $ 1.244 [8] ( 139a )
Gini (2009 [9] ) N / A (bajo)
Moneda Corea del Norte ganó (?) ( KPW )
Huso horario Corea del Standard Time ( UTC +9)
Formatos de fecha yy, yyyy ? mm ? dd ?
yy, yyyy / mm / dd ( CE-1911 , CE )
Unidades en el derecho
ISO 3166 KP
Dominio Internet . Kp
Código de llamada 850
^ a. Murió de 1994, llamado "presidente eterno" en 1998.
^ b. Kim Yong-nam es el " jefe de Estado de Asuntos Exteriores ".

Coordenadas : 40 ° 00 'N 127 º 00' / 40 ° N 127 ° E / 40, 127 La República Popular Democrática de Corea (RPDC; Chosongul : ?? ???? ?? ???, Hancha : ???????????) , comúnmente conocida como Corea del Norte ( Escuchar i / n ? ?r ? k ? r i ? / ), es un país de Asia Oriental , que ocupa la mitad norte de la península de Corea . Su capital y ciudad más grande es Pyongyang . La Zona Desmilitarizada de Corea sirve como zona de amortiguación entre Corea del Norte y Corea del Sur . El río Amnok y el río Tumen forman la frontera entre Corea del Norte y la República Popular de China . Una sección del río Tumen, en el extremo noreste es la frontera con Rusia .

La península estaba gobernada por el imperio de Corea hasta que fue anexada por Japón tras la guerra ruso-japonesa de 1905. Se divide en zonas de ocupación soviética y estadounidense en 1945, tras el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial . Corea del Norte se negó a participar en una de las Naciones Unidas -supervisado elecciones que se celebraron en el sur en 1948, lo que llevó a la creación de distintos gobiernos de Corea para las dos zonas de ocupación. Tanto en el Norte y Corea del Sur afirma la soberanía sobre la península coreana en su conjunto, lo que condujo a la Guerra de Corea de 1950. El Acuerdo de Armisticio de 1953 puso fin a la lucha;. Sin embargo, los dos países están oficialmente en guerra unos contra otros, como un tratado de paz no se firmó [10] Ambos estados fueron aceptados en las Naciones Unidas . en 1991 [11]

Corea del Norte es un Estado de partido único bajo un frente unido liderado por el Partido del Trabajo de Corea (KWP). [12] [13] [14] [15] El gobierno del país sigue el Juche ideología de la autonomía, desarrollada por el país el presidente , Kim Il-sung . Después de su muerte, Kim Il-sung fue declarado en el país del presidente eterno . Juche se convirtió en la ideología oficial del Estado, cuando el país adoptó una nueva constitución en 1972, [16] , aunque Kim Il-sung había estado usando para diseñar las políticas, al menos desde tan temprano como 1955. [17] Después del colapso de la Unión Soviética y una serie de desastres naturales, el hambre se produjo, causando la muerte de 900.000 a 2 millones de personas. [18] Frente a estas circunstancias, el líder Kim Jong-Il adoptado Songun , o un "complejo militar-primero la" política con el fin de fortalecer el país y su gobierno. [19]

Muchas organizaciones de fuera de informe que Corea del Norte es un totalitario estalinista dictadura [13] [14] [20] [21] [22] con un elaborado culto a la personalidad alrededor de la familia Kim y uno de los más bajos de los derechos humanos registros de clasificación de cualquier país. [23] Corea del Norte es el mundo más militarizadas nación, [24] [25] con un total de 9.495.000 activos, reservas y paramilitares de personal. Se trata de un estado con armas nucleares , y tiene un activo programa espacial . [26] El gobierno es reservado y renuente a permitir que los extranjeros, [ cita requerida ] y Corea del Norte que hoy se considera [ ¿por quién? ] país más aislado del mundo.

Contenido

Historia

Corea del Norte monumento a la guerra en Pyongyang.

A raíz de la ocupación japonesa de Corea , que terminó con la derrota de Japón en la Segunda Guerra Mundial en 1945, Corea fue dividida en el paralelo 38 , de acuerdo con las Naciones Unidas de acuerdo, que será administrado por la Unión Soviética en el norte y el Estados Unidos en el sur. La historia de Corea del Norte inicia formalmente con la creación de la República de la República Popular en 1948.

División de Corea

En agosto de 1945, el ejército soviético creado una Autoridad Civil Soviética para descartar la parte norte de la península coreana hasta un régimen interno, amigo de la URSS, se pudo establecer. Esto se convirtió en regirá por la Comité Popular Provisional de Corea del Norte a través de 1948. Después de la salida de las fuerzas soviéticas en 1948, la agenda principal en los años siguientes fue la unificación de Corea hasta la consolidación de Syngman Rhee régimen en el Sur con el apoyo militar estadounidense y la supresión de la insurrección de octubre 1948 acabó con las esperanzas de que el país podría ser reunificada por medio de comunista la revolución en el Sur. En 1949, una intervención militar en Corea del Sur fue considerado por Kim Il-sung, pero no recibió el apoyo de la Unión Soviética, que había desempeñado un papel clave en el establecimiento del país. [27]

La retirada de la mayoría de los Estados Unidos las fuerzas del Sur en junio debilitado dramáticamente el régimen del Sur y alentó a Kim Il-sung a repensar un plan de invasión contra el Sur. [27] La misma idea fue rechazada por primera vez por Joseph Stalin , pero con el desarrollo de la Unión Soviética armas nucleares, Mao Zedong victoria 's en China y la indicación de China que enviaría tropas y otro apoyo a Corea del Norte, Stalin aprobó una invasión que condujo a la Guerra de Corea . [28]

Guerra de Corea

Guerra de Corea Armisticio

Después de que Corea fue dividida por la ONU, las dos potencias, tanto de Corea del tratado de controlar la totalidad de Corea en sus respectivos gobiernos. Esto condujo a la escalada de los conflictos fronterizos en el paralelo 38 y los intentos de negociar las elecciones para la totalidad de Corea. [29] Estos intentos terminó cuando el ejército de Corea del Norte invadió el Sur el 25 de junio de 1950, conduciendo a una guerra civil a gran escala . Con el respaldo de la Naciones Unidas , los países aliados con los Estados Unidos intervino en favor de Corea del Sur. Después de los rápidos avances en un contraataque de Corea del Sur, del Norte, aliado de China fuerzas intervino a favor de Corea del Norte, cambiando el equilibrio de la guerra. Lucha terminó el 27 de julio de 1953, con un armisticio que aproximadamente restaurado los límites originales entre el Norte y Corea del Sur. Más de 2 millones de civiles y soldados murieron en la guerra.

Aunque algunos se han referido al conflicto como una guerra civil, otros factores importantes implicados. [30] La guerra de Corea fue el primer enfrentamiento armado de la Guerra Fría y fijó el estándar para muchos conflictos posteriores. Se creó la idea de una guerra de poder , donde las dos superpotencias lucharían en otro país, obligando a la gente en ese país a sufrir la mayor parte de la destrucción y la muerte involucrado en una guerra entre naciones tan grandes. Las superpotencias evitar descender a una guerra sin cuartel contra los otros, así como el uso mutuo de las armas nucleares . También se amplió la Guerra Fría, que hasta ese momento había sido en su mayoría relacionados con Europa. Una fuertemente custodiada zona desmilitarizada en el paralelo 38 sigue dividiendo a la península, y un sentimiento anti-comunista de Corea y la lucha contra el Norte y se mantiene en Corea del Sur.

