Omaha, Nebraska

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Omaha
- Ciudad -
Una vista aérea del centro de Omaha del este

Sello
Apodo (s): Puerta del Oeste [1]
Lema: Fortiter en Re    ( América )
"Con valentía en todas las empresas"
Ubicación en Nebraska y el Condado de Douglas .
Omaha se encuentra en Estados Unidos
Omaha
Lugar en los Estados Unidos
Coordenadas: 41 ° 15'N 96 ° 0'W / 41.25 ° N 96 ° W / 41,25; -96 Coordenadas : 41 ° 15'N 96 ° 0'W / 41.25 ° N 96 ° W / 41,25; -96
País Estados Unidos
Estado Nebraska
Condado Douglas
Fundado 1854
Incorporado 1857
Gobierno
- Mayor Jim Suttle ( D )
- Secretaria de la Ciudad Buster Brown
- Ayuntamiento
Área
- Ciudad 118.9 millas cuadradas ( 307,9 km 2)
- Tierra 115.7 km ² (299,7 kilometros 2)
- Agua 3.2 millas cuadradas (8,2 km 2)
Elevación 1.090 ft (332 m)
Población ( 2010 ) [2]
- Ciudad 408958
- Densidad 3,370.7 / km ² (1,301.4 / km 2)
- Metro 885350
Huso horario CST ( UTC-6 )
- Verano ( DST ) CDT ( UTC-5 )
Códigos postales 68022, 68101-68164
Código de área (s) 402 , 531
Código de los PAA 31-37000 [3]
GNIS identificación de la característica 0835483 [4]
Sitio web www.cityofomaha.org

Omaha (pronunciado / o?m?h? ? / ) es la ciudad más grande en el estado de Nebraska , Estados Unidos , y es la sede del condado de Douglas County . [5] Se encuentra en el medio oeste de Estados Unidos en el río Missouri , cerca de 20 millas (30 km) al norte de la desembocadura del río Platte . Omaha es el ancla de la zona de Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitana , que incluye en Council Bluffs, Iowa , a través del río Missouri en Omaha.

De acuerdo con el Censo del 2010 , la población de Omaha fue 408.958, lo que es la nación número 42 más grande de la ciudad. Incluyendo sus suburbios, Omaha formaron la 60 ª más grande del área metropolitana en los Estados Unidos en 2010, con una población estimada de 865.350 que residen en ocho condados . Hay más de 1,2 millones de habitantes dentro de 50 millas (80 km) de radio del centro de la ciudad , que forman el área metropolitana de Omaha.

Período de Omaha pionera se inició en 1854 cuando la ciudad fue fundada por los especuladores de Council Bluffs vecinos, Iowa. La ciudad fue fundada a lo largo del río Missouri, y un cruce llamado ferry Lone Tree ganó su apodo de la ciudad, la "Puerta del Oeste". Durante el siglo 19, la ubicación central de Omaha en los Estados Unidos hizo la ciudad para convertirse en un importante nacionales centro de transporte . A lo largo del resto del siglo 19, el transporte y la ejecución de obra fueron los sectores importantes de la ciudad, junto con sus ferrocarriles y fábricas de cerveza . En el siglo 20, el Stockyards Omaha , una vez más, y es el mundo empacadora de carne plantas, adquirieron importancia internacional.

Hoy en día, Omaha es el hogar de cinco Fortune 500 empresas: ConAgra Foods , Union Pacific Corporation , Mutual of Omaha , Peter Kiewit & Sons Inc., y Berkshire Hathaway . [6] Berkshire Hathaway está encabezada por los inversores locales Warren Buffett , quien estaba la persona más rica del mundo para el primer semestre de 2008. [7] Omaha es también el hogar de cuatro Fortune 1000 la sede, TD Ameritrade , Corporación de Occidente , Valmont Industries , y Werner Enterprises . First National Bank de Omaha es la mayor empresa privada banco en los Estados Unidos. Sede de Leo A Daly , HDR, Inc. y Grupo DLR , tres de los principales de los Estados Unidos de 30 empresas de arquitectura e ingeniería, se encuentran en Omaha.

La moderna economía de Omaha es diversa y basada en el conocimiento puestos de trabajo cualificados. En 2009, Forbes identificó Omaha como el número de la nación un "La mejor inversión-para-la ciudad de Buck" y el número uno en "El más rápido-Recuperación de las ciudades estadounidenses" lista. Turismo en Omaha beneficia la economía de la ciudad en gran medida, con la celebración de la Serie Mundial Universitaria proporcionando ingresos importantes y de la ciudad Zoo Henry Doorly en calidad de atracción en Nebraska. Omaha acogió las pruebas de natación olímpica en 2008, y está previsto que vuelva a hacerlo en 2012.

A la preservación histórica movimiento en Omaha ha dado lugar a una serie de edificios históricos y los distritos de ser designados Monumentos Omaha o listados en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos . Desde su fundación, los grupos étnicos de la ciudad se han agrupado en enclaves en el norte , sur y centro de Omaha . En sus primeros días, la historia de la ciudad incluye una variedad de delitos , tales como los juegos de azar ilegales y disturbios . Hoy en día, la diversidad cultural de Omaha incluye una variedad de salas de espectáculos, museos y el patrimonio musical, incluyendo la escena del jazz de importancia histórica en el norte de Omaha y el moderno e influyente " sonido Omaha ". Deportes han sido importantes en Omaha durante más de un siglo, y actualmente la ciudad cuenta con tres equipos deportivos profesionales. Omaha también tiene una serie de actividades recreativas senderos y parques por toda la ciudad.

Contenido

[ editar ] Historia

Logan Fontenelle , jefe de la tribu de Omaha que cedió tierras para el gobierno de EE.UU. que se convirtió en la ciudad de Omaha

Diferentes tribus de nativos americanos vivían en la tierra que se convirtió en Omaha, incluso desde el siglo 17, el Omaha y Ponca , Dhegian-sioux-lenguaje de la gente que se había originado en el valle inferior del río Ohio y emigraron al oeste por el siglo 17, Pawnee , otoe , Missouri , y Ioway . La palabra Omaha (en realidad UmoNhoN o UmaNhaN) significa "habitantes en el acantilado". [8]

En 1804 la expedición de Lewis y Clark pasó por la orilla del río, donde sería la ciudad de Omaha construido. Entre 30 de julio y 3 de agosto de 1804, los miembros de la expedición, incluyendo Meriwether Lewis y William Clark , se reunió con líderes tribales Missouria Oto y en el Consejo de Bluff en un punto a unas 20 millas (30 km) al norte de la actual Omaha. [ 9] Inmediatamente al sur de esa zona, los estadounidenses construyeron varios puestos de comercio de pieles en los años siguientes, incluyendo Fort Lisa en 1812, [10] Fort Atkinson en 1819, [11] Cabanne de Trading Post , construido en 1822, y el mensaje de Fontenelle, en 1823, en lo que se convirtió en Bellevue . [12] Hay una competencia feroz entre los comerciantes de la piel hasta que John Jacob Astor creó el monopolio de la American Fur Company . Los mormones construyeron un pueblo llamado Parque de Cutler en el área en 1846. [13] A pesar de que era temporal, el acuerdo sirvió de base para un mayor desarrollo en el futuro. [14]

A través de 26 tratados por separado con el gobierno federal de Estados Unidos, las tribus americanas nativas en Nebraska ido cediendo las tierras que actualmente cuenta el estado. El tratado de cesión y relacionados con el área de Omaha se produjo en 1854, cuando la tribu Omaha cedió la mayoría de centro-este de Nebraska. [15] Logan Fontenelle , jefe de la Omaha, desempeñó un papel esencial en ese procedimiento.

