Irlanda del Norte

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Irlanda del Norte
Tuaisceart Éireann
Norlin Airlann
Ubicación de Irlanda del Norte (naranja) - en el continente europeo (caramelo y negro) - en el Reino Unido (caramelo)
Ubicación de   Irlanda del Norte    (Naranja)

- En el continente europeo    (Caramelo y blanco)
- En el Reino Unido    (Caramelo)

Capital
(Y ciudad más grande)
Belfast
54 ° 35.456 'N 5 ° 50.4' W / 54.590933 ° N 5.84 ° W / 54.590933; -5,84
El idioma oficial (s) Inglés
Irlandés
Escocés del Ulster 1
Los grupos étnicos 99,15% Blanca (91,0% de Irlanda del Norte nació, 8,15% otro blanco), 0,41% asiáticos , 0,10% de los viajeros de Irlanda , otros 0,34%. [1]
Gobierno Monarquía constitucional
Consociacionalismo
- Monarca Isabel II
- Primer ministro Peter Robinson MLA
- el viceprimer ministro Martin McGuinness MLA MP
- El primer ministro del Reino Unido David Cameron MP
- La secretaria de Estado (en el gobierno del Reino Unido ) Owen Paterson MP
Establecimiento
- Gobierno del acto de Irlanda 03 de mayo 1921
Área
- Total 13.843 kilometros 2
5.345 millas cuadradas
Población
- 2009 estiman 1.789.000 [2]
- Censo de 2001 1685267
- Densidad 122/km 2
315/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2002 estiman
- Total £ 33.2 mil millones
- Per cápita £ 19.603
Moneda Libra esterlina ( GBP )
Huso horario GMT ( UTC +0)
- Verano ( DST ) BST ( UTC +1)
Unidades en el izquierda
ISO 3166 GB
Dominio Internet . Uk 2
Código de llamada 44 3
1 Lenguas reconocidas oficialmente : Irlanda del Norte no tiene lengua oficial. El uso del Inglés se ha establecido a través de los precedentes. Los escoceses del Ulster de Irlanda y son reconocidos oficialmente las lenguas minoritarias
2 . Es decir , en común con la República de Irlanda , y también . eu , como parte de la Unión Europea . ISO 3166-1 es GB , pero . gb no se utiliza
3 44 siempre es seguido por 28 cuando se llama a teléfonos fijos. El código es 028 en el Reino Unido y 048 de la República de Irlanda

Irlanda del Norte ( irlandés : Tuaisceart Éireann, escocés del Ulster : Norlin Airlann o Airlan Norlin) es uno de los cuatro países del Reino Unido . [3] [4] Situado en el noreste de la isla de Irlanda , que comparte una frontera con el República de Irlanda en el sur y el oeste. En el momento del censo de 2001 del Reino Unido , su población era de 1.685.000, lo que constituye alrededor del 30% de la población total de la isla y el 3% de la población del Reino Unido .

Irlanda del Norte se compone de seis de los nueve condados de los irlandeses provincia de Ulster . Fue creado como una clara división del Reino Unido el 3 de mayo 1921 con el Gobierno de Irlanda Ley de 1920 , [5] , aunque sus raíces se encuentran en la Constitución de 1800 Acta de Unión entre Gran Bretaña e Irlanda. Durante más de 50 años, tenía su propio delegado del gobierno y el parlamento . Estas instituciones fueron suspendidas en 1972 y abolida en 1973. Los reiterados intentos de restaurar la auto-gobierno finalmente dio lugar a la creación en 1998 del actual Ejecutivo de Irlanda del Norte y la Asamblea de Irlanda del Norte . La Asamblea funciona con la democracia consociacional principios transversales que requieren de apoyo comunitario.

Irlanda del Norte fue durante muchos años el sitio de un violento y amargo conflicto etno-políticas- los apuros , que fue causado por las divisiones entre los nacionalistas , que son predominantemente católica romana , y los sindicalistas , que son en su mayoría protestantes , que ha sido la religión más frecuentes . Los sindicalistas quieren que Irlanda del Norte siguen siendo parte del Reino Unido, [6] , mientras que los nacionalistas desean que sea políticamente unida con el resto de Irlanda, con independencia del dominio británico. [7] [8] [9] [10] Dado que la firma del " Acuerdo de Viernes Santo "en 1998, la mayoría de los paramilitares, los grupos involucrados en los disturbios han dejado sus campañas armadas.

Debido a su historia única, la cuestión de la simbología, el nombre y la descripción de Irlanda del Norte es compleja, como es el tema de la ciudadanía e identidad . En general, los sindicalistas consideran a sí mismos británicos y los nacionalistas ven a sí mismos como irlandeses, aunque estas identidades no son necesariamente excluyentes entre sí.

Contenido

Historia

Fondo

Firma del Pacto del Ulster en 1912 en oposición a la autonomía

La región que ahora es Irlanda del Norte fue la base de la guerra irlandesa de la resistencia contra el Inglés programas de colonialismo en el siglo 16. El Inglés-controlado Reino de España había sido declarada por el Inglés rey Enrique VIII en 1542, pero la resistencia irlandesa hizo del control de Inglés fragmentaria. Tras la derrota de Irlanda en la batalla de Kinsale , sin embargo, la región gaélico , católica aristocracia huyó a Europa continental en 1607 y en la región se convirtió en objeto de los programas principales del colonialismo protestante Inglés (principalmente anglicanos ) y Escocia (principalmente presbiterianos ) los colonos. Entre 1610 y 1717 tal vez hasta 100.000 bajanos llegó al otro lado de Escocia, y en esta última fecha había unos cinco escoceses que cada tres irlandeses y un inglés en el Ulster. [11] Una rebelión en 1641 por la aristocracia irlandesa contra el gobierno resultó en Inglés una masacre de pobladores en el Ulster en el contexto de una guerra ruptura entre Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda alimentado por la intolerancia religiosa en el gobierno. Victorias de las fuerzas de Inglés en el que la guerra y más victorias protestantes en la Guerra Williamite en Irlanda hacia el final del siglo 17 se solidificó Anglicana estado en Irlanda. En Irlanda del Norte, las victorias emblemáticos de la Batalla de Derry (1689) y la Batalla del Boyne (1690) en esta última guerra se sigue celebrando hoy por el unionista de la comunidad (tanto anglicanos y presbiterianos).

Después de la victoria de 1691, y contrariamente a los términos del Tratado de Limerick , una serie de leyes penales fue aprobada por la clase dominante Anglicana de Irlanda. Su intención era materialmente desventaja a la comunidad católica y, en menor medida, la comunidad presbiteriana. En el contexto de la discriminación institucional abierto, en el siglo 18 vio las sociedades secretas, militante se desarrollan en las comunidades de la región y actuar en consecuencia sectaria tensiones en los ataques violentos. Estos hechos aumentaron a finales del siglo siguiente, un evento conocido como la Batalla de los diamantes , que vio la supremacía de la Iglesia Anglicana y Presbiteriana niños Peep O'Day en los católicos defensores y conduce a la formación de los (Anglicana) Orden de Orange . Una rebelión en 1798 llevó a la cruz y la comunidad en Belfast basado en la Sociedad de los Irlandeses Unidos e inspirados por la Revolución francesa trató de romper los lazos constitucionales entre Irlanda y Gran Bretaña y los irlandeses se unen y mujeres de todas las comunidades. Después de esto, en un intento de sofocar el sectarismo y forzar la eliminación de leyes discriminatorias (y para evitar la propagación del estilo francés del republicanismo en Irlanda), el gobierno del Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña presionó para que los dos reinos se fusionen. El nuevo Estado, fundado en 1801, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda , se rige a partir de un solo gobierno y el parlamento con sede en Londres .