Desde el armisticio en 1953, las relaciones entre el gobierno de Corea del Norte y Corea del Sur, la Unión Europea , Canadá , Estados Unidos y Japón se han mantenido tensas y hostiles incidentes ocurren con frecuencia. [31] [ Página necesarios ] Norte y Corea del Sur firmaron el 15 de junio Norte-Sur Declaración conjunta en el año 2000, en el que se comprometieron a buscar la reunificación pacífica. [32] El 4 de octubre de 2007, los líderes de Corea del Norte y del Sur se comprometieron a mantener conversaciones cumbre para declarar oficialmente la guerra ha terminado y se reafirmó la principio de no agresión mutua. [33]

Finales del siglo 20

RPDC soldado apuntando a la zona desmilitarizada

La relativa paz entre el sur y el norte se vio interrumpido por escaramuzas en la frontera e intentos de asesinato. Corea del Norte fracasó en varios intentos de asesinato a los líderes de Corea del Sur, sobre todo en 1968, 1974 y el bombardeo de Rangún en 1983, los túneles se encontraron con frecuencia en la zona de distensión y de la guerra casi estalló el incidente Axe Murder en Panmunjeom . en 1976 [34] En 1973, en extremo secreto, contactos de alto nivel comenzó a llevarse a cabo a través de las oficinas de la Cruz Roja , pero terminó después del incidente Panmunjeom con poco progreso que han hecho y la idea de que las dos Coreas se uniría a las organizaciones internacionales por separado. [35]

A finales de 1990, con el Sur con la transición a la democracia liberal , el éxito de la Nordpolitik política y poder en el Norte han sido ocupados por el hijo de Kim Il-sung , Kim Jong-il , los dos países comenzaron a participar públicamente para el primera vez, con el Sur declaró su Sunshine Policy . [36] [37]

Siglo 21

En 2002, Estados Unidos, el presidente George W. Bush etiqueta del Norte Corea del parte de un " eje del mal "y un" reducto de tiranía ". El contacto de más alto nivel del gobierno ha tenido con los Estados Unidos con EE.UU. La secretaria de Estado Madeleine Albright , quien hizo una visita a Pyongyang en 2000, [38] , pero los dos países no tienen relaciones diplomáticas formales. [7] En el año 2006 , unos 37.000 soldados estadounidenses permanecieron en Corea del Sur, aunque en junio de 2009 este número había caído a alrededor de 30.000. [39] [40] Kim Jong-il ha privado manifestó su aceptación de las tropas de EE.UU. en la península, incluso después de una posible reunificación . [41] En público, Corea del Norte exige enérgicamente la retirada de las tropas estadounidenses de Corea. [41]

El 13 de junio de 2009, la Associated Press informó que en respuesta a las nuevas sanciones de la ONU, Corea del Norte declaró que se avance en su enriquecimiento de uranio del programa. Esto marcó la primera vez que Corea del Norte ha reconocido públicamente que se está llevando a cabo un programa de enriquecimiento de uranio. [42] En agosto de 2009, el ex presidente de EE.UU. Bill Clinton se reunió con Kim Jong-il para asegurar la liberación de dos periodistas de EE.UU., que había sido condenado para entrar al país ilegalmente. [43] actual EE.UU. El presidente Barack Obama la posición de 's hacia Corea del Norte ha sido la de mantener la calma ante las provocaciones de Corea del Norte [ neutralidad está en disputa ] cuando se resistía a llegar a acuerdos con Corea del Norte sólo por el bien de desactivar tensión, una política conocida como "paciencia estratégica". [44]

El 23 de noviembre de 2010, Corea del Norte disparó alrededor de 170 rondas de artillería en la isla de Yeonpyeong y las aguas cercanas a la frontera del mar Amarillo, con unos 90 proyectiles de aterrizaje en la isla. El ataque resultó en la muerte de dos infantes de marina y dos civiles en el lado de Corea del Sur, y los marines quince años y al menos tres civiles heridos. [45] El Sur contraatacó 80 proyectiles, con efectos desconocidos. Las fuentes de noticias de Corea del Norte alegó que las acciones de Corea del Norte, que se describe como "un golpe físico rápido y potente", fueron en respuesta a la provocación de Corea del Sur que había tenido un ejercicio de artillería en las disputadas aguas al sur de la isla. [46]

Ex presidente de EE.UU. Jimmy Carter hizo un llamado a una solución pacífica a esta crisis. [47]

Geografía

Lago Ch'?nji en el Monte Paektu , el punto más alto de Corea del Norte

Corea del Norte ocupa la parte norte de la península de Corea , que se extiende entre las latitudes 37 ° y 43 ° N y longitudes 124 ° y 131 ° E . Cubre un área de 120.540 kilometros cuadrados (46.541 millas cuadradas). Corea del Norte comparte fronteras terrestres con la República Popular de China y Rusia al norte, y las fronteras de Corea del Sur a lo largo de la zona desmilitarizada de Corea . Al oeste están las del mar Amarillo y la Bahía de Corea , y al este se encuentra Japón a través del Mar de Japón (Mar Oriental de Corea). El punto más alto de Corea del Norte es Paektu-san Montaña a 2.744 metros (9.003 pies). El río más largo es el río que fluye Amnok de 790 kilómetros (491 millas). [48] La ciudad capital y más grande es Pyongyang , otras ciudades importantes son Kaesong , en el sur, Sinuiju , en el noroeste, Wonsan y Hamhung en el este y Chongjin en el noreste.

Topografía

Topografía de Corea del Norte.

Los primeros europeos a los visitantes de Corea señaló que el país parecía "un mar en un vendaval fuerte" debido a los muchos sucesivas cadenas montañosas que atraviesan la península. [49] El 80% de Corea del Norte se compone de montañas y tierras altas , separados por profundas y estrechos valles , con todas las montañas de la península, con elevaciones de 2.000 metros (6.600 pies) o más ubicados en Corea del Norte. La costa llanuras son anchas en el oeste y discontinua en el este. Una gran mayoría de la población vive en las llanuras y tierras bajas .

El punto más alto de Corea del Norte Montaña Baekdu que es una montaña volcánica cerca de la frontera china con basalto lava meseta con alturas entre 1.400 y 2.000 metros (4.600 y 6.600 pies) sobre el nivel del mar. [49] El Hamgyong Gama , ubicado en el extremo parte noreste de la península, tiene muchos picos altos como Gwanmosan aproximadamente a 1.756 m (5.761 pies).