[ editar ] Pioneer Omaha

Antes de que fuera legal para reclamar las tierras en los territorios indígenas , William D. Brown fue el funcionamiento del ferry de Lone Tree para traer colonos de Council Bluffs, Iowa, en el área que se convirtió en Omaha. Brown es generalmente reconocido como tener la primera visión de una ciudad donde ahora se sienta Omaha. [16] La aprobación de la Ley de Kansas-Nebraska en 1854 fue presagiada por el replanteo de las reclamaciones de todo el área se convierta en Omaha por los residentes de la vecina Council Bluffs . El 4 de julio de 1854, la ciudad fue establecida de manera informal en un picnic en el Capitolio, sede actual de Omaha Central High School . [17] Poco después, el Club de reclamación Omaha se creó para proporcionar vigilancia de justicia para reclamar los puentes y otras personas que infringieron la tierra de muchos de la ciudad, los padres fundadores . [18] Algunas de estas tierras, que ahora se envuelve alrededor del centro de Omaha, fue utilizado más adelante para atraer a los legisladores de Nebraska Territorial a un área llamada Scriptown . [19] La capital territorial se encuentra en Omaha, pero cuando se convirtió en un estado de Nebraska en 1867, la capital se trasladó a Lincoln , 53 millas (85 km) al sur-oeste de Omaha. [20] La Corte Suprema de EE.UU. falló en contra de los terratenientes más numerosas que las acciones violentas fueron condenados en el panadero v. Morton . [21]

Muchas de las figuras fundadoras de Omaha se quedó en la Casa Douglas o el hotel Casa Cozzens . [22] Dodge Street era importante en la historia temprana a principios comerciales de la ciudad, la Calle 24 Norte y Sur de la Calle 24a desarrollado de forma independiente, como los distritos de negocios, también. Pioneros fueron enterrados en el cementerio de Prospect Hill y Cedar Hill Cemetery. [23] Cedar Hill se cerró en la década de 1860 y sus tumbas fueron trasladados a Prospect Hill, donde los pioneros se unieron más tarde los soldados de Fort Omaha , los afro-americanos y principios de los inmigrantes europeos . [ 24] Hay varios otros cementerios históricos en Omaha , histórico sinagogas judías e históricas iglesias cristianas que datan de la época pionera, también.

[ editar ] siglo 19

La Fontenelle hotel , anteriormente situado en el centro de Omaha

La economía de Omaha auge y rompió a través de sus primeros años. Omaha fue un punto de parada para los colonos y los buscadores hacia el oeste, ya sea por tierra o por el río Missouri. La Bertrand Steamboat se hundió al norte de Omaha en su camino hacia las minas de oro en 1865. Su gran colección de artefactos se encuentra en exhibición en el cercano Refugio de Vida Silvestre Nacional de Desoto . El distrito de ejecución de obra y al por mayor traído nuevos puestos de trabajo, seguido por el ferrocarril y los corrales. [25] El comienzo de la primer ferrocarril transcontinental en 1863, a condición de un auge esencial en el desarrollo de la ciudad. [26] El ferrocarril Union Pacific fue autorizada por la EE.UU. Congreso para comenzar a construir ferrocarriles hacia el oeste en 1862, [27] [28] . en enero de 1866 se inició la construcción de Omaha [29]

Igualmente importante, los corrales de ganado de la Unión se fundó en 1883. [30] Dentro de veinte años de la fundación de los Mataderos de la Unión en el sur de Omaha, cuatro de las cinco empresas principales empacadoras de carne en los Estados Unidos se encuentra en Omaha. Por la década de 1950, la mitad de la fuerza laboral de la ciudad, fue empleado en empacadoras de carne y procesamiento. Meatpacking, ejecución de obra y los ferrocarriles fueron los responsables de la mayoría del crecimiento en la ciudad desde finales del siglo 19 a través de las primeras décadas del siglo 20. [31]

Los inmigrantes no tardó en crear enclaves étnicos en toda la ciudad, del irlandés en Sheelytown en el sur de Omaha, los alemanes en el Near North Side , junto con este Judios europeos y negro de los migrantes del Sur , Little Italy y Bohemia poco en el sur de Omaha. [32] A partir de finales del siglo 19, la clase alta Omaha vivía en enclaves de lujo en toda la ciudad, incluyendo el sur y el norte de los barrios Costa de Oro, Parque Bemis , Lugar Kountze , Club de Campo y en Midtown Omaha . Ellos viajaron de la ciudad en expansión sistema de parques en los bulevares diseñados por el renombrado arquitecto paisajista Horacio Cleveland . [33] El Omaha caballo de tren de pasajeros llevó por primera vez en toda la ciudad, al igual que la tarde del cable Omaha Tramway Company y otras compañías similares. En 1888, el Omaha y Council Bluffs ferrocarril y Bridge Company construyó el Douglas puente de la calle , el peatón primero y puente de carros entre Omaha y Omaha. [34] juegos de azar, alcohol y prostitución estaban muy extendidas en el siglo 19, primero rampante en el de la ciudad Distrito quemadas y más tarde en el Distrito Sporting . [35] Controlado por Omaha jefe político Tom Dennison en 1890, los elementos criminales contó con el apoyo de "perpetua" de Omaha alcalde, "Cowboy Jim" Dahlman, apodado por sus ocho condiciones como alcalde. [36] [37] Las calamidades como la gran inundación de 1881 no frenó la violencia de la ciudad. [38] En 1882, el Campamento de descarga huelga enfrentó a la milicia del estado contra los huelguistas sindicalizados, llamando la atención nacional a los problemas laborales de Omaha. El gobernador de Nebraska tuvo que llamar Ejército de los EE.UU. las tropas de la vecina Fort Omaha para proteger a los esquiroles para el ferrocarril Burlington , con lo que a lo largo de ametralladoras Gatling y cañones para la defensa. Cuando el evento terminó, hubo un muerto y varios heridos. [39] En 1891, una turba ahorcado Joe Coe , un portero de afro-americanos después de ser acusado de violar a una chica blanca. [40] Hubo varios otros disturbios y eventos disturbios civiles en Omaha durante este período, también.

En 1898, los líderes de Omaha, bajo la dirección de Wattles Gurdon , que se celebró la Trans-Mississippi y Exposición Internacional , considerado como una celebración de crecimiento agrícola e industrial en todo el Medio Oeste . [41] El Congreso de la India , que atrajo a más de 500 indios de América del en todo el país, se llevó a cabo de forma simultánea. Más de 2 millones de visitantes asistieron a estos eventos, ubicado en Kountze Park y el parque de Omaha conducción en el lugar Kountze barrio. [42]

[ editar ] siglo 20

El Enola Gay fue construido en Offutt Air Force Base , situado al sur de Omaha.