Entre 1717 y 1775 unas 250.000 personas emigraron del Ulster a las colonias americanas. [12] Se estima que hay más de 27 millones de descendientes de los escoceses e irlandeses de migración que ahora viven en los EE.UU. [13]

Partición de Irlanda

Después de esto, los que apoyaron la unión permanente entre Irlanda y Gran Bretaña se conoce como sindicalistas . En lo que hoy es Irlanda del Norte, estas fueron principalmente protestantes (anglicana y presbiteriana ambos). Durante el siglo 19, las reformas legales iniciadas en el siglo 18 elimina la discriminación legal contra los católicos progresistas y los programas de los agricultores permitió volver a comprar las tierras de los terratenientes. Hacia el final del siglo, la posibilidad de autonomía para Irlanda en el Reino Unido, conocida como la regla de origen , era inminente. En 1912, se convirtió en una certeza. Un enfrentamiento entre la Cámara de los Comunes y la Cámara de los Lores sobre un presupuesto controvertido produjo la Ley del Parlamento 1911 , que permitió al veto de los Lores para ser volcado. La Cámara de los Lores veto había sido garantía de sindicalistas principales que autonomía no sería aprobado por la mayoría de los miembros de la Cámara de los Lores fueron los sindicalistas. En respuesta, los opositores a la autonomía del Partido Conservador líderes como Andrew Bonar Law y con sede en Dublín abogado Sir Edward Carson a militantes sindicales en Irlanda amenazado con el uso de la violencia. En 1914, el contrabando que miles de fusiles y municiones de la Alemania imperial para su uso por los Voluntarios del Ulster , una organización paramilitar se opuso a la aplicación de la autonomía.

Los sindicalistas estaban en minoría en la isla de Irlanda en su conjunto, pero eran mayoría en la provincia norteña de Ulster [ cita requerida ] y una gran mayoría en el condado de Antrim y el condado de Down , con mayorías pequeño condado de Armagh y Condado de Londonderry . Había un número considerable también se concentran en el condado de Fermanagh y Tyrone del condado . [14] Estos seis condados más tarde constituirían el norte de Irlanda.

Primeros Ministros
de Irlanda del Norte
Señor Craigavon ??(1922-1940)
John Miller Andrews (1940-1943)
Señor Brookeborough (1943-1963)
Capitán Terence O'Neill (1963-1969)
James Chichester-Clark (1969-1971)
Brian Faulkner (1971-1972)
De Infantería de la Royal Rifles irlandeses durante la Batalla del Somme

En 1914, la Ley de la tercera regla , que contenía disposiciones para un "temporal" de la partición de los seis condados del resto de España, recibió la sanción real . Sin embargo, su ejecución fue suspendida antes de su entrada en vigor debido al estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial . La guerra se espera que dure sólo un par de semanas, pero en realidad duró cuatro años. Al final de la guerra (durante el cual el 1916 Alzamiento de Pascua había tenido lugar), el acto fue visto como inaplicable. La opinión pública de la mayoría " nacionalista "de la comunidad (que buscaban una mayor independencia de Gran Bretaña) se había desplazado durante la guerra de una demanda de autonomía de una plena independencia. En 1919, David Lloyd George propuso un nuevo proyecto de ley que divide España en dos áreas de autonomía: veintiséis condados que gobernó desde Dublín y seis se gobernó desde Belfast . A caballo entre estas dos áreas sería una responsabilidad compartida señor teniente de Irlanda , que nombraría a los gobiernos y un Consejo de Irlanda , que Lloyd George cree que se convertiría en un parlamento de toda Irlanda. [15] Los acontecimientos habían superado sin embargo el gobierno. En la elección general de 1918 , el pro-independentista Sinn Féin ganó setenta y tres de los ciento cinco escaños en el Parlamento de Irlanda y estableció un parlamento extrajudiciales en Irlanda .

Irlanda se dividió entre el norte de Irlanda y de Irlanda del Sur en 1921 bajo los términos de Lloyd George, el Gobierno de Irlanda Ley de 1920 [16] durante la guerra de independencia entre Irlanda y Gran Bretaña. A la conclusión de que la guerra el 6 de diciembre de 1922, bajo los términos de los tratados resultantes , Irlanda del Norte provisionalmente se convirtió en una parte autónoma de la recién independiente del Estado Libre de Irlanda .

Irlanda del Norte

Sin embargo, como se esperaba, el Parlamento de Irlanda del Norte resolvió el día siguiente [17] para optar por el Estado Libre de Irlanda en la primera oportunidad posible (un mes después). Poco después, una comisión se estableció para decidir sobre los límites territoriales entre el Estado Libre de Irlanda e Irlanda del Norte. Debido al estallido de la guerra civil en el Estado Libre , el trabajo de la comisión se retrasó hasta 1925. Líderes en Dublín espera una reducción sustancial en el territorio de Irlanda del Norte, con las zonas nacionalistas de pasar a la del Estado Libre. Sin embargo, la Comisión decidió en contra de esta y su informe recomendó que algunas pequeñas porciones de tierra deben ser cedidos por el Estado Libre de Irlanda del Norte. Para evitar que el argumento, el informe fue suprimido y, a cambio de una renuncia a las obligaciones del Estado Libre de deuda pública del Reino Unido y la disolución del Consejo de Irlanda (solicitada por el Gobierno de Irlanda del Norte ), la frontera inicial de seis condados se mantenido con pequeñas modificaciones.

Firma de la página Tratado Anglo-Irlandés

En junio de 1940, para fomentar el Estado irlandés para unirse a los aliados , el primer ministro británico Winston Churchill se indica que el Primer Ministro Éamon de Valera que el Reino Unido para impulsar la unidad de Irlanda , pero convencido de que Churchill no pudo entregar, de Valera rechazó la oferta . [18] (Los británicos no informó al Gobierno de Irlanda del Norte que habían hecho la oferta al Gobierno de Dublín, y el rechazo de De Valera no fue publicado hasta 1970).

La Irlanda de 1949 dio a la garantía legal por primera vez al Parlamento y Gobierno de Irlanda del Norte que no dejaría de ser parte del Reino Unido sin el consentimiento de la mayoría de sus ciudadanos.