Otros rangos más importantes incluyen el Rangrim montañas , que se encuentran en la parte norte-central de Corea del Norte y correr en una dirección norte-sur, haciendo que la comunicación entre las partes oriental y occidental del país, bastante difícil, y el Kangnam Range, que se extiende Corea del Norte a lo largo de la frontera de China. Geumgangsan , a menudo escritos Monte Kumgang, o Montaña del Diamante, (aproximadamente 1.638 metros o pies 5374) en el rango Taebaek , que se extiende a Corea del Sur, es famoso por su belleza escénica. [49]

En su mayor parte, las llanuras son pequeños. Los más extensos son los Pyongyang y Chaeryong llanuras, cada uno referido a unos 500 kilómetros cuadrados (190 millas cuadradas). Debido a que las montañas de la caída abrupta costa este hasta el mar, las llanuras son aún más pequeños que hay en la costa oeste. A diferencia de los alrededores de Japón o el norte de China, Corea del Norte pocas experiencias graves terremotos .

Clima

Corea del Norte tiene un clima continental con cuatro estaciones distintas. [50] Los inviernos largos traer un clima frío y amargo claras entremezcladas con tormentas de nieve como consecuencia de los vientos del norte y noroeste que soplan desde Siberia . Precipitaciones de nieve es de 37 días durante el invierno. El tiempo es probable que sea particularmente dura en las regiones del norte y montañosas.

Verano tiende a ser corto, caliente, húmedo y lluvioso por el sur y sureste del monzón vientos que traen aire húmedo del Océano Pacífico . Los tifones afectan a la península en un promedio de al menos una vez cada verano. [50] La primavera y el otoño son estaciones de transición marcada por temperaturas suaves y vientos variables y hacer el clima más agradable. Los peligros naturales son las sequías finales de la primavera, que a menudo son seguidas por graves inundaciones. Ocasionalmente hay tifones durante el otoño.

Corea del Norte el clima es relativamente templado . La mayor parte del país está clasificado como Dwa tipo en la clasificación del clima de Köppen esquema, con veranos cálidos e inviernos fríos y secos. En verano hay una corta estación lluviosa llamada Changma. [51] El 7 de agosto de 2007, el más devastador de las inundaciones en 40 años hizo que el gobierno de Corea del Norte para pedir ayuda internacional. ONG , como la Cruz Roja , pidió a la gente para aumentar la fondos por temor a una catástrofe humanitaria. [52]

Divisiones administrativas

Las divisiones principales de Corea del Norte
Mapa El nombre de una Chos?n'g?l Hanja
Regula directamente citiy (Chikhalsi) una
1 Pyongyang-chikhalsi ?? ??? ?? ???
Especial de la ciudad (teukbyeolsi) una
2 Rason-teukbyeolsi ????? ? ? ?? ?
Provincias (do) un
3 Pyongan-namdo ?? ?? ? ?? ?
4 Pyongan-bukdo ?? ?? ?? ? ?
5 Chagang-do ?? ? ? ? ?
6 Hwanghae-namdo ?? ?? ??? ?
7 Hwanghae-bukdo ?? ?? ?? ? ?
8 Kangwon-do ??? ???
9 Hamgyong-namdo ???? ? ? ? ?
10 Hamgyong-bukdo ???? ? ? ? ?
11 Ryanggang-do * ?? ? ? ? ?
* - dictada en los dialectos del sur como "Yanggang" (?? ?).

Ciudades más grandes

Ver · hablar · Editar vista · hablar · editar Las ciudades más grandes de Corea del Norte
Censo del 2008 [5]
Pyongyang
Pyongyang

Hamhung
Hamhung

Rango Nombre de la ciudad División administrativa Pop. Chongjin
Chongjin

Nampho
Nampho

1 Pyongyang Ciudad de Pyongyang regula directamente 3255288
2 Hamhung Al sur la provincia de Hamgyong 768551
3 Chongjin La provincia de Hamgyong del Norte 667929
4 Nampho Al sur la provincia de Pyongan 366815
5 Wonsan La provincia de Kangwon 363127
6 Sinuiju Al norte la provincia de Pyongan 359341
7 Tanchon Al sur la provincia de Hamgyong 345875
8 Kaechon Al sur la provincia de Pyongan 319554
9 Kaesong Al norte la provincia de Hwanghae 308440
10 Sariwon Al norte la provincia de Hwanghae 307764

Cultura y las artes

Kimchaek Universidad Biblioteca Electrónica en Pyongyang
Escena de la misa Juegos
Hamhung Gran Teatro, uno de los más grandes de Corea del Norte, finalizado en 1984
Un dibujo en una de las cámaras de las tumbas de Goguryeo .

Corea del Norte comparte su cultura tradicional con Corea del Sur , pero las dos Coreas se han desarrollado distintas formas contemporáneas de la cultura desde la península se dividió en 1945. Históricamente, mientras que la cultura de Corea se ha visto influida por la de la vecina China, no obstante ha logrado desarrollar una identidad cultural única y distinta de su vecino más grande. [53]

Literatura y las artes en Corea del Norte son controlados por el Estado, principalmente a través del Departamento de Propaganda y Agitación o Cultura y las Artes del Departamento del Comité Central del KWP. [54]

La cultura coreana fue atacada durante la ocupación japonesa desde 1910 hasta 1945. Japón impuso una asimilación cultural política. Durante el gobierno japonés, los coreanos se les animó a aprender y hablar japonés, adoptar el sistema de apellido japonés y el sintoísmo religión, y se les prohibió escribir o hablar el idioma coreano en las escuelas, negocios o lugares públicos. [55] Además, el Japón alterados o destruidos varios monumentos de Corea como el Palacio Gyeongbok y documentos que retrata a los japoneses en una luz negativa, se revisaron.

En julio de 2004, el Conjunto de tumbas de Koguryo se convirtió en el primer sitio en el país sea incluido en la UNESCO la lista de Patrimonio de la Humanidad .

En febrero de 2008, The New York Philharmonic Orchestra fue la primera orquesta de EE.UU. para llevar a cabo en Corea del Norte, [56] aunque por un elegido a dedo ", invitó a la audiencia." [57] El concierto fue transmitido en la televisión nacional. [58] La banda estadounidense cristiana Casting Crowns fueron invitados previamente para actuar en el festival anual de la Amistad Primavera de las Artes en abril de 2007, celebrada en Pyongyang. [59]

Un evento popular en Corea del Norte es la Misa Juegos . Los juegos colectivos más reciente y más grande que se llamó " Arirang ". Que se llevó a cabo seis noches a la semana durante dos meses, e involucró a más de 100.000 artistas. Los asistentes a este evento en años recientes informan que los sentimientos anti-occidentales se han atenuado en comparación con actuaciones anteriores. Los juegos colectivos implican actuaciones de danza, gimnasia, y coreográfica rutinas que celebran la historia de Corea del Norte y la Revolución Partido de los Trabajadores. Los Juegos de la misa se ??celebró en Pyongyang en varios lugares (que varía según la escala de los Juegos en un año determinado), incluyendo el Rungrado Mayo estadio , que es el estadio más grande del mundo con una capacidad de 150.000 personas.