Con espectacular aumento de la población en el siglo 20, hubo disturbios importantes en Omaha, como resultado de las luchas laborales y la competencia feroz. [43] En 1900, Omaha fue el centro de un escándalo nacional sobre el secuestro de Edward Cudahy, Jr. , el hijo de un local de empacadoras de carne magnate. [44] la mano de obra de la ciudad y la gestión se enfrentaron en una huelga amarga, las tensiones raciales aumentaron los negros fueron contratados como rompehuelgas, y los conflictos étnicos estallaron. [45] Un motín principales por los blancos étnicos en el sur de Omaha destruyó la ciudad ciudad griega en 1909, completamente expulsar a la población griega. [46] El movimiento de derechos civiles en Omaha tiene raíces que se remontan a 1912, cuando el primer capítulo de la Asociación Nacional para el Avance de la Gente de Color al oeste del río Mississippi se fundada en la ciudad. [47] El Omaha Pascua Tornado domingo de 1913 destruyó gran parte de la ciudad, el afroamericano de la comunidad, además de gran parte de Midtown Omaha. [48] Seis años después, en 1919 la ciudad se vio envuelto en la Red Summer disturbios cuando miles de blancos étnicos marcharon desde el sur de Omaha a los tribunales para linchar a un trabajador negro, Willy Brown, a un sospechoso en una presunta violación de una mujer blanca. La turba incendió el palacio de justicia del Condado de Douglas para obtener los prisioneros, causando más de 1.000.000 de dólares los daños. Colgaron y le disparó Will Brown, y luego quemaron su cuerpo. [49] Las tropas fueron llamadas en Fort de Omaha para sofocar los disturbios, evitar que mas gente la recolección en el sur de Omaha, y para proteger a la comunidad de negro en el norte de Omaha. [50]

La cultura del norte de Omaha prosperado a lo largo de la década de 1920 hasta 1950, con varias figuras creativas, incluyendo Tillie Olsen , Wallace Thurman , Hunter Lloyd , y Anna Mae Winburn emergentes de la dinámica lateral cerca del Norte. [51] Los músicos crean su propio mundo en Omaha, y también se unieron a bandas nacionales y los grupos que gira y apareció en la ciudad. [52]

Después de la tumultuosa Gran Depresión de la década de 1930, Omaha se recuperó con el desarrollo de la Base Offutt de la Fuerza Aérea al sur de la ciudad. El Glenn L. Martin Company opera una fábrica que en la década de 1940 que produjo 521 B-29 Superfortresses, entre ellos el Enola Gay y Bockscar utilizado en el bombardeo atómico de Japón en la Segunda Guerra Mundial . [53] La construcción de las carreteras interestatales 80 , 480 y 680 , junto con la Autopista del Norte de Omaha , estimuló el desarrollo. También hubo polémica, sobre todo en el norte de Omaha, donde varios barrios fueron atravesada por nuevas rutas. [54] la Universidad de Creighton fue sede de la DePorres club , un grupo de principios de los derechos civiles que se sientan en las estrategias para la integración de los servicios públicos es anterior al movimiento nacional, a partir de en el año 1947. [55] Tras el desarrollo de la planta de Glenn L. Martin Company de fabricación de bombarderos en Bellevue al comienzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la reubicación de los Comando Aéreo Estratégico para el suburbio de Omaha en 1948 dio un impulso económico importante para la zona . [56]

Desde 1950 a la década de 1960, más de 40 compañías de seguros con sede en Omaha, incluyendo Woodmen del Mundo y Mutual of Omaha . A finales de 1960, la ciudad rival, pero nunca superados, los Estados Unidos de seguro de los centros de Hartford, Connecticut , Nueva York y Boston , Massachusetts . [57] Después de superar Chicago en el procesamiento de carne en la década de 1950, Omaha sufrido la pérdida de 10.000 puestos de trabajo tanto como el ferrocarril y la industria empacadora de carne reestructurada. La ciudad luchado durante décadas para cambiar su economía, los trabajadores sufrieron. La pobreza se hizo más arraigada entre las familias que permanecieron en el norte de Omaha. En la década de 1960, tres disturbios raciales importantes a lo largo de la calle del norte 24o destruyó la base económica del Near North Side, con una lenta recuperación durante décadas. [58] En 1969, Woodmen torre se terminó y se convirtió en el edificio más alto de Omaha y rascacielos de primero a 478 pies (146 m), un signo de renovación.

Desde la década de 1970, Omaha ha continuado expandiéndose y creciendo, sobre todo a la tierra a disposición del oeste. West Omaha se ha convertido en el hogar de la mayoría de la población de la ciudad. Las poblaciones del Norte y del Sur de Omaha siguen siendo centros de los nuevos inmigrantes, con la diversidad económica y racial. [59] En 1975, un tornado importantes , junto con una tormenta importante, causó más de $ 100 millones en daños y perjuicios en dólares de 1975. [60] centro Omaha desde entonces se ha rejuvenecido de muchas maneras, empezando con el desarrollo de Gene Leahy Mall, [61] y W. Biblioteca Luis Alvarez [62] a finales de 1970. En la década de 1980, los almacenes de fruta de Omaha se convirtieron en un centro comercial llamado el Mercado Viejo . La demolición de Cañón de Jobber en 1989 llevó a la creación de la ConAgra Foods campus. [63] Varios edificios cercanos, incluyendo el bloque de Nash , se han convertido en condominios. Los corrales fueron retirados, el único edificio que sobrevive es la construcción de Cambio Ganadero ., que se convirtió en multi-uso y que figuran en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos [64]

[ editar ] siglo 21

El centro de Omaha en la noche
Omaha.jpg

Alrededor de la vuelta del siglo 21, varios rascacielos del centro nuevo y las instituciones culturales fueron construidos. [65] Un primer Centro Nacional se completó en 2002, en sustitución de la Torre Woodmen como el edificio más alto de Omaha, así como en el estado a 638 pies ( 194 m). La creación de nuevos de la ciudad centro Norte incluye la construcción del Qwest Center y la desaceleración / Film Streams desarrollo en Norte 14 y las calles Webster. [66] La construcción del nuevo parque de TD Ameritrade se inició en 2009 y se terminó en 2011, también en la zona centro norte, cerca del Qwest Center .

Nueva construcción se ha producido en toda la ciudad desde el cambio de siglo. Menor importancia y la evolución de la oficina se han producido en el oeste de Omaha, como la Villa Pointe centro comercial y varios parques de negocios, incluyendo el Parque Primero Nacional de Empresas y parques para Banco de Occidente y C e Industrias A, Inc y Morgan Stanley Smith Barney y otros. [67] centro de la ciudad y el centro de Omaha han visto, el desarrollo de un importante número de condominios en los últimos años. [68] [69] En Midtown Omaha importantes proyectos de uso mixto están en marcha. El sitio de la antigua Ak-Sar-Ben arena se está reconstruyendo en un desarrollo de uso mixto de Pueblo Aksarben . En enero de 2009 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska anunció planes para construir una nueva de 10 pisos, la sede de $ 98 millones, en la aldea Aksarben , que se completará en la primavera de 2011. [70] El otro gran desarrollo de uso mixto se cruce Midtown en el Turner Park . Está siendo desarrollado por Mutual of Omaha , el desarrollo incluye la construcción de varias torres de condominios y comercios al por menor en torno a Omaha 's Park Turner. [71] [72]

El Centro de Artes Escénicas de Holanda inauguró en 2005 cerca del centro comercial Gene Leahy y la Unión del Pacífico Centro se inauguró en 2004.

También se han producido varios acontecimientos a lo largo de la costa del río Missouri, en el centro. El Bob Kerrey puente peatonal se abrió a los pies y el tráfico de bicicletas el 28 de septiembre de 2008. [73] Iniciado en 2003, [74] RiverFront Lugar Condos primera fase se completó en 2006 y está totalmente ocupada y la construcción de la segunda torre se inició en 2009 . El desarrollo a lo largo de la orilla del río de Omaha se atribuye con indicaciones de la ciudad de Omaha para mover su propio desarrollo, frente al río línea de tiempo hacia adelante. [75]

En el verano de 2008, el Equipo Olímpico de Estados Unidos se llevaron a cabo pruebas de natación en Omaha. [76] [77] El evento fue un punto destacado en la comunidad deportiva de la ciudad , [78] , así como un escaparate para la reurbanización de la zona centro de la ciudad.