Los apuros , a partir de la década de 1960, consistió en cerca de treinta años de actos recurrentes de violencia intensa entre los elementos de Irlanda del Norte nacionalista de la comunidad (principalmente católica ) y sindicalista de la comunidad (principalmente protestantes ) durante el cual 3.254 personas fueron asesinadas. [19] El conflicto fue causado por el estado en disputa de Irlanda del Norte dentro del Reino Unido y la discriminación contra la minoría nacionalista por la mayoría sindical dominante. [20] De 1967 a 1972 la de Irlanda del Norte Civil Rights Association , modelado sobre el propio movimiento de derechos civiles de EE.UU., dirigió una campaña de resistencia civil a la lucha contra la discriminación Católica en vivienda, empleo, policía, y los procedimientos electorales (la franquicia se limita a tener una propiedad de tipo de los contribuyentes, lo que excluye a la mayoría de los católicos). Sin embargo NICRA de la campaña, y la reacción a ella, resultó ser un precursor de un período más violento. [21] Ya en 1969, las campañas armadas de los grupos paramilitares comenzaron, incluyendo la campaña del IRA Provisional de 1969-1997 que fue dirigida a la fin del dominio británico en Irlanda del Norte y la creación de una nueva "toda Irlanda", "treinta y dos condados" República de Irlanda , y la Fuerza Voluntaria del Ulster , formado en 1966 en respuesta a la percepción de la erosión tanto en el carácter británico y sindicalista la dominación de Irlanda del Norte. Las fuerzas de seguridad del Estado - el ejército británico y la policía (de la Real Policía del Ulster ) - también estaban involucrados en la violencia. Punto el gobierno británico de vista es que sus fuerzas fueron neutrales en el conflicto, tratando de mantener la ley y el orden en Irlanda del Norte y el derecho del pueblo de Irlanda del Norte a la autodeterminación democrática. republicanos irlandeses consideran las fuerzas del Estado como " combatientes " en el conflicto, alegando colusión entre las fuerzas estatales y los paramilitares unionistas , como prueba de esto (los partidarios están en contra de la unión de Irlanda). El "lastre" investigación de la Defensoría del Policía ha confirmado que las fuerzas británicas, y en particular el RUC, se coluden con los lealistas paramilitares, estuvieron involucrados en el asesinato, y no obstruir el curso de la justicia cuando tales afirmaciones habían sido investigados previamente, [22] aunque la medida en que tal colusión ocurrió sigue siendo objeto de acaloradas disputas.

Como consecuencia de la deteriorada situación de seguridad, el gobierno regional autónomo de Irlanda del Norte fue suspendida en 1972. Junto a la violencia, se produjo un estancamiento político entre los principales partidos políticos de Irlanda del Norte, incluyendo a aquellos que condenaron la violencia, sobre el futuro estatuto de Irlanda del Norte y la forma de gobierno no deben estar dentro de Irlanda del Norte. En 1973, Irlanda del Norte celebró un referéndum para determinar si debe permanecer en el Reino Unido, o ser parte de una Irlanda unida. El voto fue en gran medida a favor (98,9%) de mantener el status quo, con aproximadamente el 57,5% del electorado total en el apoyo, pero sólo el 1% de los católicos votaron después de un boicot organizado por el SDLP. [23]

La historia reciente

Los primeros ministros En primer diputado Minsters
David Trimble (1999-2001) Seamus Mallon (1999-2001)
Reg Empey (actuación) (2001)
David Trimble (2001-2002) Marcar Durkan (2001-2002)
Ian Paisley (2007-2008) Martin McGuinness (2007 -)
Peter Robinson (2008 -)
Arlene Foster (que actúa) (2010)

Los problemas habían llegado a su fin incómodo por un proceso de paz que incluía la declaración de alto el fuego por la mayoría de las organizaciones paramilitares y la retirada completa de las armas, la reforma de la policía, y el retiro correspondiente de tropas del ejército de las calles y de la frontera sensibles áreas como South Armagh y Fermanagh , según lo acordado por los firmantes del Acuerdo de Belfast (comúnmente conocido como el " Acuerdo de Viernes Santo "). Esto se reiteró la posición británica de larga data, que nunca antes había sido plenamente reconocida por los sucesivos gobiernos de Irlanda, Irlanda del Norte, que permanecerá en el Reino Unido hasta que una mayoría de votos de otra manera. Bunreacht na hÉireann , la Constitución del Estado irlandés, fue modificado en 1999 para eliminar una reclamación de la "nación irlandesa" de soberanía sobre la totalidad de Irlanda (en el artículo 2), un reclamo calificado por un reconocimiento de que España sólo podía ejercer el control legal sobre el territorio antes conocido como el Estado Libre Irlandés. Los nuevos artículos 2 y 3 , añadida a la Constitución para reemplazar a los artículos anteriores, reconocen implícitamente que la situación de Irlanda del Norte, y sus relaciones en el resto del Reino Unido y en Irlanda, sólo puede cambiar con el acuerdo de la mayoría de los votantes en ambas jurisdicciones (Irlanda del voto por separado). Este aspecto también fue crucial para el Acuerdo de Belfast , que se firmó en 1998 y ratificada por referéndum celebrado simultáneamente en Irlanda del Norte y la República. Al mismo tiempo, el Gobierno británico reconoció por primera vez, como parte de la prospectiva, la llamada "dimensión irlandesa": el principio de que la gente de la isla de Irlanda en su conjunto tiene el derecho, sin ninguna interferencia exterior , para resolver los problemas entre el Norte y el Sur por consentimiento mutuo. [24] La última declaración fue clave para ganar apoyo para el acuerdo de los nacionalistas y los republicanos. También se estableció un delegado del gobierno de poder compartido en Irlanda del Norte, que debe constar de dos partidos unionistas y nacionalistas.

Estas instituciones fueron suspendidas por el Gobierno británico en 2002 después de Servicio de Policía de Irlanda del Norte (PSNI) las acusaciones de espionaje por las personas que trabajan para el Sinn Féin en la Asamblea ( Stormontgate ). El asunto que dio contra el acusado Sinn Féin miembros se derrumbó.

El 28 de julio de 2005, el IRA Provisional declaró el fin de su campaña y desde entonces ha dado de baja lo que se piensa que todos los de su arsenal . Este último acto de clausura se llevó a cabo en conformidad con el Acuerdo de Belfast de 1998, y bajo la vigilancia de la Comisión Internacional Independiente sobre el desmantelamiento y dos testigos, la iglesia externa. Muchos sindicalistas, sin embargo, siguen siendo escépticos. Este desmantelamiento del IRA es en contraste con los paramilitares unionistas que han negado hasta ahora a las armas fuera de servicio muchas. No se cree que esto tendrá un efecto importante en el progreso político más como partidos políticos vinculados a paramilitares unionistas no atraer un apoyo significativo y no estará en condiciones de formar parte de un gobierno en el futuro cercano. Sinn Féin, por otro lado, con su (real y percibida) vínculos con el republicanismo militante, son el mayor partido nacionalista de Irlanda del Norte.

Los políticos electos a la Asamblea en la elección de la Asamblea 2003 se convocó el 15 de mayo de 2006 bajo la Ley de Irlanda del Norte, 2006 [25] con el propósito de elegir a un primer ministro de Irlanda del Norte y el Viceprimer Ministro de Irlanda del Norte y la elección de los miembros de un Ejecutivo (antes del 25 de noviembre de 2006), como paso previo a la restauración del gobierno autónomo en Irlanda del Norte.