Corea del Norte emplea a los artistas a producir arte para la exportación en el Estudio de Arte Mansudae en Pyongyang. Más de 1.000 artistas se emplean. Los productos incluyen acuarelas, dibujos a tinta, carteles, mosaicos y bordados. realismo socialista es el estilo aprobado con Corea del Norte se presenta como próspero y progresista y de sus ciudadanos como alegre y entusiasta. Los diseños tradicionales de Corea y los temas se presentan con mayor frecuencia en el bordado. La calidad artística y técnica de las obras realizadas es muy alto, pero aparte de unos pocos ricos coleccionistas de Corea del Sur hay un mercado limitado por el gusto del público y la reticencia de los Estados y los colectores de apoyar financieramente al régimen. [60]

Gobierno y política

La Torre Juche ("Torre de Juche Idea ").

Corea del Norte es un auto-denominado Juche (autosuficiencia) del estado, [61] descrito por algunos observadores como una "dictadura hereditaria" [62] con un pronunciado culto a la personalidad organizado en torno a Kim Il-sung (el fundador de Corea del Norte y sólo del país, el presidente ) y su hijo y heredero, Kim Jong-il . Tras la muerte de Kim Il-Sung en 1994, no fue reemplazado sino que recibió la designación de " Presidente Eterno ", y fue sepultado en el vasto Palacio Kumsusan Memorial en el centro de Pyongyang. [63]

Aunque la oficina del presidente es ceremonial en poder del fallecido Kim Il-sung, [64] [65] [66] el hecho de jefe de Estado es Kim Jong-il, quien es Presidente de la Comisión Nacional de Defensa de Corea del Norte y Secretario General del Partido de los Trabajadores de Corea . La legislatura de Corea del Norte es la Asamblea Popular Suprema , actualmente dirigido por el Presidente Kim Yong-nam . La otra figura gubernamentales de alto nivel se Premier Choe Yong-rim .

La estructura del gobierno se describe en la Constitución de Corea del Norte , la versión más reciente de las cuales es de 2009 y oficialmente rechaza la ideología fundador de Corea del Norte del comunismo. [67] El partido de gobierno por la ley es el Frente Democrático para la Reunificación de la Patria , una coalición del Partido de los Trabajadores de Corea y los otros dos partidos más pequeños, el de Corea del Partido Social Demócrata y el Partido Chondoísta Chongu . Estos partidos nominar a todos los candidatos a cargos y mantener todos los escaños de la Asamblea Popular Suprema.

En junio de 2009, se informó en medios surcoreanos que la inteligencia indica el próximo líder del país será Kim Jong-un , el más joven de los tres Kim Jong-il hijos. [68] [ fecha info ]

Relaciones extranjeras

Corea del Norte siempre ha mantenido estrechas relaciones con la República Popular de China y Rusia. La caída del comunismo en Europa oriental en 1989, y la desintegración de la Unión Soviética en 1991, dio lugar a una devastadora caída en la ayuda a Corea del Norte de Rusia, aunque China sigue proporcionando asistencia sustancial. Corea del Norte continúa teniendo fuertes vínculos con su socialistas aliados del sudeste asiático, en Vietnam y Laos , así como con Camboya . [69] Corea del Norte ha comenzado la instalación de una cerca de alambre de hormigón y de púas en la frontera norte, en respuesta al deseo de China para frenar refugiados que huyen de Corea del Norte. Anteriormente, la frontera entre China y Corea del Norte había sido sólo ligeramente patrulladas. [70]

Como resultado de los programas nucleares de Corea del Norte armas , las conversaciones a seis bandas se establecieron para encontrar una solución pacífica a la creciente tensión entre los dos gobiernos de Corea, la Federación de Rusia, la República Popular de China, Japón y los Estados Unidos.

El 17 de julio de 2007, los inspectores de las Naciones Unidas para verificar el cierre de cinco instalaciones nucleares de Corea del Norte, según el acuerdo de febrero 2007. [71]

El 4 de octubre de 2007, el presidente surcoreano, Roh Moo-Hyun y el líder norcoreano Kim Jong-il firmado un acuerdo de paz de 8 puntos, en temas de paz permanente, conversaciones de alto nivel, la cooperación económica, la renovación de tren, carretera y aire viajes, y una junta equipo olímpico de vítores. [33]

Los Estados Unidos y Corea del Sur ya designó a los del Norte como un estado patrocinador del terrorismo . [72] El bombardeo de 1983 que mató a los miembros del gobierno de Corea del Sur y la destrucción de un avión de Corea del Sur se han atribuido a Corea del Norte. [73] del Norte Corea también ha admitido su responsabilidad en el secuestro de 13 ciudadanos japoneses en los años 1970 y 1980 , cinco de los cuales fueron devueltos a Japón en 2002. [74] El 11 de octubre de 2008, los Estados Unidos retira a Corea del Norte de su lista de estados que patrocinan el terrorismo. [75]

En 2009, las relaciones entre el Norte y Corea del Sur aumentó en intensidad, Corea del Norte había informado que desplegó misiles, [76] puso fin a su ex acuerdos con Corea del Sur, [77] y no amenazó a Corea del Sur y los Estados Unidos de interferir con un lanzamiento de un satélite que había planeado. [78] Corea del Norte y del Sur siguen técnicamente en guerra (ya que nunca firmaron un tratado de paz después de la Guerra de Corea) y la participación del mundo más densamente frontera fortificada. [79] El 27 de mayo de 2009, Corea del Norte los medios de comunicación declaró que el armisticio de Corea ya no era válida debido a la promesa del gobierno de Corea del Sur para "definitivamente unirse" a la Iniciativa de Seguridad contra la Proliferación . [ cita requerida ] Para complicar aún más e intensificar las tensiones entre las dos naciones, el hundimiento del buque de guerra surcoreano Cheonan en marzo de 2010 matando a 46 marineros, es como de 20 de mayo 2010 reivindicados por un equipo de investigación multinacional [80] que ha sido causado por un torpedo de Corea del Norte, que Corea del Norte niega. Corea del Sur acordó con los hallazgos del grupo de investigación y el Presidente Lee Myung-bak, declaró en mayo de 2010, que Seúl podría cortar todo comercio con Corea del Norte como parte de medidas destinadas principalmente a devolver el golpe a Corea del Norte diplomática y financieramente. [81] Como resultado de esto, Corea del Norte cortó todos sus vínculos, totalmente derogado el anterior pacto de no agresión y expulsó a todos los surcoreanos de una zona industrial conjunta en Kaesong . [82] El 23 de noviembre de 2010, Corea del Norte atacó la isla de Yeonpyeong , deteriorando aún más la vía diplomática relaciones con las naciones del Sur y otros. [83]

La mayoría de las embajadas extranjeras de conexión con las relaciones diplomáticas con Corea del Norte se encuentra en Pekín en lugar de Pyongyang. [84]

Militar

Popular de Corea los soldados del Ejército de la observación de la parte surcoreana de la zona desmilitarizada

El Ejército Popular de Corea (EPC) es el nombre colectivo para el personal armado de las fuerzas armadas de Corea del Norte. Cuenta con cinco ramas: la Fuerza Terrestre , Fuerza Naval , Fuerza Aérea , la Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales , y de la Fuerza cohete . De acuerdo con el Departamento de Estado de EE.UU. , Corea del Norte tiene el cuarto mayor ejército del mundo, a un estimado de 1,21 millones de personal armado, con un 20% de los hombres de 17-54 en las fuerzas armadas regulares. [85] Corea del Norte el mayor porcentaje de personal militar per cápita de cualquier nación en el mundo, con aproximadamente un soldado alistado por cada 25 ciudadanos. [86] [24]

Koksan , uno de los principales de Corea del Norte piezas de artillería pesada. Este ejemplo fue capturado en Irak.