[ editar ] Geografía

Véase también: Geografía de Omaha , Omaha-Council Bluffs área metropolitana .

Omaha se encuentra en 41 ° 15'N 96 ° 0'W / 41.25 ° N 96 ° W / 41,25; -96 . De acuerdo con la Oficina del Censo de Estados Unidos , la ciudad tiene un área total de 118.9 millas cuadradas (307,9 kilometros ²). 115.7 millas cuadradas (299,7 kilometros ²) de él son tierra y 3.2 millas cuadradas (8,2 km ²) de él son agua. El área total es agua del 2,67%. Situado en el medio oeste de Estados Unidos en la orilla del río Missouri en el este de Nebraska, la mayor parte de Omaha se construye en el Valle del Río Missouri . Otras masas de agua significativas en el Omaha-Council Bluffs área metropolitana son el Lago Manawa, Papillion Creek , Lake Carter , río Platte y el Lago Glenn Cunningham . La tierra de la ciudad ha sufrido modificaciones a lo sustancial con clasificación de la tierra en todo el centro de Omaha y dispersos por toda la ciudad. [79] Este Omaha se encuentra en una llanura de inundación al oeste del río Missouri. El área es el lugar de Carter Lake, un lago de meandro . El lago fue una vez el sitio del Este de Omaha isla y el lago de Florencia, que se secó en la década de 1920.

El Omaha-Council Bluffs área metropolitana se compone de ocho condados;. Cinco en Nebraska y tres en Iowa [80] ahora incluye Harrison , Pottawattamie , y Mills condados en Iowa y Washington , Douglas, Sarpy , Cass , y Saunders condados en Nebraska. Esta área se refiere a que antes sólo como el Área Estadística Metropolitana de Omaha y consistía de sólo cinco condados:. Pottawattamie en Iowa y Washington, Douglas, Cass y Sarpy en Nebraska [81] El Omaha-Council Bluffs área estadística combinada comprende el Omaha -Council Bluffs área estadística metropolitana y el Fremont área estadística de Micropolitan , la CSA tiene una población de 858.720 (Censo 2005 estimación de la Mesa). Omaha se ubica como la ciudad más grande de 42a-en los Estados Unidos, y es la ciudad central de su 60 ª área metropolitana más grande. [82] Actualmente no hay consolidado de la ciudad-condados de la zona, la ciudad de Omaha estudió la posibilidad ampliamente a través de 2003, y concluyó: "La ciudad de Omaha y el Condado de Douglas se funden en un condado municipal, trabajan para comenzar de inmediato, y que las consolidaciones funcional comenzar de inmediato en los departamentos de la mayor cantidad posible, incluyendo pero no limitado a los parques, la flota , gestión de instalaciones, locales de planificación , compras y personal. " [83]

Geográficamente, el Omaha es considerada como situada en el "corazón" de los Estados Unidos. Importantes impactos ambientales sobre el hábitat natural de la zona es la propagación de plantas invasoras las especies, la restauración de praderas y fresa roble sabana hábitats, y la gestión de los venados de cola blanca de la población. [84]

Omaha es el hogar de varios hospitales, situados principalmente a lo largo de Dodge St (US6). Ser la sede del condado, que es también la ubicación de la corte del condado.

[ editar ] Barrios

Centro de la ciudad de lima, Midtown-azul-gris, rojo-Norte, Sur-rosa, lavanda-West
Una calle típica de cercanías en el oeste de Omaha

Omaha se divide generalmente en cinco áreas geográficas: Downtown, Midtown, Norte de Omaha, Omaha y Omaha del Sur Oeste. Al oeste de Omaha incluye las colinas de Milagro, Girls and Boys Town , Regency, y las áreas de puerta de enlace. [85] También hay una pequeña comunidad en el este de Omaha. La ciudad cuenta con una amplia gama de los barrios históricos y los nuevos y los suburbios que reflejan su socioeconómica de la diversidad. [86] el desarrollo del barrio temprano ocurrió en enclaves étnicos, [87] incluyendo Little Italy , Bohemia poco , Little Mexico y Ciudad griega . [88] De acuerdo con a datos del Censo de EE.UU., cinco enclaves étnicos europeos existía en Omaha en 1880, ampliando a nueve en 1900. [89]

A la vuelta del siglo 20. la ciudad de Omaha adjunta varias comunidades de los alrededores, incluyendo Florencia , Dundee y Benson . Al mismo tiempo, la ciudad anexó todo el sur de Omaha, incluyendo el Dahlman y barrios Burlington Road . De su anexión por primera vez en 1857 (del este de Omaha) a su anexión reciente y controversial de Elkhorn , no ha dejado de Omaha tenía un ojo hacia el crecimiento. [90]

A partir de la década de 1950, el desarrollo de carreteras y de nuevas viviendas llevó al movimiento de la clase media a los suburbios en el oeste de Omaha. Algunos de los movimientos fue designado como el vuelo blanco . a partir de los disturbios raciales en la década de 1960 [91] los inmigrantes más recientes y los más pobres viven en casas viejas cerca del centro, los residentes que se desplazaron hacia el oeste más establecidos en la nueva vivienda. Algunos suburbios son comunidades cerradas o se han convertido en ciudades borde . [92] Recientemente, Omahans han dado pasos para revitalizar el centro y las zonas de Midtown, con la remodelación del Mercado Viejo, Turner Park, Gifford Park, y la designación de la Rail Omaha y Comercio Centro Histórico .

[ editar ] Landmark Preservation

El Castillo de Joslyn es el hogar de una organización ambiental sin fines de lucro.

Omaha es el hogar de decenas de nivel nacional, regional y lugares de interés significativo a nivel local. [93] La ciudad tiene más de una docena de barrios históricos , incluyendo Fort Omaha Distrito Histórico , Costa de Oro del Distrito Histórico , Omaha intendente Depot Distrito Histórico , Club de Campo del Distrito Histórico, Bemis Parque Histórico del Distrito, y el Sur de Omaha Main Street Historic District. Omaha es famosa por sus 1989 la demolición de 24 edificios en los corredores Cañón del Distrito Histórico, lo que representa hasta la fecha la mayor pérdida de edificios en el Registro Nacional. [94] El único edificio original, sobreviviente de ese complejo es el bloque de Nash .

Omaha tiene casi cien propiedades individuales que figuran en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos , entre ellos el Banco de Florencia , Iglesia de la Sagrada Familia , el edificio cristiano Specht y el Castillo de Joslyn . Hay también tres propiedades designadas como Monumentos Históricos Nacionales . [95]

Puntos de referencia designado localmente , incluidos los residenciales, comerciales, religiosas, lugares educativos, agrícolas y sociales significativos en toda la ciudad, honrar el legado cultural de Omaha y de la historia importante. La ciudad de Omaha Monumentos del Patrimonio Comisión de Preservación es el organismo gubernamental que trabaja con el alcalde de Omaha y el Consejo de la Ciudad de Omaha para proteger los lugares históricos. Organizaciones importantes de la historia en la comunidad incluyen la Sociedad Histórica del Condado de Douglas . [96]

[ editar ] Clima

La Catedral de Santa Cecilia en contra de un atardecer de verano Omaha.