Después de la elección celebrada el 7 de marzo de 2007, Gobierno autónomo de Irlanda del Norte volvió a el 8 de mayo de 2007 con el Partido Unionista Democrático (DUP), líder Ian Paisley y el Sinn Féin segundo líder Martin McGuinness asumir el cargo de Primer Ministro y el Primer Ministro Adjunto, respectivamente. [26 ] El Primer Ministro actual es Peter Robinson, después de haber asumido el cargo de líder del Partido Unionista Democrático.

Gobierno y política

Irlanda del Norte

Este artículo es parte de la serie:
Política y gobierno de
Irlanda del Norte



Otros países · Atlas
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Irlanda del Norte ha delegado el gobierno en el Reino Unido. No es un Ejecutivo de Irlanda del Norte junto con los 108 miembros de la Asamblea de Irlanda del Norte para hacer frente a asuntos transferidos con el Gobierno británico y el Parlamento del Reino Unido responsable de los asuntos reservados . Elecciones a la Asamblea son, por voto único transferible , con 6 representantes elegidos por cada uno de los 18 Westminster circunscripciones. Irlanda del Norte es un claro legal competente , independiente de Inglaterra, Gales y Escocia . [27] También es una región electoral de la Unión Europea .

Edificios del Parlamento de Stormont , en Belfast , sede de la asamblea

Irlanda del Norte elige a 18 miembros del Parlamento (MP) a la Cámara de los Comunes, no todos sus asientos, sin embargo, como el Sinn Féin diputados (actualmente cinco) se niegan a tomar el juramento de servir a la Reina que se requiere de todos los diputados. La Oficina de Irlanda del Norte, representa al gobierno británico en Irlanda del Norte sobre materias reservadas, y representa los intereses del Norte de Irlanda en el gobierno del Reino Unido. La oficina de Irlanda del Norte está dirigida por el Secretario de Estado para Irlanda del Norte , que se sienta en el Consejo de Ministros del Reino Unido .

La principal división política en Irlanda del Norte entre unionistas y republicanos que desean ver a Irlanda del Norte continuará como parte del Reino Unido y los nacionalistas o republicanos que desean ver a Irlanda del Norte se una al resto de Irlanda, independiente del Reino Unido. Estos dos puntos de vista opuestos están vinculados a una mayor división cultural. Sindicalistas son mayoritariamente protestantes , descendientes principalmente de escoceses , Inglés , Galés y hugonotes colonos, así como el gaélico antiguo irlandeses que se habían convertido en una de las denominaciones protestantes. Los nacionalistas son predominantemente católicos y descendientes de la población anterior a la liquidación, con una minoría de montañeses escoceses, así como algunos conversos del protestantismo. La discriminación contra los nacionalistas en el Stormont gobierno (1921-1972) dio lugar a la nacionalista movimiento de derechos civiles en la década de 1960. [28] Algunos sindicalistas argumentan que cualquier tipo de discriminación no es sólo debido a la intolerancia religiosa o política, sino también el resultado de la más compleja factores socio-económicos, socio-políticos y geográficos. [29] Cualquiera que sea la causa, la existencia de discriminación, y la forma en que se maneja la ira nacionalista en ello, fueron un factor importante que condujo a la largo conflicto conocido como los apuros . La inestabilidad política fue a través de su fase más violenta entre 1968 y 1994. [30]

A partir de 2007, el 36% de la población se define como unionista , el 24% como nacionalista % y el 40 se definen como ninguna de ellas. [31] Según una encuesta de opinión de 2009, 69% de preferencia expresa a largo plazo del mantenimiento de la membresía de Irlanda del Norte de la Reino Unido (ya sea directamente gobernada o con gobierno autónomo ), mientras que el 21% expresa una preferencia por la pertenencia a una Irlanda unida. [32] Esta discrepancia puede explicarse por la opción mayoritaria entre los protestantes que siguen siendo parte del Reino Unido (91%) , mientras que las preferencias de católicos se reparten entre un número de soluciones a la cuestión constitucional incluida la que permanece una parte del Reino Unido (47%), una Irlanda unida (40%), Irlanda del Norte convertirse en un Estado independiente (5%), y "los que no lo sé "(5%). [33] cifras de la votación oficial, que reflejan puntos de vista sobre la "cuestión nacional", junto con los problemas del candidato, la geografía, la lealtad personal y los patrones históricos de votación, muestran un 54% de Irlanda del Norte electores votan por Pro-unionista partes, el 42% de los votos de los partidos nacionalistas-Pro y el 4% voto "otros". Las encuestas de opinión muestran consistentemente que los resultados electorales no son necesariamente una indicación de la posición del electorado con respecto a la situación constitucional de Irlanda del Norte.

La mayoría de la población de Irlanda del Norte por lo menos nominalmente cristiana . Las lealtades etno-políticos son aliados, aunque no absolutamente, a la Iglesia Católica Romana y Protestante denominaciones y estas son las etiquetas utilizadas para clasificar los puntos de vista opuestos. Esto es, sin embargo, cada vez más irrelevante, ya que la cuestión irlandesa es muy complicado. Muchos votantes (independientemente de su afiliación religiosa) se sienten atraídos por el sindicalismo es conservador políticas, mientras que otros votantes son lugar atraídos por la tradición de izquierda, nacionalista Sinn Féin y el Social Demócrata y el Partido Laborista (SDLP) y sus plataformas de los partidos respectivos de Socialismo Democrático y la Socialdemocracia . En su mayor parte, los protestantes se sienten una fuerte conexión con Gran Bretaña y el deseo de Irlanda del Norte siga siendo parte del Reino Unido . Many Catholics however, generally aspire to a United Ireland or are less certain about how to solve the constitutional question. In the 2009 survey by Northern Ireland Life and Times, 47% of Northern Irish Catholics supported Northern Ireland remaining a part of the United Kingdom, either by direct rule (8%) or devolved government (39%). [ 34 ]

Protestants have a slight majority in Northern Ireland, according to the latest Northern Ireland Census. The make-up of the Northern Ireland Assembly reflects the appeals of the various parties within the population. Of the 108 MLAs , 55 are Unionists and 44 are Nationalists (the remaining nine are classified as "other").

Citizenship and identity

People from Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom, are British citizens. They are also entitled to Irish citizenship by birth under the 1998 Belfast Agreement between the British and Irish governments, which provides that: it is the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose, and accordingly [the two governments] confirm that their right to hold both British and Irish citizenship is accepted by both Governments and would not be affected by any future change in the status of Northern Ireland.

As a result of the Agreement, the Constitution of Ireland [ 35 ] was amended so that people born in Northern Ireland are entitled to be Irish citizens on the same basis as people from any other part of the island of Ireland.

Neither government, however, extends its citizenship to all persons born in Northern Ireland. Both governments exclude some people born in Northern Ireland (eg certain persons born in Northern Ireland neither of whose parents is a UK or Irish national). The Irish restriction was given effect by the Twenty-seventh amendment to the Irish Constitution in 2004.