La estrategia militar está diseñado para la inserción de los agentes y el sabotaje tras las líneas enemigas en tiempos de guerra, [85] con la mayor parte de las fuerzas del Ejército Popular de Corea se desplegó a lo largo de la fortificada zona desmilitarizada de Corea . El Ejército Popular de Corea opera una gran cantidad de equipos, incluyendo 4.060 tanques , 2.500 vehículos blindados , 17.900 artillería piezas, 11.000 armas de defensa aérea y unos 10.000 MANPADS y misiles antitanques guiados [87] en la fuerza de tierra, por lo menos 915 buques en la Armada y 1.748 aviones de la Fuerza Aérea, [88] de los cuales 478 eran combatientes y 180 bombarderos. [89] Corea del Norte también tiene la mayor de las fuerzas especiales en el mundo, así como el mayor submarino de la flota. [90] El equipo es una mezcla de la II Guerra Mundial los vehículos de época y las armas pequeñas, la tecnología ampliamente proliferado la Guerra Fría, y las armas soviéticas o de producción local más moderno. En línea con su guerra asimétrica estrategia, Corea del Norte también ha desarrollado una amplia gama de técnicas no convencionales y equipos, tales como GPS Jammers, [91] sigilo pintura, [92] mini-submarinos y torpedos humanos , [93] una gran variedad de productos químicos y las armas biológicas, [94] y anti-personal de los láseres. [95] Según los medios oficiales de Corea del Norte, los gastos militares para 2010 ascienden a 15,8% del presupuesto del Estado. [96]

Corea del Norte tiene activos nucleares y balísticos de armas de proyectiles y programas ha sido objeto de resoluciones de las Naciones Unidas Consejo de Seguridad de 1695 a julio de 2006, 1718 de octubre de 2006, y 1874 de junio de 2009, para llevar a cabo dos pruebas nucleares y de misiles. Corea del Norte probablemente tiene material fisible para hasta nueve armas nucleares, [97] y tiene la capacidad para desplegar cabezas nucleares en misiles de alcance intermedio balísticos . [98]

Economía

Una imagen de la península de Corea en la noche representan a partir de DMSP observaciones. The disparity in illumination levels is an indication of the difference in population and energy between the North and South. [ 99 ] [ 100 ]

North Korea has an industrialised, near- autarkic , highly centralized command economy . Of the five remaining Communist states in the world, North Korea is one of only two (along with Cuba ) with an almost entirely government-planned, state-owned economy. The Central Planning Committee prepares, supervises and implements economic plans, while a General Bureau of Provincial Industry in each region is responsible for the management of local manufacturing facilities, production, resource allocation and sales. [ 101 ]

North Korea's isolation policy means that international trade is highly restricted. North Korea passed a law in 1984 allowing for foreign investment through joint ventures, [ 102 ] but failed to attract any significant investment. In 1991, it established the Rason Economic Special Zone , [ 103 ] in an attempt to attract foreign investment from China and Russia . Chinese and Russian companies have purchased rights to use the ports at Rason. Chinese investors are renovating a road from Rason to China, [ 104 ] and Russian railway workers are renovating the railway from Rason to Russia, from where it continues onto the Trans-Siberian Railway . [ 105 ]

Until 1998, the United Nations published HDI and GDP per capita figures for North Korea, which stood at a medium level of human development at 0.766 (ranked 75th) and a GDP per capita of $4,058. [ 106 ] The average salary is about $47 per month. [ 107 ] Despite substantial economic problems, quality of life is improving and wages are rising steadily. [ 108 ] Small-scale private markets, known as janmadang , exist throughout the country and provide the population with imported food and commodities ranging from cosmetics to motorcycles in exchange for money. [ 109 ] [ 110 ] In 2009, the government carried out a currency redenomination with the aim to curb free market activity across the country, but the attempt failed, causing inflation rates to skyrocket, and eventually led to the lifting of the ban on free market trade. [ 111 ]

Food rations, housing, healthcare, and education are offered from the state for free, [ 112 ] and the payment of taxes has been abolished since April 1, 1974. [ 113 ] In order to increase productivity from agriculture and industry, since the 1960s the North Korean government has introduced a number of management systems such as the Taean work system. [ 114 ] In the 21st century, North Korea's GDP growth has been slow but steady, although in recent years, growth has gradually accelerated to 3.7% in 2008, the fastest pace in almost a decade, largely due to a sharp growth of 8.2% in the agricultural sector. [ 115 ]

GDP Growth by year [ 115 ] [ 116 ]
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1,3% 3,7% 1,2% 1,8% 2,2% 1,0% 1,6% 1,8% 3,7% 3,7%
Hungju collective chicken farm, Chagang province.

Based on estimates in 2002, the dominant sector in the North Korean economy is industry (43.1%), followed by services (33.6%) and agriculture (23.3%). In 2004, it was estimated that agriculture employed 37% of the workforce while industry and services employed the remaining 63%. [ 7 ] Major industries include military products, machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing and tourism. Iron ore and coal production are among the few sectors where North Korea performs significantly better than its southern neighbour - the DPRK produces about 10 times larger amounts of each resource. [ 117 ]

In 2005, North Korea was ranked by the FAO as an estimated 10th in the production of fresh fruit [ 118 ] and as an estimated 19th in the production of apples . [ 119 ] It has substantial natural resources and is the world's 18th largest producer of iron and zinc , having the 22nd largest coal reserves in the world. It is also the 15th largest fluorite producer and 12th largest producer of copper and salt in Asia. Other major natural resources in production include lead , tungsten , graphite , magnesite , gold , pyrites , fluorspar , and hydropower . [ 7 ]

Private commerce

Generic paracetamol tablets made in the DPRK by a joint venture company
A FamilyMart store in Kaesong Industrial Region , North Korea's light industry center.