Omaha, debido a su latitud de 41,26 ? N y la ubicación lejos de moderar los cuerpos de agua o montañas, presenta un clima continental húmedo ( Koppen DFA), con veranos calurosos e inviernos fríos. Julio promedios 76,7 ° F (24.8 ° C), con humedad moderada, pero a veces alto y tormentas eléctricas relativamente frecuentes, por lo general más violentos y capaces de tiempo de desove severas y los tornados, la media de enero es de 21,7 ° F (-5.7 ° C). La temperatura máxima registrada en la ciudad es de 114 ° F (46 ° C), el mínimo -32 ° F (-36 ° C). Precipitación media anual es de 30,2 pulgadas (767 mm), produciéndose mayormente en los meses más cálidos. What precipitation does fall in winter usually takes the form of snow, with average yearly snowfall being around 26.8 inches (68 cm). [ 97 ] [ 98 ]



[ editar ] Demografía

Historical populations
Censo Pop. % ±
1860 1883
-
1870 16,083 754.1 %
1880 30,518 89.8 %
1890 140,452 360.2 %
1900 102,555 ?27.0 %
1910 124,096 21.0 %
1920 191,061 54.0 %
1930 214,006 12.0 %
1940 223,844 4,6%
1950 251,117 12.2 %
1960 301,598 20.1 %
1970 346,929 15.0 %
1980 313,939 ?9.5 %
1990 335,795 7.0 %
2000 390,007 16.1 %
2010 408,958 4.9 %
source: [ 102 ] [ 103 ]

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey , the racial composition of Omaha was as follows:

Source: [ 104 ]

As of the census [ 3 ] of 2000, there are 390,007 people, 156,738 households, and 94,983 families residing within city limits. The population density is 3,370.7 people per square mile (1,301.5/km²). There are 165,731 housing units at an average density of 1,432.4 per square mile (553.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 78.39% White , 13.31% African American , 0.67% Native American , 1.74% Asian , 0.06% Pacific Islander , 3.91% from other races , and 1.92% from two or more races. 7.54% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. [ 105 ]

There are 156,738 households out of which 30.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% are married couples living together, 13.0% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4% are non-families. 31.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.42 and the average family size is 3.10. In the city the average age of the population is diverse with 25.6% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.2 males. [ 106 ]

The median income for a household in the city is $ 40,006, and the median income for a family is $50,821. Males have a median income of $34,301 versus $26,652 for females. The per capita income for the city is $21,756. 11.3% of the population and 7.8% of families are below the poverty line . Out of the total population, 15.6% of those under the age of 18 and 7.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. [ 107 ]

[ editar ] Las personas

View of 24th and Lake Streets in North Omaha, site of many notable events in Omaha's African American community

Native Americans were the first residents in the Omaha area. The city of Omaha was established by European Americans from neighboring Council Bluffs who arrived from the Northeast United States a few years earlier. While much of the early population was of Yankee stock, over the next 100 years numerous ethnic groups moved to the city. Irish immigrants in Omaha originally moved to an area in present-day North Omaha called "Gophertown", as they lived in dirt dugouts. [ 108 ] That population was followed by Polish immigrants in the Sheelytown neighborhood, and many immigrants were recruited for jobs in South Omaha's stockyards and meatpacking industry. [ 109 ] The German community in Omaha was largely responsible for founding its once-thriving beer industry, [ 110 ] including the Metz , Krug , Falstaff and the Storz breweries.

In the early 20th century, Jewish immigrants set up numerous businesses along the North 24th Street commercial area. It suffered with the loss of industrial jobs in the 1960s and later, and the shifting of population west of the city. The commercial area is now the center of the African American community , concentrated in North Omaha. [ 111 ] The African-American community has maintained its social and religious base, while it is currently experiencing an economic revitalization.

Omaha's first Italian enclave grew south of downtown, with many Italian immigrants coming to the city to work in the Union Pacific shops . [ 112 ] Scandinavians first came to Omaha as Mormon settlers in the Florence neighborhood . [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Czechs had a strong political and cultural voice in Omaha, [ 115 ] and were involved in a variety of trades and businesses, including banks, wholesale houses, and funeral homes. The Notre Dame Academy and Convent and Czechoslovak Museum are legacies of their residence. [ 116 ] Today the legacy of the city's early European immigrant populations is evident in many social and cultural institutions in Downtown and South Omaha.

Mexicans originally immigrated to Omaha to work in the rail yards. Today they compose the majority of South Omaha's Hispanic population and many have taken jobs in meat processing. [ 117 ] Other significant early ethnic populations in Omaha included Danes , Poles , and Swedes .

A growing number of African immigrants have made their homes in Omaha in the last twenty years. There are approximately 8,500 Sudanese living in Omaha, comprising the largest population of Sudanese refugees in the United States. Most have immigrated since 1995 because of warfare in their nation. Ten different tribes are represented, including the Nuer , Dinka , Equatorians , Maubans and Nubians . Most Sudanese people in Omaha speak the Nuer language . [ 118 ] Other Africans have immigrated to Omaha as well, with one-third from Nigeria , and significant populations from Kenya , Togo , Cameroon and Ghana . [ 119 ] [ 120 ] [ 121 ]

[ edit ] Race relations

Parte de una serie de
Los afroamericanos
Czechs
Danes
Germans
Griegos
Irlandés
Italians
Jews
Mexicans
Polos
Los suecos

Racial tension
Timeline of racial tension
Civil rights movement

With the expansion of railroad and industrial jobs in meatpacking, Omaha attracted many new immigrants and migrants. As the major city in Nebraska, it has historically been more racially and ethnically diverse than the rest of the state. [ 122 ] At times rapid population change, overcrowded housing and job competition have aroused racial and ethnic tensions. Around the turn of the 20th century, violence towards new immigrants in Omaha often erupted out of suspicions and fears. [ 123 ]

The Greek Town Riot in 1909 flared after increased Greek immigration, Greeks' working as strikebreakers, and the killing of an Irish policeman provoked violence among earlier immigrants such as ethnic Irish. [ 124 ] That mob violence forced the Greek immigrant population to flee from the city. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] By 1910, 53.7% of Omaha's residents and 64.2% of South Omaha's residents were foreign born or had at least one parent born outside of America. [ 127 ] Six years after the Greek Town Riot, in 1915, a Mexican immigrant named Juan Gonzalez was killed by a mob near Scribner , a town in the Greater Omaha metropolitan area. The event occurred after an Omaha Police Department officer was investigating a criminal operation selling goods stolen from the nearby railroad yards. Racial profiling targeted Gonzalez as the culprit. After escaping the city, he was trapped along the Elkhorn River , where the mob, including several policemen from Omaha, shot him more than twenty times. Afterward it was discovered that Gonzalez was unarmed, and that he had a reliable alibi for the time of the murder. Nobody was ever indicted for his lynching. [ 128 ] In the fall of 1919, following Red Summer , postwar social and economic tensions, the earlier hiring of blacks as strikebreakers, and job uncertainty contributed to a mob from South Omaha lynching Willy Brown and the ensuing Omaha Race Riot . Trying to defend Brown, the city's mayor, Edward Parsons Smith , was lynched also, surviving only after a quick rescue. [ 129 ]

Similar to other industrial cities in the US, Omaha suffered severe job losses in the 1950s, more than 10,000 in total, as both the railroad and meatpacking industries restructured. Stockyards and packing plants were located closer to ranches, and union achievements were lost as wages declined in surviving jobs. [ 130 ] Many workers left the area if they could get to other jobs. Poverty deepened in areas of the city whose residents had depended on those jobs, specifically North and South Omaha. At the same time, with reduced revenues, the city had less financial ability to respond to longstanding problems. Despair after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in April 1968 contributed to riots in North Omaha, including one at the Logan Fontenelle Housing Project . [ 131 ] For some, the Civil Rights Movement in Omaha, Nebraska evolved towards black nationalism , as the Black Panther Party was involved in tensions in the late 1960s. Organizations such as the Black Association for Nationalism Through Unity became popular among the city's African-American youth. This tension culminated in the cause célèbre trial of the Rice/Poindexter Case , in which an Omaha Police Department officer was killed by a bomb while answering an emergency call. After 5 years of obscurity, the black population was finally able to vote.