Several studies and surveys performed between 1971 and 2006 have indicated that, in general, Protestants in Northern Ireland see themselves primarily as 'British', whereas Roman Catholics regard themselves primarily as 'Irish'. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ]

This does not however account for the complex identities within Northern Ireland, given that many of the population regard themselves as "Ulster" or "Northern Irish", either as a primary or secondary identity. A 2008 survey found that 57% of Protestants described themselves as British, while 32% identified as Northern Irish, 6% as Ulster and 4% as Irish. Compared to a similar survey carried out in 1998, this shows a fall in the percentage of Protestants identifying as British and Ulster, and a rise in those identifying as Northern Irish. The 2008 survey found that 61% of Catholics described themselves as Irish, with 25% identifying as Northern Irish, 8% as British and 1% as Ulster. These figures were largely unchanged from the 1998 results. [ 44 ] [ 45 ]

Demography of Northern Ireland

The population of Northern Ireland has increased annually since 1978.

Origen étnico

Religión

RELIGION IN NORTHERN IRELAND
Religión Por ciento
Católico romano
40.26%
Presbyterian ( Protestant )
20.69%
Church of Ireland ( Protestant )
15.30%
No Religion
13.88%
Other Christian ( Other Protestant / Eastern Christianity / Nontrinitarian )
6.07%
Methodist ( Protestant )
3.51%
Otro
0.30%

The population of Northern Ireland was estimated as being 1,759,000 on 10 December 2008. [ 46 ] In the 2001 census, 45.57% of the population identified as belonging to Protestant or other non-Roman Catholic denominations (20.69% Presbyterian , 15.30% Church of Ireland , 3.51% Methodist , 6.07% other Christian/Christian related), 40.26% identified as Roman Catholic, 0.30% identified with non-Christian religions and 13.88% identified with no religion. [ 47 ] In terms of community background, 53.1% of the Northern Irish population came from a Protestant background, 43.8% came from a Catholic background, 0.4% from non-Christian backgrounds and 2.7% non-religious backgrounds. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] The population is forecast to pass the 1.8 million mark by 2011. [ 50 ]

Symbols used in Northern Ireland

The floral logo for the Northern Ireland assembly is based on the flax plant. [ 51 ]

Northern Ireland comprises a patchwork of communities whose national loyalties are represented in some areas by flags flown from lamp posts. The Union Flag and the former Northern Ireland Flag are flown in some loyalist areas, and the Tricolour, adopted by republicans as the flag of Ireland in 1848, is flown in some republican areas. Even kerbstones in some areas are painted red-white-blue or green-white-orange (or gold), depending on whether local people express unionist/loyalist or nationalist/republican sympathies. [ 52 ]

The official flag is the Union Flag . [ 53 ] The Northern Ireland flag was previously the former Governmental Northern Ireland banner (also known as the " Ulster Banner " or "Red Hand Flag"). It was based on the arms of the former Parliament of Northern Ireland , and was used officially by the Government of Northern Ireland and its agencies between 1953 and 1972. Since 1972, it has had no official status. UK flags policy states that in Northern Ireland: The Ulster flag and the Cross of St. Patrick have no official status and, under the Flags Regulations, are not permitted to be flown from Government Buildings. [ 54 ]

The Union Flag and the Ulster Banner are mainly used by Unionists. [ 55 ]

The Irish Rugby Football Union and the Church of Ireland have used the Flag of St. Patrick . It was used to represent Ireland when the whole island was part of the UK and is used by some British army regiments. Foreign flags are also found, such as the Palestinian flags in some Nationalist areas and Israeli flags in some Unionist areas. This is also true during matches with Scottish teams.

The United Kingdom national anthem of " God Save the Queen " is often played at state events in Northern Ireland. At the Commonwealth Games , the Northern Ireland team uses the Ulster Banner as its flag and Londonderry Air (usually set to lyrics as Danny Boy ) is used as its national anthem . [ 56 ] [ 57 ] The Northern Ireland football team also uses the Ulster Banner as its flag but uses "God Save The Queen" as its national anthem. [ 58 ] Major Gaelic Athletic Association matches are opened by the Republic of Ireland national anthem, " Amhrán na bhFiann (The Soldier's Song)", which is also used by some other all-Ireland sporting organisations. [ 59 ] Since 1995, the Ireland rugby union team has used a specially commissioned song, " Ireland's Call " as the team's anthem. The Republic of Ireland national anthem is also played at Dublin home matches as a courtesy to the host country. [ 60 ]

Northern Irish murals have become well-known features of Northern Ireland, depicting past and present divisions, both also documenting peace and cultural diversity. Almost 2,000 murals have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s (see Conflict Archive on the Internet/Murals ).

Geografía y el clima

Map of Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down. The centrepiece of Northern Ireland's geography is Lough Neagh , at 151 square miles (391 km 2 ) the largest freshwater lake both on the island of Ireland and in the British Isles . A second extensive lake system is centred on Lower and Upper Lough Erne in Fermanagh. The largest island of Northern Ireland is Rathlin , off the north Antrim coast. Strangford Lough is the largest inlet in the British Isles, covering 150 km 2 (58 sq mi).

There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains (an extension of the Caledonian fold mountains ) with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains and basalt Antrim Plateau , as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh–Tyrone border. None of the hills are especially high, with Slieve Donard in the dramatic Mournes reaching 849 metres (2,785 ft), Northern Ireland's highest point. Belfast's most prominent peak is Cavehill . The volcanic activity which created the Antrim Plateau also formed the eerily geometric pillars of the Giant's Causeway on the north Antrim coast. Also in north Antrim are the Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge , Mussenden Temple and the Glens of Antrim .

The Lower and Upper River Bann , River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry.

The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Belfast, whose metropolitan area includes over a third of the population of Northern Ireland, with heavy urbanisation and industrialisation along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough .

The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate , rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region. The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America . Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in January and 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in July. The damp climate and extensive deforestation in the 16 th and 17 th centuries resulted in much of the region being covered in rich green grassland.

Highest maximum temperature : 30.8 °C (87.4 °F) at Knockarevan, near Garrison, County Fermanagh on 30 June 1976 and at Belfast on 12 July 1983.

Lowest minimum temperature : ?18.7 °C (?1.7 °F) at Castlederg , County Tyrone on 23 December 2010. [ 61 ]

Climate data for Belfast
Mes Jan Febrero Estropear Abril Mayo Junio Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre Año
Récord ° C (° F) 13
(55)
14
(57)
19
(66)
21
(70)
26
(79)
28
(82)
29
(84)
28
(82)
26
(79)
21
(70)
16
(61)
14
(57)
29
(84)
Promedio alto ° C (° F) 6
(43)
7
(45)
9
(48)
12
(54)
15
(59)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
16
(61)
13
(55)
9
(48)
7
(45)
12
(54)
Bajo promedio ° C (° F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
3
(37)
4
(39)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
11
(52)
9
(48)
7
(45)
4
(39)
3
(37)
6
(43)
Récord ° C (° F) -13
(9)
-12
(10)
-12
(10)
-4
(25)
-3
(27)
-1
(30)
4
(39)
1
(34)
-2
(28)
-4
(25)
-6
(21)
-11
(12)
-13
(9)
Precipitaciones mm (pulgadas) 80
(3.15)
52
(2.05)
50
(1.97)
48
(1.89)
52
(2.05)
68
(2.68)
94
(3.7)
77
(3.03)
80
(3.15)
83
(3.27)
72
(2.83)
90
(3.54)
846
(33.31)
Source: [ 62 ]

Counties

Northern Ireland consists of six historic counties : County Antrim , County Armagh , County Down , County Fermanagh , County Londonderry , [ 63 ] County Tyrone

These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; instead there are twenty-six districts of Northern Ireland which have different geographical extents, even in the case of those named after the counties from which they derive their name. Fermanagh District Council most closely follows the borders of the county from which it takes its name. Most districts are based around large towns, for instance Coleraine Borough Council derives its name from the town of Coleraine in County Londonderry.