In 1991, North Korea started experimenting with private capitalism in the Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone , and in 2002 also set up the Kaesong Industrial Region . [ 120 ] A small number of other areas have been designated as Special Administrative Regions . China and South Korea are the biggest trade partners of North Korea, with trade with China increasing 15% to US$1.6 billion in 2005, and trade with South Korea increasing 50% to over 1 billion for the first time in 2005. [ 121 ] China is North Korea's closest economic partner, with 73% of North Korea's foreign trade being conducted with this country. [ 122 ]

In 2000, Centre for the Study of the Capitalist System was established. [ 123 ] Increasingly more foreign-invested joint ventures have been set up since 2002. [ 124 ] The Pyongyang Business School was established by the Swiss government to help teach students business management. [ 125 ]

A small number of capitalistic elements are gradually spreading from the trial area, including a number of advertising billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have reported that the number of open-air farmers' markets has increased in Kaesong and Pyongyang , as well as along the China-North Korea border, bypassing the food rationing system. In addition to food aid, China reportedly provides an estimated 80 to 90 percent of North Korea's oil imports at "friendly prices" that are sharply lower than the world market price. [ 126 ]

North Korea also has a cartoon animation industry, sub-contracting work from South Korean animation studios. [ 127 ]

Tourism

The K?mgangsan Tourist Region was popular among South Korean tourists until its suspension in 2008

Tourism in North Korea is organized by the state owned Korea International Travel Company. Every group of travelers as well as individual tourists/visitors is permanently accompanied by one or two "guides" who normally speak the mother language of the tourist. While tourism has increased over the last few years, tourists from Western countries remain few.

The majority of the tourists who visit come from China, Russia, and Japan. Russian citizens from the Asian part of Russia prefer North Korea as a tourist destination due to the relatively low prices, lack of pollution and the warmer climate. For citizens of South Korea, it is practically impossible to obtain a visa for North Korea; however, they can still obtain "entry permits" to special tourist areas designated for South Koreans, such as Kaesong. US citizens were also subject to visa restrictions, only able to visit during the yearly Arirang Festival . These restrictions were lifted in January 2010, yet currently fewer than 2,500 US citizens have visited North Korea since 1953. [ 128 ]

In the area of the K?mgangsan -mountains, the company Hyundai established and operates a special Tourist area. Traveling to this area is also possible for South Koreans and US citizens, but only in organized groups from South Korea. A special administrative region known as the K?mgangsan Tourist Region exists for this purpose. However, trips to the region were suspended after a South Korean woman who wandered into a controlled military zone was shot dead by border guards in late 2008. [ 129 ] When tours had still not resumed by May 2010, North Korea unilaterally announced that it would seize South Korean real estate assets in the region. [ 130 ]

Famine

In the 1990s North Korea faced significant economic disruptions, including a series of natural disasters, economic mismanagement and serious resource shortages after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc . These resulted in a shortfall of staple grain output of more than 1 million tons from what the country needs to meet internationally accepted minimum dietary requirements. [ 131 ] The North Korean famine known as "Arduous March" resulted in the deaths of between 300,000 and 800,000 North Koreans per year during the three year famine, peaking in 1997. [ 18 ] The deaths were most likely caused by famine-related illnesses such as pneumonia , tuberculosis , and diarrhea rather than starvation . [ 18 ]

In 2006, Amnesty International reported that a national nutrition survey conducted by the North Korean government, the World Food Programme , and UNICEF found that 7% of children were severely malnourished ; 37% were chronically malnourished; 23.4% were underweight; and one in three mothers was malnourished and anaemic as the result of the lingering effect of the famine. The inflation caused by some of the 2002 economic reforms, including the Songun or "Military-first" policy , was cited for creating the increased price of basic foods. [ 132 ]

The history of Japanese assistance to North Korea has been marked with challenges; from a large pro- Pyongyang community of Koreans in Japan to public outrage over the 1998 North Korean missile launch and revelations regarding the abduction of Japanese citizens. [ 133 ] In June 1995 an agreement was reached that the two countries would act jointly. [ 133 ] South Korea would provide 150,000 MT of grain in unmarked bags, and Japan would provide 150,000 MT gratis and another 150,000 MT on concessional terms. [ 133 ] In October 1995 and January 1996, North Korea again approached Japan for assistance. On these two occasions, both of which came at crucial moments in the evolution of the famine, opposition from both South Korea and domestic political sources quashed the deals. [ 133 ]

Beginning in 1997, the US began shipping food aid to North Korea through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to combat the famine. Shipments peaked in 1999 at nearly 700,000 tons making the US the largest foreign aid donor to the country at the time. Under the Bush Administration , aid was drastically reduced year after year from 350,000 tons in 2001 to 40,000 in 2004. [ 134 ] The Bush Administration took criticism for using "food as a weapon" during talks over the North's nuclear weapons program, but insisted the US Agency for International Development (USAID) criteria were the same for all countries and the situation in North Korea had "improved significantly since its collapse in the mid-1990s." Agricultural production had increased from about 2.7 million metric tons in 1997 to 4.2 million metric tons in 2004. [ 135 ]

Media and communications

Medios de comunicación

North Korean media are under one of the strictest government controls in the world. The North Korean constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press ; however, the government prohibits the exercise of these rights in practice. In its 2010 report, Reporters Without Borders ranked the freedom of the press in North Korea as 177th out of 178, above only that of Eritrea . [ 136 ] Only news that favors the regime is permitted, while news that covers the economic and political problems in the country, or criticisms of the regime from abroad, is not allowed. [ 137 ] The media upholds the personality cult of Kim Jong-il , regularly reporting on his daily activities. The main news provider to media in the DPRK is the Korean Central News Agency .

North Korea has 12 principal newspapers and 20 major periodicals, all of varying periodicity and all published in Pyongyang . [ 138 ] Newspapers include the Rodong Sinmun , Joson Inmingun , Minju Choson , and Rodongja Sinmum . No private press exists. [ 139 ]

Telephones and Internet

North Korea has an adequate telephone system, with 1.18 million fixed lines available in 2008. [ 140 ] However, most phones are only installed for senior government officials. If one wants a phone installed, they would need to fill out a form indicating their rank, why they want a phone and how they will pay for it. [ 141 ] The number of mobile phones in Pyongyang rose from only 3,000 in 2002 to approximately 20,000 during 2004. [ 142 ] As of June 2004, however, mobile phones became forbidden again, [ 143 ] until a new 3G network, Koryolink , was built in 2008 through a joint venture with Orascom Telecom Holding of Egypt . In May 2010, over 120,000 North Koreans owned a mobile phone, [ 144 ] and by September the same year the number of subscribers increased more than twice, reaching 301,000 people. [ 145 ]

North Korea's first Internet café opened in 2002 as a joint venture with South Korean internet company Hoonnet. Ordinary North Koreans do not have access to the global Internet network, but are provided with a nationwide, public use Intranet service called Kwangmyong , which features domestic news, an e-mail service and censored information from foreign websites (mostly scientific). [ 146 ]

Transporte

Puh?ng station of the Pyongyang Metro .

Two of the few ways to enter North Korea are over the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge or via Panmunjeom , the former crossing the Amnok River and the latter crossing the Demilitarized Zone .

Private cars in North Korea are a rare sight, but as of 2008 some 70% of households used bicycles , which also play an increasingly important role in small-scale private trade. [ 147 ] Very few cars and light trucks are made in a joint-venture between Pyeonghwa Motors of South Korea, and the North Korean Ryonbong General Corp at a facility in Nampo North Korea. [ 148 ] Another local producer of vehicles is Sungri Motor Plant , which manufactures civilian vehicles and heavy trucks.