Whites in Omaha have followed the white flight pattern, suburbanizing to West Omaha over time. [ 132 ] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, gang violence and incidents between the Omaha Police Department and members of the African-American community aggravated relations between groups in North and South Omaha. More recent Hispanic immigrants, concentrated in South Omaha, have struggled to earn living wages in meatpacking, adapt to a new society, and deal with discrimination. [ 133 ]

[ editar ] Economía

Omaha's Old Market in Downtown Omaha is one of the city's premier destinations.

According to USA Today , Omaha ranks eighth among the nation's 50 largest cities in both per-capita billionaires and Fortune 500 companies. [ 134 ] Major employers in the area include Alegent Health System , Omaha Public Schools , First Data Corporation , Methodist Health System , Mutual of Omaha , ConAgra Foods , Nebraska Health System , Offutt Air Force Base , and the West Corporation . [ 135 ] With diversification in several industries, including banking , insurance , telecommunications , architecture/construction, and transportation , Omaha's economy has grown dramatically since the early 1990s. In 2001 Newsweek identified Omaha as one of the Top 10 high-tech havens in the nation. [ 136 ] Six national fiber optic networks converge in Omaha. [ 137 ]

Omaha's most prominent businessman is Warren Buffett, nicknamed the "Oracle of Omaha", who is regularly ranked one of the richest people in the world . Five Omaha-based companies: Berkshire Hathaway , ConAgra Foods , Union Pacific Railroad , Mutual of Omaha , and Kiewit Corporation , are among the Fortune 500 . [ 138 ]

Omaha is the headquarters of several other major corporations, including the Gallup Organization , TD Ameritrade , infoGROUP , Werner Enterprises , First National Bank and First Comp Insurance. Many large technology firms have major operations or operational headquarters in Omaha, including Bank of the West, First Data , PayPal and LinkedIn . The city is also home to three of the 30 largest architecture firms in the United States, including HDR, Inc. , DLR Group, Inc. , and Leo A Daly . [ 139 ] Despite this progress, as of October 2007, the city of Omaha, the 42nd largest in the country, has the fifth highest percentage of low-income African Americans in the country. [ 140 ]

A handbill for Buffalo Bill 's Wild West

Tourist attractions in Omaha include history, sports, outdoors and cultural experiences. Its principal tourist attractions are the Henry Doorly Zoo and the College World Series . [ 141 ] The Old Market in Downtown Omaha is another major attraction and is important to the city's retail economy. The city has been a tourist destination for many years. Famous early visitors included British author Rudyard Kipling and General George Crook . In 1883 Omaha hosted the first official performance of the Buffalo Bill 's Wild West Show for eight thousand attendees. [ 142 ] In 1898 the city hosted more than 1,000,000 visitors from across the United States at the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition , a world's fair that lasted for more than half the year. [ 143 ]

Research on leisure and hospitality situates Omaha in the same tier for tourists as the neighboring cities of Topeka, Kansas , Kansas City, Missouri , Oklahoma City, Oklahoma , and Denver, Colorado . [ 144 ] A recent study found that investment of $1 million in cultural tourism generated approximately $83,000 in state and local taxes, and provided support for hundreds of jobs for the metropolitan area, which in turn led to additional tax revenue for government. [ 141 ] [ 145 ]

[ editar ] Cultura

Joslyn Art Museum 's tiled Fountain Court

The city's historical and cultural attractions have been lauded by numerous national newspapers, including the Boston Globe [ 146 ] and The New York Times . [ 147 ] Omaha is home to the Omaha Community Playhouse , the largest community theater in the United States. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] The Omaha Symphony Orchestra and its modern Holland Performing Arts Center , [ 150 ] the Opera Omaha at the Orpheum theater, the Blue Barn Theatre , and The Rose Theater form the backbone of Omaha's performing arts community . Opened in 1931, the Joslyn Art Museum has significant art collections. [ 151 ] Since its inception in 1976, Omaha Children's Museum has been a place where children can challenge themselves, discover how the world works and learn through play. The Bemis Center for Contemporary Arts , one of the nation's premier urban artist colonies, was founded in Omaha in 1981, [ 152 ] and the Durham Museum is accredited with the Smithsonian Institution for traveling exhibits. [ 153 ] The city is also home to the largest singly funded mural in the nation, "Fertile Ground" , by Meg Saligman . [ 154 ] The annual Omaha Blues, Jazz, & Gospel Festival celebrates local music along with the Omaha Black Music Hall of Fame .

In 1955 Omaha's Union Stockyards overtook Chicago's stockyards as the United States' meat packing center. This legacy is reflected in the cuisine of Omaha , with renowned steakhouses such as Gorat's and the recently closed Mister C's , as well as the retail chain Omaha Steaks .

[ edit ] Henry Doorly Zoo

Entrance to the Henry Doorly Zoo

The Henry Doorly Zoo is widely considered one of the premier zoos in the world. [ 155 ] [ 156 ] [ 157 ] The zoo is home to the world's largest nocturnal exhibit and indoor swamp; [ 158 ] the world's largest indoor rainforest, the world's largest indoor desert, [ 159 ] and the largest geodesic dome in the world (13 stories tall). [ 160 ] [ 161 ] The Zoo is Nebraska's number one paid attendance attraction and has welcomed more than 25 million visitors over the past 40 years. [ 162 ]

[ edit ] Old Market

The Old Market is a major historic district in Downtown Omaha listed on the National Register of Historical Places Today, its warehouses and other buildings house shops, restaurants, bars, and art galleries. [ 163 ] Downtown is also the location of the Omaha Rail and Commerce Historic District, which has several art galleries and restaurants as well. The Omaha Botanical Gardens features 100 acres (40 hectares ) with a variety of landscaping, and the new Kenefick Park recognizes Union Pacific Railroad's long history in Omaha. [ 164 ] North Omaha has several historical cultural attractions including the Dreamland Historical Project , Love's Jazz and Art Center, and the John Beasley Theater. [ 165 ] The annual River City Roundup is celebrated at Fort Omaha, and the neighborhood of Florence celebrates its history during "Florence Days". Native Omaha Days is a biennial event celebrating Near North Side heritage. [ 166 ]

Religious institutions reflect the city's heritage. [ 167 ] The city's Christian community has several historical churches dating from the founding of the city. There are also all sizes of congregations, including small, medium and megachurches . Omaha hosts the only Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints temple in Nebraska , along with a significant Jewish community . There are 152 parishes in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Omaha , and several Orthodox Christian congregations throughout the city. [ 168 ]

[ editar ] Música

Qwest Center Omaha , one of Omaha's performance venues

Omaha's rich history in rhythm and blues, and jazz gave rise to a number of influential bands, including Anna Mae Winburn 's Cotton Club Boys and Lloyd Hunter 's Seranaders. Rock and roll pioneer Wynonie Harris ; jazz great Preston Love ; drummer Buddy Miles ; and Luigi Waites are among the city's homegrown talent. Doug Ingle from the late 1960s band Iron Butterfly was born in Omaha as was indie-folk singer/songwriter Elliott Smith , though both were raised elsewhere.