Lower Lough Erne, County Fermanagh

Although counties are no longer used for governmental purpose, they remain a popular means of describing where places are. They are officially used while applying for an Irish passport , which requires one to state one's county of birth. The name of county then appears in both Irish and English on the passport's information page, as opposed to the town or city of birth on the United Kingdom passport. The Gaelic Athletic Association still uses the counties as its primary means of organisation and fields representative teams of each GAA county . The original system of car registration numbers largely based on counties still remains in use. In 2000 the telephone numbering system was restructured into an 8 digit scheme with the first digit reflecting the county.

The county boundaries still appear on Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland Maps and the Phillips Street Atlases, among others. With their decline in official use, there is often confusion surrounding towns and cities which lie near county boundaries, such as Belfast and Lisburn , which are split between counties Down and Antrim (the majorities of both cities, however, are in Antrim).

Ciudades

There are five major settlements with city status in Northern Ireland:

Carrickfergus Castle – a Norman castle built in 1177

Towns and villages

Donaghadee Harbour and lighthouse

The following is a list of towns (settlements with at least 4,500 inhabitants) in Northern Ireland.

Ley

Northern Ireland's legal and administrative systems have evolved from those in place in the pre-partition United Kingdom , and were developed by its devolved government from 1921 until 1972. From 1972 until 1999 (except for a brief period in 1974), laws and administration relating to Northern Ireland were handled directly from Westminster . Between the years 1999 and 2002 (except during a brief suspension), and since May 2007, devolution has returned to Northern Ireland.

Economía

Cranes at Harland & Wolff shipyard, now diversified into heavy manufacturing for the renewable energy industry

The Northern Ireland economy is the smallest of the four economies making up the United Kingdom . Northern Ireland has traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services, primarily the public sector. Tourism also plays a big role in the local economy. More recently the economy has benefited from major investment by many large multi-national corporations into high tech industry. These large organisations are attracted by government subsidies and the skilled workforce in Northern Ireland.

Transporte

Larne Harbour

Northern Ireland is served by three airports – Belfast International near Antrim , George Best Belfast City in East Belfast, and City of Derry in County Londonderry.

Major sea ports at Larne and Belfast carry passengers and freight between Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Passenger railways are operated by Northern Ireland Railways . With Iarnrod Éireann (Irish Rail), Northern Ireland Railways co-operates in providing the joint Enterprise service between Dublin and Belfast .

Main motorways are:

The cross-border road connecting the ports of Larne in Northern Ireland and Rosslare Harbour in the Republic of Ireland is being upgraded as part of an EU -funded scheme. European route E01 runs from Larne through the island of Ireland, Spain and Portugal to Seville .

Cultura

An Ulster fry , served in Belfast , Northern Ireland
The Twelfth is a Bank & Public Holiday and an annual Protestant event, involving Orange parades

With its improved international reputation, Northern Ireland has recently witnessed rising numbers of tourists. Attractions include cultural festivals, musical and artistic traditions, countryside and geographical sites of interest, public houses , welcoming hospitality and sports (especially golf and fishing ). Since 1987 public houses have been allowed to open on Sundays, despite some opposition.

The Ulster Cycle is a large body of prose and verse centring around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. This is one of the four major cycles of Irish Mythology . The cycle centres around the reign of Conchobar mac Nessa , who is said to have been king of Ulster around the time of Christ. He ruled from Emain Macha (now Navan Fort near Armagh), and had a fierce rivalry with queen Medb and king Ailill of Connacht and their ally, Fergus mac Róich , former king of Ulster. The foremost hero of the cycle is Conchobar's nephew Cúchulainn .

Idiomas

Inglés

The dialect of English spoken in Northern Ireland shows influence from the lowland Scots language . [ 64 ] There are supposedly some minute differences in pronunciation between Protestants and Catholics, the best known of which is the name of the letter h , which Protestants tend to pronounce as "aitch", as in British English , and Catholics tend to pronounce as "haitch", as in Hiberno-English . However, geography is a much more important determinant of dialect than religious background. English is spoken as a first language by almost 100% of the Northern Irish population, though under the Good Friday Agreement , Irish and Ulster Scots (one of the dialects of the Scots language), sometimes known as Ullans , have recognition as "part of the cultural wealth of Northern Ireland". [ 65 ]

Multilingual sign in English, Irish, and Ulster Scots
Areas in Northern Ireland where more than one third of the population can speak Irish, according to the 2001 Census

Irlandés

The Irish language (Gaeilge) is the native language of the whole island of Ireland . [ 66 ] It was spoken predominantly throughout what is now Northern Ireland before the Ulster Plantations in the 17th century. Most placenames throughout Northern Ireland are anglicised versions of their Gaelic originals. These Gaelic placenames include thousands of lanes, roads, townlands, towns, villages and all of its modern cities. Examples include Belfast- derived from Béal Feirste , Shankill- derived from Sean Cill and Lough Neagh- derived from Loch nEathach .

In Northern Ireland the Irish language has long been associated with Irish nationalism. The language was seen as a common heritage and indeed the object of affection by many prominent 19th century Protestant republicans and Protestant unionists. There are three main dialects in the island of Ireland—Ulster, Munster and Connacht. Speakers of each dialect often find others difficult to understand. Speakers in Northern Ireland speak the Ulster dialect.

In the early years of the 20th century, the language became a political football throughout Ireland as Republican activists became increasingly linked with it. In the 20th century, the language became in Unionist eyes increasingly polarised for political ends and many in that community would blame Sinn Féin in this regard. After Ireland was partitioned, the language was largely rejected in the education system of the new Northern Ireland. It is argued [ 67 ] that the predominant use of the English language may have served to exacerbate the Troubles. [ dubious ]

The erection by some Local District Councils of legal bilingual street names (English/Irish), [ 68 ] invariably in predominantly Catholic/Nationalist/Republican districts, may be perceived as creating a 'chill factor' by Unionists and as such not conducive to fostering good cross community relationships. However other countries within the United Kingdom, such as Wales and Scotland, enjoy the use of Bilingual signs in Welsh and Scots Gaelic respectively. Because of this, nationalists in Northern Ireland argue for equality in this regard. In responses to the 2001 census in Northern Ireland 10% of the population claimed "some knowledge of Irish", [ 69 ] 4.7% to "speak, read, write and understand" Irish. [ 69 ] It was not asked as part of the census but in a poll, 1% of respondents said they speak it as their main language at home. [ 70 ] Following a public consultation, the decision was taken not to introduce specific legislation for the Irish language at this time, despite 75% of the (self-selecting) respondents stating that they were in favour of such legislation. [ 71 ]