There is a mix of locally built and imported trolleybuses and trams in urban centers in North Korea. Earlier fleets were obtained in Europe and China, but the trade embargo has forced North Korea to build their own vehicles.

Rail transport

Choson Cul Minzuzui Inmingonghoagug is the only rail operator in North Korea. It has a network of 5,200 km (3,200 mi) of track with 4,500 km (2,800 mi) in standard gauge . [ 149 ] There is a small narrow gauge railway in operation in Haeju peninsula. [ 149 ] The railway fleet consists of a mix of electric and steam locomotives. Cars are mostly made in North Korea using Soviet designs. There are some locomotives from Imperial Japan, the United States, and Europe remaining in use. Second-hand Chinese locomotives (early DF4Bs, BJ Hydraulics, etc.) have also been spotted in active service.
People traveling from the capital Pyongyang to other regions in North Korea typically travel by rail. But in order to travel out of Pyongyang, people need an official travel certificate, ID, and a purchased ticket in advance. Due to lack of maintenance on the infrastructure and vehicles, the travel time by rail is increasing. It has been reported that the 120 mile (193 km) trip from Pyongyang to Kaesong can take up to 6 hours. [ 150 ]

Marine transport

A North Korean cargo ship off the coast of Somalia

Water transport on the major rivers and along the coasts plays a growing role in freight and passenger traffic. Except for the Yalu and Taedong rivers, most of the inland waterways, totaling 2,253 kilometres (1,400 mi), are navigable only by small boats. Coastal traffic is heaviest on the eastern seaboard, whose deeper waters can accommodate larger vessels. The major ports are Nampho on the west coast and Rajin , Chongjin , Wonsan , and Hamhung on the east coast. The country's harbor loading capacity in the 1990s was estimated at almost 35 million tons a year.

In the early 1990s, North Korea possessed an oceangoing merchant fleet, largely domestically produced, of sixty-eight ships (of at least 1,000 gross-registered tons), totaling 465,801 gross-registered tons (709,442 metric tons deadweight (DWT)), which includes fifty-eight cargo ships and two tankers. There is a continuing investment in upgrading and expanding port facilities, developing transportation—particularly on the Taedong River—and increasing the share of international cargo by domestic vessels.

Air transport

North Korea's international air connections are limited. There are regularly scheduled flights from the Sunan International Airport – 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of Pyongyang – to Moscow , Khabarovsk , Vladivostok , Bangkok , Beijing , Dalian , Shanghai , Shenyang along with seasonal services to Singapore and charter flights from Sunan to numerous Asian and European destinations including Tokyo and Nagoya. Regular charters to existing scheduled services are operated as per demand. An agreement to initiate a service between Pyongyang and Tokyo was signed in 1990. Internal flights are available between Pyongyang , Hamhung , Haeju , Kaesong , Kanggye , Kilju , Nampo , Sinuiju , Samjiyon , Wonsan , and Chongjin .

All civil aircraft are operated by Air Koryo : 38 aircraft in 2010, which were purchased from the Soviet Union and Russia. From 1976 to 1978, four Tu-154 jets were added to the 7 of propeller-driven An-24s and 2 Ilyushin Il-18's afterwards adding four long range Ilyushin Il-62M, three Ilyushin Il-76MD large cargo aircraft. In 2008 a long range Tupolev Tu-204-300's purchased along with a larger version the Tupolev Tu-204-100B in 2010.

Demografía

Population pyramid of North Korea
Prefabricated apartments house a large portion of the population. Housing in North Korea is free, but cramped as with many other Asian nations. [ 151 ]

North Korea's population of roughly 24 million is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with very small numbers of Chinese, Japanese , Vietnamese, South Korean, and European expatriate minorities.

According to the CIA World Factbook , North Korea's life expectancy was 63.8 years in 2009, a figure roughly equivalent to that of Pakistan and Burma and slightly lower than Russia. [ 152 ] Infant mortality stood at a high level of 51.3, which is 2.5 times higher than that of China , 5 times that of Russia , 12 times that of South Korea . [ 153 ]

According to the UNICEF "The State of the world's Children 2003" North Korea appears ranked at the 73rd place (with first place having the highest mortality rate), between Guatemala (72nd) and Tuvalu (74th). [ 153 ] [ 154 ] North Korea's Total fertility rate is relatively low and stood at 2.0 in 2009, comparable to those of the United States and France . [ 155 ]

Lengua

North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea. There are dialect differences within both Koreas, but the border between North and South does not represent a major linguistic boundary. While prevalent in the South, the adoption of modern terms from foreign languages has been limited in North Korea. Hanja ( Chinese characters ) are no longer used in North Korea, although still occasionally used in South Korea. Both Koreas share the phonetic writing system called Chosongul in the north and Hangul south of the DMZ. The official Romanization differs in the two countries, with North Korea using a slightly modified McCune-Reischauer system, and the South using the Revised Romanization of Korean .

Religión

Both Koreas share a Buddhist and Confucian heritage and a recent history of Christian and Cheondoism ("religion of the Heavenly Way") movements. The North Korean constitution states that freedom of religion is permitted. [ 156 ] According to the Western standards of religion, the majority of the North Korean population could be characterized as irreligious. However, the cultural influence of such traditional religions as Buddhism and Confucianism still have an effect on North Korean spiritual life. [ 157 ] [ 158 ] [ 159 ]

Nevertheless, Buddhists in North Korea reportedly fare better than other religious groups, particularly Christians, who are said to face persecution by the authorities. Buddhists are given limited funding by the government to promote the religion, because Buddhism played an integral role in traditional Korean culture. [ 160 ]

An ancient relief image of the Buddha , mount Kumgang

According to Human Rights Watch , free religious activities no longer exist in North Korea, as the government sponsors religious groups only to create an illusion of religious freedom. [ 161 ] According to Religious Intelligence the situation of religion in North Korea is the following: [ 162 ]

Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or kidnapped (disappeared without trace), including Francis Hong Yong-ho , bishop of Pyongyang. [ 163 ] No Catholic priest survived the persecution, all churches were destroyed and the government never allowed any foreign priest to set up in North Korea.

Today, four state-sanctioned churches exist, which freedom of religion advocates say are showcases for foreigners. [ 164 ] [ 165 ] Official government statistics report that there are 10,000 Protestants and 4,000 Roman Catholics in North Korea. [ 166 ]

According to a ranking published by Open Doors , an organization that supports persecuted Christians, North Korea is currently the country with the most severe persecution of Christians in the world. [ 167 ] Open Doors estimates that 50000 – 70000 Christians are detained in North Korean prison camps . [ 168 ] Human rights groups such as Amnesty International also have expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea. [ 169 ]

Educación

A young girl in a school in Mangyongdae

Education in North Korea is free of charge, [ 170 ] compulsory until the secondary level, and is controlled by the government. The state also used to provide school uniforms free of charge until the early 1990s. [ 171 ] Heuristics is actively applied in order to develop the independence and creativity of students. [ 172 ] Compulsory education lasts eleven years, and encompasses one year of preschool , four years of primary education and six years of secondary education . The school curriculum has both academic and political content. [ 173 ]

Primary schools are known as people's schools, and children attend them from the age of 6 to 9. Then from age 10 to 16, they attend either a regular secondary school or a special secondary school, depending on their specialties.