Contemporary music groups either located in or originally from Omaha include A Moment Lost,The Curtain Calls, Mannheim Steamroller , Bright Eyes , The Faint , Cursive , Azure Ray , Tilly and the Wall and 311 . During the late 1990s, Omaha became nationally known as the birthplace of Saddle Creek Records , and the subsequent "Omaha Sound" was born from their bands' collective style. [ 169 ] [ 170 ]

Omaha also has a fledgling hip hop scene. Long-time bastion Houston Alexander , a one-time graffiti artist and professional Mixed Martial Arts competitor, is currently a local hip-hop radio show host. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] Cerone Thompson, known as "Scrybe," has had a number one single on college radio stations across the United States. He has also had several number one hits on the local hip hop station respectively titled, "Lose Control" and "Do What U Do". . [ 173 ] More recently, in 2009 Eric Scheid, also known as "Titus," released a single called "What Do You Believe" featuring Bizzy Bone from the nationally-known hip hop group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony . The single was produced by Omaha producer J Keez. The record was released by Smashmode Publishing and Timeless Keys Music Publishing which are two Omaha-based music publishing companies. South Omaha's OTR Familia, consisting of MOC and Xpreshin aka XP, have worked with Fat Joes Terror Squad on several songs and have participated in summer concerts with Pitbull, Nicky Jam, and Aventura. [ 173 ]

A long heritage of ethnic and cultural bands have come from Omaha. The Omaha Black Music Hall of Fame celebrates the city's long history of African-American music and the Strathdon Caledonia Pipe Band carries on a Scottish legacy. Internationally renowned composer Antonín Dvo?ák wrote his Ninth ("New World") Symphony in 1893 based on his impressions of the region after visiting Omaha's robust Czech community . [ 174 ] In the period surrounding World War I Valentin J. Peter encouraged Germans in Omaha to celebrate their rich musical heritage, too. Frederick Metz , Gottlieb Storz and Frederick Krug were influential brewers whose beer gardens kept many German bands active.

[ edit ] Media and popular culture

The historic Omaha Star building along North 24th Street , listed on the NRHP

The major daily newspaper in Nebraska is the Omaha World-Herald , which is the largest employee-owned newspaper in the United States. [ 175 ] Weeklies in the city include the Midlands Business Journal (weekly business publication), American Classifieds (Formerly Thrifty Nickel ), a weekly classified newspaper, The Reader (newspaper) , and Omaha Magazine , as well as The Omaha Star . Founded in 1938 in North Omaha, the Star is Nebraska's only African-American newspaper. [ 176 ] The city is the focus of the Omaha designated market area , and is the 76th largest in the United States. [ 177 ] Omaha's four television news stations were found not to represent the city's racial composition in a 2007 study. [ 178 ] Cox Communications provides cable television services throughout the metropolitan area. [ 179 ]

In 1939, the world premiere of the film Union Pacific was held in Omaha, Nebraska and the accompanying three-day celebration drew 250,000 people. A special train from Hollywood carried director Cecil B. DeMille and stars Barbara Stanwyck and Joel McCrea . [ 180 ] Omaha's Boys Town was made famous by the Spencer Tracy and Mickey Rooney movie Boys Town . Omaha has been featured in recent years by a handful of relatively big budget motion pictures . The city's most extensive exposure can be accredited to Omaha native Alexander Payne , the Oscar -nominated director who shot parts of About Schmidt , Citizen Ruth and Election in the city and suburbs of Papillion and LaVista.

Built in 1962, Omaha's Cinerama was called Indian Hills Theater . Its demolition in 2001 by the Nebraska Methodist Health System was unpopular, with objections from local historical and cultural groups and luminaries from around the world. [ 181 ] The Dundee Theatre is the lone surviving single-screen movie theater in Omaha and still shows films. [ 182 ] A recent development to the Omaha film scene was the addition of Film Streams 's Ruth Sokolof Theater in North Downtown. The two-screen theater is part of the Slowdown facility. It features new American independents, foreign films, documentaries, classics, themed series, and director retrospectives. There are many new theaters opening in Omaha. In addition to the five Douglas Theatres venues in Omaha, two more are opening, including Midtown Crossing Theatres, located on 32nd and Farnam Streets by the Mutual of Omaha Building . Westroads Mall has opened a new multiplex movie theater with 14 screens, operated by Rave Motion Pictures . [ 183 ]

Songs about Omaha include "Omaha", by the indie rock band Tapes 'n Tapes ;, "Omaha Stylee" by 311; and "Omaha", a song by Moby Grape from their 1967 album Moby Grape , "Omaha" by Counting Crows , "Omaha Celebration" by Pat Metheny , "Omaha" sung by Waylon Jennings and "(Ready Or Not) Omaha Nebraska" by Bowling For Soup .

The 1935 winner of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing was named Omaha , and after traveling the world the horse eventually retired to a farm south of the city. The horse made promotional appearances at Ak-Sar-Ben during the 1950s and following his death in 1959 was buried at the racetrack's Circle of Champions.

[ edit ] Sports and recreation

Main entrance to the Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium

Sports have a long history in Omaha. The Omaha Sports Commission is a quasi-governmental nonprofit organization that coordinates much of the professional and amateur athletic activity in the city, including the 2008 US Olympic Swimming Team Trials and the building of a new stadium in North Downtown. [ 184 ] [ 185 ] [ 186 ] The University of Nebraska and the Commission co-hosted the 2008 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division One Women's Volleyball Championship in December of that year. [ 187 ] Another quasi-governmental board, the Metropolitan Entertainment and Convention Authority, was created by city voters in 2000, [ 188 ] and is responsible for maintaining the Qwest Center Omaha . [ 189 ] In June 2009, MECA announced that the US Olympic Swim Trials will return to Omaha, to run from June 25 through July 2, 2012. The Swim Trials will overlap with the College World Series, also to be held downtown, for 1–2 days. [ 190 ]

Omaha's Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium was home to the Omaha Storm Chasers (most recently known as the Omaha Royals) minor-league baseball team (the AAA affiliate of the Kansas City Royals ). Since 1950, it has hosted the annual NCAA College World Series , or CWS, men's baseball tournament in mid-June. [ 191 ]

After Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium closed, their tenants moved to new venues. On April 16, 2011 the Omaha Storm Chasers played their first game at the newly built Werner Park in the city of Papillion , just south of Omaha. [ 192 ] The CWS moved to the new downtown stadium TD Ameritrade Park in 2011. [ 193 ] [ 194 ] Omaha is also home to the Omaha Diamond Spirit, a collegiate summer baseball team that plays in the MINK league.

In July 2010 Omaha hosted the inaugural TD Ameritrade College Home Run Derby at Rosenblatt Stadium. East Tennessee State University First Baseman Paul Hoilman hit 12 home runs in the final round to beat out Fresno State's Jordan Ribera and Georgia Tech's Matt Skole for the title. [ 195 ]

The World-Herald will partner with the TD Ameritrade College Home Run Derby Contest on July 2, 2011 for its 27th annual fireworks display. The event will be held at TD Ameritrade Park Omaha. [ 196 ]

On April 15, 2010, it was announced that Omaha would be home to a new expansion team in the United Football League to begin play in 2010. The team played its inaugural season at Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium before moving to TD Ameritrade Park for 2011 and beyond. [ 197 ]

Named in tribute to Omaha's meatpacking past, the Omaha Beef indoor football team plays at the Omaha Civic Auditorium .

The Creighton University Bluejays compete in a number of NCAA Division I sports. Baseball is played at TD Ameritrade Park Omaha , soccer is played at Morrison Stadium , and basketball is played at the 18,000 seat Qwest Center . The Jays annually rank in the top 15 in attendance each year, averaging more than 16,000 people per game.