Ulster Irish [ 72 ] [ dead link ] or Donegal Irish, [ 72 ] is the dialect which is nearest to Scots Gaelic. Some words and phrases of the dialect are shared with Scots Gaelic. The dialects of East Ulster – those of Rathlin Island and the Glens of Antrim – were very similar to the Scottish Gaelic dialect formerly spoken in Argyll, the part of Scotland nearest to Rathlin Island. The Ulster Gaelic is the most central dialect of Gaelic, both geographically and linguistically, of the once vast Gaelic speaking world, stretching from the south of Ireland to the north of Scotland. At the beginning of the 20th century, Munster Irish was favoured by many revivalists, with a shift to Connacht Irish in the 1960s, which is now the preferred dialect by many in Ireland. Many younger speakers of Irish experience less confusion with dialects due to the expansion of Irish-language broadcasting (TG4) and the exposure to a variety of dialects. There are fewer problems regarding written Irish as there is a standardised spelling and grammar, created by the Irish Government, which was supposed to reflect a compromise between various dialect forms. However, Ulster Irish speakers find that Ulster forms are generally not favoured by the standard.

All learners of Irish in Northern Ireland use this form of the language. Self-instruction courses in Ulster Irish include Now You're Talking and Tús maith . The writer Séamus Ó Searcaigh, once warned about the Irish Government's attempts at producing a Caighdeán or Standard for the Irish language in Ireland in 1953, when he wrote that what will emerge will be "Gaedhilg nach mbéidh suim againn inntí mar nár fhás sí go nádúrtha as an teangaidh a thug Gaedhil go hÉirinn" (A Gaelic which is of no interest to us, for it has not developed naturally from the language brought to Ireland by the Gaels). The Ulster Irish dialect is spoken throughout the area of the historical nine county Ulster, in particular the Gaeltacht region of County Donegal and the Gaeltacht Quarter of West Belfast. [ 73 ] Mayo Irish has strong ties with Donegal Irish.

Ulster Scots

Ulster Scots comprises varieties of the Scots language spoken in Northern Ireland. Aodán Mac Poilín [ 74 ] states that "While most argue that Ulster-Scots is a dialect or variant of Scots, some have argued or implied that Ulster-Scots is a separate language from Scots. The case for Ulster-Scots being a distinct language, made at a time when the status of Scots itself was insecure, is so bizarre that it is unlikely to have been a linguistic argument." Approximately 2% of the population claim to speak Ulster Scots, [ 75 ] however the number speaking it as their main language in their home is negligible. [ 70 ] Classes at colleges can now be taken [ 76 ] but for a native English speaker "[the language] is comparatively accessible, and even at its most intense can be understood fairly easily with the help of a glossary." [ 74 ] The St Andrews Agreement recognises the need to "enhance and develop the Ulster Scots language, heritage and culture". [ 77 ]

Sign languages

Three sign languages are used in Northern Ireland: Northern Ireland Sign Language (NISL), British Sign Language (BSL) and Irish Sign Language (ISL).

The most common sign language in Northern Ireland is British Sign Language (BSL), but as Catholics tended to send their deaf children to schools in Dublin (St Joseph's Institute for Deaf Boys and St. Mary's Institute for Deaf Girls), Irish Sign Language (ISL) is commonly used in the Nationalist community. The two languages are not related: BSL is in the British family (which also includes Auslan ), and ISL is in the French family (which also includes American Sign Language ).

NISL is described as being related to Irish Sign Language (ISL) at the syntactic level while the lexicon is based on British Sign Language (BSL) [ 78 ] and American Sign Language (ASL). [ citation needed ]

As of March 2004 the British Government recognises only British Sign Language and Irish Sign Language as the official sign languages used in Northern Ireland. [ 79 ] [ 80 ]

Other languages

There are an increasing number of ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland . Chinese and Urdu are spoken by Northern Ireland's Asian communities; though the Chinese community is often referred to as the "third largest" community in Northern Ireland, it is tiny by international standards. Since the accession of new member states to the European Union in 2004, Central and Eastern European languages, particularly Polish , are becoming increasingly common.

Variations in geographic nomenclature

Alternative names for Northern Ireland

Many people inside and outside Northern Ireland use other names for Northern Ireland, depending on their point of view.

Free Derry mural

Notwithstanding the ancient realm of Dál Riata which extended into Scotland, disagreement on names, and the reading of political symbolism into the use or non-use of a word, also attaches itself to some urban centres. The most famous example is whether Northern Ireland's second city should be called "Derry" or "Londonderry" .

Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker. The first Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland , Seamus Mallon , was criticised by unionist politicians for calling the region the "North of Ireland" while Sinn Féin has been criticised in some Irish newspapers for still referring to the "Six Counties". [ 81 ]

Those who do not belong to any group but lean towards one side often tend to use the language of that group. Supporters of unionism in the British media (notably the Daily Telegraph and the Daily Express ) regularly call Northern Ireland "Ulster". [ 82 ] Some nationalist and republican-leaning media outlets in Ireland almost always use "North of Ireland" or the "Six Counties".

Government and cultural organisations in Northern Ireland, particularly those pre-dating the 1980s [ citation needed ] , often use the word "Ulster" in their title; for example, the University of Ulster , the Ulster Museum , the Ulster Orchestra , and BBC Radio Ulster .

Although some news bulletins since the 1990s have opted to avoid all contentious terms and use the official name, Northern Ireland, the term "The North" remains commonly used by broadcast media in the Republic, to the annoyance of some Unionists. [ citation needed ] Bertie Ahern , the previous Taoiseach , now almost always refers to "Northern Ireland" in public, having previously only used "The North". For Northern Ireland's second largest city, broadcasting outlets which are unaligned to either community and broadcast to both use both names interchangeably, often starting a report with "Londonderry" and then using "Derry" in the rest of the report. However, within Northern Ireland, print media which are aligned to either community (the News Letter is aligned to the unionist community while the Irish News is aligned to the nationalist community) generally use their community's preferred term. British newspapers with unionist leanings, such as the Daily Telegraph , usually use the language of the unionist community. However the more left-wing Guardian recommends in its style guide using "Derry" and "Co Derry", and "not Londonderry". [ 83 ]

The division in nomenclature is seen particularly in sports and religions associated with one of the communities. Gaelic games use "Derry", for example. Nor is there clear agreement on how to decide on a name. When the nationalist-controlled local council voted to re-name the city "Derry" unionists objected, stating that as it owed its city status to a Royal Charter , only a charter issued by the Queen could change the name. The Queen has not intervened on the matter and thus the council is now called the Derry City Council while the city is still officially Londonderry. Nevertheless, the council has printed two sets of stationery – one for each term – and their policy is to reply to correspondence using whichever term the original sender used.

At times of high communal tension, each side regularly complains of the use of the nomenclature associated with the other community by a third party such as a media organisation, claiming such usage indicates evident "bias" against their community.