Higher education is not compulsory in North Korea. It is composed of two systems: academic higher education and higher education for continuing education. The academic higher education system includes three kinds of institutions: universities , professional schools , and technical schools . Graduate schools for master's and doctoral level studies are attached to universities, and are for students who want to continue their education. Two notable universities in the DPRK are the Kim Il-sung University and Pyongyang University of Science and Technology , both in Pyongyang . The former, founded in October 1946, is an elite institution whose enrollment of 16,000 full- and part-time students in the early 1990s occupies, in the words of one observer, the "pinnacle of the North Korean educational and social system." [ 174 ]

North Korea is one of the most literate countries in the world, with an average literacy rate of 99%. [ 7 ]

Health care

A dental cabinet at one of North Korea's major hospitals

North Korea has a national medical service and health insurance system. [ 175 ] North Korea spends 3% of its gross domestic product on health care. Beginning in the 1950s, the DPRK put great emphasis on healthcare, and between 1955 and 1986, the number of hospitals grew from 285 to 2,401, and the number of clinics – from 1,020 to 5,644. [ 176 ] There are hospitals attached to factories and mines. Since 1979 more emphasis has been put on traditional Korean medicine , based on treatment with herbs and acupuncture .

North Korea's healthcare system has been in a steep decline since the 1990s due to natural disasters, economic problems, and food and energy shortages. Many hospitals and clinics in North Korea now lack essential medicines, equipment, running water and electricity. [ 177 ]

Almost 100% of the population has access to water and sanitation, but it is not completely potable. Infectious diseases , such as tuberculosis, malaria, and hepatitis B, are considered to be endemic to the country. [ 178 ] Life expectancy in North Korea is 63.8 years, occupying the 170th place in the world , according to 2009 estimates. [ 152 ]

Among other health problems, many North Korean citizens suffer from the after effects of malnutrition , caused by famines related to the failure of its food distribution program and "military first" policy. A 1998 United Nations (UN) World Food Program report revealed that 60% of children suffered from malnutrition, and 16% were acutely malnourished. As a result, those who suffered during the disaster have ongoing health problems.

Sociedad

Human rights

Sneaker -wearing Korean youth walking in Pyongyang.

Multiple international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch , accuse North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation. [ 179 ] North Koreans have been referred to as "some of the world's most brutalized people" by Human Rights Watch, due to the severe restrictions placed on their political and economic freedoms . [ 180 ]

A uniformed civilian man riding a bicycle in Pyongyang. Uniforms such as this one are part of the nationally mandated dress code.

North Korean defectors have testified to the existence of prisons and concentration camps [ 181 ] with an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 inmates [ 182 ] (about 0.85% of the population), and have reported torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation , forced labour, and forced abortions. [ 183 ] Convicted political prisoners and their families are sent to these camps, where they are prohibited from marrying, required to grow their own food, and cut off from external communication (which was previously allowed). [ 184 ]

The system changed slightly at the end of 1990s, when population growth became very low. In many cases, where capital punishment was de facto [ citation needed ] , it was replaced by less severe punishments. Bribery became prevalent throughout the country. [ 185 ] For example, years ago [ specify ] just listening to South Korean radio could result in capital punishment [ citation needed ] . However, many North Koreans now illegally wear clothes of South Korean origin, listen to Southern music, watch South Korean videotapes and even receive Southern broadcasts. [ 186 ] [ 187 ]

Personality cult

The North Korean government exercises control over many aspects of the nation's culture, and this control is used to perpetuate a cult of personality surrounding Kim Il-sung, and, to a lesser extent, Kim Jong-il. While visiting North Korea in 1979, journalist Bradley Martin noted that nearly all music, art, and sculpture that he observed glorified "Great Leader" Kim Il-sung, whose personality cult was then being extended to his son, "Dear Leader" Kim Jong-il. [ 188 ] There is even widespread belief that Kim Il-sung "created the world", and Kim Jong-il can "control the weather". [ 188 ]

A propaganda poster with Kim Il-sung's official portrait

The song " No Motherland Without You " (?????? ?????), sung by the North Korean Army Choir, was created especially for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most popular tunes in the country. Kim Il-sung is still officially revered as the nation's "Eternal President". Several landmarks in North Korea are named for Kim Il-sung, including Kim Il-sung University , Kim Il-sung Stadium , and Kim Il-sung Square . Defectors have been quoted as saying that North Korean schools deify both father and son. [ 189 ] Kim Il-sung rejected the notion that he had created a cult around himself, and accused those who suggested this of " factionalism ". [ 188 ]

Critics maintain this Kim Jong-il personality cult was inherited from his father, Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il is often the center of attention throughout ordinary life in the DPRK. His birthday is one of the most important public holidays in the country. On his 60th birthday (based on his official date of birth), mass celebrations occurred throughout the country. [ 190 ] Kim Jong-il's personality cult, although significant, is not as extensive as his father's. In 2004, some of his official portraits were taken down from public buildings. [ 191 ] One point of view is that Kim Jong-il's cult of personality is solely out of respect for Kim Il-sung or out of fear of punishment for failure to pay homage. [ 192 ] Media and government sources from outside of North Korea generally support this view, [ 193 ] [ 194 ] [ 195 ] [ 196 ] [ 197 ] while North Korean government sources say that it is genuine hero worship. [ 198 ]

Korean reunification

North Korea's policy is to seek reunification without what it sees as outside interference, through a federal structure retaining each side's leadership and systems. Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration in which both sides made promises to seek out a peaceful reunification. [ 199 ] The Democratic Federal Republic of Korea is a proposed state first mentioned by then North Korean president Kim Il-sung on October 10, 1980, proposing a federation between North and South Korea in which the respective political systems would initially remain. [ 200 ]

Deportes

North Korea (in red) playing against Brazil in the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa.

Perhaps the most well known sporting event in North Korea is the annual Arirang Festival . The main attraction of Arirang is the mass gymnastics display. In football, fifteen clubs compete in the DPR Korea League level-one and vie for both the Technical Innovation Contests and the Republic Championship. The national football team, Chollima , compete in the AFC and are ranked 105 by FIFA as of 26 May 2010. The team competed in the FIFA World Cup in 1966 and 2010 . In hockey, North Korea has a men's team that is ranked 43rd out of 49 [ 201 ] and competes in Division II. The women's team is ranked 21 out of 34 [ 202 ] and competes in Division II.

North Korea has been competing in the Olympics since 1964 and debuted at the summer games in 1972 by taking home five medals, including one gold. The IOC Code is PRK . At the Athens Games in 2004, the North and South marched together in the opening and closing ceremonies under the Unification Flag , but competed separately. North Korea has medaled in every Olympics they have participated in.

The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the 1950s and 60s, modern rules were standardised and taekwondo became an official Olympic sport in 2000. Other Korean martial arts include taekkyeon , hapkido , tang soo do , kuk sool won , kumdo and subak .

Véase también

Referencias

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