Unionist/Loyalist

Nationalist/Republican

Otro

Descriptions for Northern Ireland

There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is: province, region, country or something else. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ] The choice of term can be controversial and can reveal the writer's political preferences. [ 92 ] This has been noted as a problem by several writers on Northern Ireland, with no generally recommended solution. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ]

Owing in part to the way in which the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland came into being, there is no legally defined term to describe what Northern Ireland 'is'. There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the agencies of the UK government. For example, the websites of the Office of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom [ 4 ] and the UK Statistics Authority [ 3 ] describe the United Kingdom as being made up of four countries, one of these being Northern Ireland. Other pages [ 94 ] on the same websites refer to Northern Ireland specifically as a "province" as do publications of the UK Statistics Authority. [ 95 ] The website of the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency also refers to Northern Ireland as being a province [ 96 ] as does the website of the Office of Public Sector Information [ 97 ] and other agencies within Northern Ireland. [ 98 ] Publications of HM Treasury [ 99 ] and the Department of Finance and Personnel of the Northern Ireland Executive, [ 100 ] on the other hand, describe Northern Ireland as being a "region of the UK". The UK's submission to the 2007 United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names defines the UK as being made up of two countries (England and Scotland), one principality (Wales) and one province (Northern Ireland). [ 101 ]

Unlike England, Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland has no history of being an independent country or of being a nation in its own right. [ 102 ] Some writers describe the United Kingdom as being made up of three countries and one province [ 103 ] or point out the difficulties with calling Northern Ireland a country. [ 104 ] Authors writing specifically about Northern Ireland dismiss the idea that Northern Ireland is a "country" in general terms, [ 91 ] [ 93 ] [ 105 ] [ 106 ] and draw contrasts in this respect with England, Scotland and Wales. [ 107 ] Even for the period covering the first 50 years of Northern Ireland's existence, the term country is considered inappropriate by some political scientists on the basis that many decisions were still made in London. [ 102 ] The absence of a distinct nation of Northern Ireland, separate within the island of Ireland, is also pointed out as being a problem with using the term [ 93 ] [ 108 ] [ 109 ] and is in contrast to England, Scotland and Wales. [ 110 ]

Many commentators prefer to use the term "province", although that is also not without problems. It can arouse irritation, particularly among nationalists, for whom the title province is properly reserved for the traditional province of Ulster, of which Northern Ireland occupies six out of nine counties. [ 92 ] [ 104 ] The BBC style guide is to refer to Northern Ireland as a province, and use of the term is common in literature and newspaper reports on Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom. Some authors have described the meaning of this term as being equivocal: referring to Northern Ireland as being a province both of the United Kingdom and of the traditional country of Ireland. [ 108 ]

"Region" is used by several UK government agencies and the European Union. Some authors choose this word but note that it is "unsatisfactory". [ 92 ] [ 93 ] Northern Ireland can also be simply described as "part of the UK", including by UK government offices. [ 4 ]

Deporte

In Northern Ireland, sport is popular and important in the lives of many people. Sports tend to be organised on an all-Ireland basis including both Northern Ireland and the Republic, as in the case of Gaelic football , rugby union , hockey , basketball , cricket and hurling . [ 111 ] The main exception is association football , which has separate governing bodies for each jurisdiction. [ 111 ]

Association football (soccer)

The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the organising body for association football in Northern Ireland. The highest level of competition within Northern Ireland is the IFA Premiership . There is also an all-island tournament, the Setanta Cup , which includes four IFA Premiership teams and four teams from the Republic's league. However, the best Northern Irish players tend to play for clubs in Great Britain in the English or Scottish leagues. Despite Northern Ireland's small population, its international team has had a number of notable successes, including World Cup quarter-final appearances in 1958 and 1982.

Cricket

Cricket is the fastest growing sport in the country. [ citation needed ] The Ireland cricket team , which represents both the Republic and Northern Ireland, is an associate member of the International Cricket Council . It participated in 2007 Cricket World Cup and qualified for the Super 8s and did the same in the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 . Ireland are current champions of ICC Intercontinental Cup and the under-19 team is also performing very well. [ citation needed ] The regular international ground is Stormont in Belfast.

Gaelic games

Gaelic games include Gaelic football , hurling , Gaelic handball and rounders . Of the four, football is the most popular in Northern Ireland. Players play for local clubs with the best being selected for their county teams: Antrim , Armagh , Derry , Down , Fermanagh and Tyrone . The Ulster GAA is the branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association that is responsible for all nine counties of Ulster , including the six that are in Northern Ireland. All nine field teams in the Ulster Senior Football Championship , Ulster Senior Hurling Championship , All-Ireland Senior Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship . Recent successes for Northern Ireland's teams include Armagh 's 2002 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship win and Tyrone 's wins in 2003, 2005 and 2008.

Golf

Northern Ireland has a number of golf courses, such as the Royal Belfast Golf Club (the earliest, formed in 1881), Royal Portrush Golf Club (the only course outside of Great Britain to have hosted The Open Championship ), and Royal County Down Golf Club ( Golf Digest magazine's top-rated course outside the United States). [ 112 ] [ 113 ]

Notable golfers include Fred Daly (winner of The Open in 1947), Graeme McDowell (winner of the US Open in 2010, the first European since 1970), Rory McIlroy (winner of the US Open in 2011) and Darren Clarke (winner of The Open in 2011). [ 114 ] [ 115 ]

Rugby union

Northern Ireland's six counties are among the nine governed by the Ulster branch of the all-island governing body, the Irish Rugby Football Union . Ulster is one of the four professional provincial teams in the island of Ireland and competes in the Celtic League and European Cup . Ulster won the European Cup in 1999. In international competition, players from Northern Ireland represent the Ireland national rugby team , whose recent successes include four Triple Crowns between 2004 and 2009 and a Grand Slam in 2009.

Snooker

Northern Ireland has produced two world snooker champions, notably the late Alex Higgins who won the title in 1972 and again in 1982 and Dennis Taylor who won the world crown in 1985. The highest ranked Northern Ireland professional on the world circuit presently is Mark Allen from Antrim. The sport is governed locally by the Northern Ireland Billiards & Snooker Association who run regular ranking tournaments and competitions and are recognised by Sports Council NI as the governing body for snooker in Northern Ireland.

Educación

Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom . Unlike most areas of the United Kingdom, in the last year of primary school children sit the eleven plus transfer test , and the results determine whether they attend grammar schools or secondary schools . This system was due to be changed in 2008 amidst some controversy, with the exception of north Armagh where the Dickson Plan is in effect. The eleven plus has since been abolished with the majority of Grammar schools now holding their own entry test, Secondary pupils are not required to take such a test for entry.

Northern Ireland's state (controlled) schools are open to all children in Northern Ireland, although in practice are mainly attended by those from Protestant or non-religious backgrounds. There is a separate publicly funded school system provided for Roman Catholics, although Roman Catholics are free to attend state schools (and some non-Roman Catholics attend Roman Catholic schools). Integrated schools , which attempt to ensure a balance in enrolment between pupils of Protestant, Roman Catholic and other faiths (or none) are becoming increasingly popular, although Northern Ireland still has a primarily de facto religiously segregated education system. In the primary school sector, forty schools (8.9% of the total number) are Integrated Schools and thirty two (7.2% of the total number) are Gaelscoileanna .

Ver:

There are two main universities in Northern Ireland – The Queen's University of Belfast , and the University of Ulster .

Véase también

Listas

Referencias

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