Ice hockey is a popular spectator sport in Omaha. The two Omaha-area teams are the Omaha Lancers , a United States Hockey League team that played at Aksarben until 2004, moved to neighboring city of Council Bluffs at the Mid-America Center , and moved back to Omaha in 2009 to play at the Civic Auditorium [ 198 ] and the University of Nebraska at Omaha Mavericks , an NCAA Division I team that plays at the Qwest Center. Omaha has a thriving running community and many miles of paved running and biking trails throughout the city and surrounding communities. The Omaha Marathon involves a half-marathon and a 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) race that take place annually in September. [ 199 ]

Omaha is the birthplace of numerous important historical and modern sports figures, including 1960 Summer Olympics gold medalist and NBA star Bob Boozer ; Baseball Hall of Famer Bob Gibson ; 1989 American League Rookie of the Year Gregg Olson ; NFL running back Ahman Green ; Heisman Trophy winners Johnny Rodgers and Eric Crouch ; Pro Football Hall of Famer Gale Sayers ; and champion tennis player Andy Roddick . [ 200 ]

Docks at Dodge Park

The City of Omaha administers a parks and recreation department that oversees six regional parks, including Dodge Park and Gene Leahy Mall , and 13 community parks, including Benson Park, Miller Park and Hanscom Park . [ 201 ] Part of Omaha's riverfront area is now the Heartland of America Park , including a marina, Miller's Landing, and the Bob Kerrey Pedestrian Bridge, a footbridge crossing into Council Bluffs. [ 202 ]

The city's historic boulevards were originally designed by Horace Cleveland in 1889 to work with the parks to create a seamless flow of trees, grass and flowers throughout the city. Florence Boulevard and Fontenelle Boulevard are among the remnants of this system. [ 203 ] Omaha boasts more than 80 miles (129 km) of trails for pedestrians , bicyclists and hikers . [ 204 ] They include the American Discovery Trail , which traverses the entire United States, and the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail passes through Omaha as it travels 3,700 miles (5,950 km) westward from Illinois to Oregon. Trails throughout the area are included in comprehensive plans for the city of Omaha, the Omaha metropolitan area, Douglas County, and long-distance coordinated plans between the municipalities of southeast Nebraska. [ 205 ]

Professional sports in Omaha
Club Deporte Liga Lugar Campeonatos
Omaha Storm Chasers Béisbol Pacific Coast League Rosenblatt Stadium (2010), Werner Park (2011+) 1969, 1970, 1978, 1990
Omaha Nighthawks Fútbol americano United Football League Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium (2010)
TD Ameritrade Park
Omaha Beef Indoor football Indoor Football League Omaha Civic Auditorium
Omaha Lancers Ice hockey United States Hockey League Omaha Civic Auditorium
Omaha Rollergirls Roller derby Omaha Rollergirls Mid America Center
Omaha Vipers Indoor Soccer Major Indoor Soccer League Omaha Civic Auditorium

[ editar ] Educación

Education in Omaha is provided by many private and public institutions. Omaha Public Schools is the largest public school district in Nebraska, with more than 47,750 students in more than 75 schools. [ 206 ] After a contentious period of uncertainty, in 2007 the Nebraska Legislature approved a plan to create a learning community for Omaha-area school districts with a central administrative board. [ 207 ] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Omaha maintains numerous private Catholic schools with 21,500 students in 32 elementary schools and nine high schools. [ 208 ] St. Cecilia Grade School at 3869 Webster St. in Midtown Omaha and St. Stephen the Martyr School at 168th and Q street in western Omaha earned national distinction when they received the US Department of Education Blue Ribbon School award.

There are eleven colleges and universities among Omaha's higher education institutions, including the University of Nebraska at Omaha . Omaha's Creighton University is ranked the top non-doctoral regional university in the Midwestern United States by US News and World Report . [ 209 ] Creighton maintains a 132-acre (0.5 km 2 ) campus just outside of Downtown Omaha in the new North Downtown district, and the Jesuit -run institution has an enrollment of around 6,700 in its undergraduate, graduate, medical, and law schools. There are more than 10 other colleges and universities in Omaha in the Omaha metro area.

[ editar ] Gobierno y política

The City Building in Downtown Omaha

Omaha has a strong mayor form of government , along with a city council that is elected from seven districts across the city. The current mayor is Jim Suttle , who was elected in May 2009. The longest serving mayor in Omaha's history was "Cowboy" Jim Dahlman , who served 20 years over eight terms. He was regarded as the "wettest mayor in America" because of the flourishing number of bars in Omaha during his tenure. [ 210 ] Dahlman was a close associate of political boss Tom Dennison. [ 211 ] During Dahlman's tenure, the city switched from its original strong-mayor form of government to a city commission government . [ 212 ] In 1956, the city switched back. [ 213 ]

The elected city clerk is Buster Brown. The City of Omaha administers twelve departments, including finance, police , human rights, libraries and planning. [ 214 ] The Omaha City Council is the legislative branch and is made up seven members elected from districts across the city. The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget . Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance approved annually. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions. Nebraska's constitution grants the option of home rule to cities with more than 5,000 residents, meaning they may operate under their own charters. Omaha is one of only three cities in Nebraska to use this option, out of 17 eligible. [ 215 ] The City of Omaha is currently considering consolidating with Douglas County government. [ 216 ]

Although registered Republicans outnumbered Democrats in the 2nd congressional district , which includes Omaha, Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama opened three campaign offices in the city with 15 staff members to cover the state in fall 2008. [ 217 ] Mike Fahey, the former Democratic mayor of Omaha, said he would do whatever it took to deliver the district's electoral vote to Obama; and the Obama campaign considered the district "in play". [ 218 ] Former Nebraska US Senator Bob Kerrey and current Senator Ben Nelson campaigned in the city for Obama, [ 219 ] and in November 2008 Obama won the district's electoral vote. This was an exceptional win, because with Nebraska's split electoral vote system Obama became the first Democratic presidential candidate to win in Nebraska since 1964. [ 220 ]

[ edit ] Crime

Omaha's rate of violent crimes per 100,000 residents has been lower than the average rates of three dozen United States cities of similar size. Unlike in Omaha, violent crime overall for those cities has trended upward since 2003. Rates for property crime have decreased for both Omaha and its peer cities during the same time period. [ 221 ] In 2006, Omaha was ranked for homicides as 46th out of the 72 cities in the United States of more than 250,000 in population. [ 222 ]

As a major industrial city into the mid-20th century, Omaha shared in social tensions of larger cities that accompanied rapid growth and many new immigrants and migrants. By the 1950s, Omaha was a center for illegal gambling, [ 223 ] while experiencing dramatic job losses and unemployment because of dramatic restructuring of the railroads and the meatpacking industry, as well as other sectors. Persistent poverty resulting from racial discrimination and job losses generated different crimes in the late 20th century, with drug trade and drug abuse becoming associated with violent crime rates, which climbed after 1986 as Los Angeles gangs made affiliates in the city. [ 224 ] Gambling in Omaha has been significant throughout the city's history. From its founding in the 1850s through the 1930s, the city was known as a "wide-open" town, meaning that gambling of all sorts was accepted either openly or in closed quarters. By the mid-20th century, Omaha reportedly had more illicit gambling per capita than any other city in the nation. From the 1930s through the 1970s the city's gambling was controlled by an Italian criminal element. [ 225 ] Today, gambling in Omaha is limited to keno , lotteries , and parimutuel betting , leaving Omahans to drive across the Missouri River to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where casinos are legal and there are numerous businesses operating currently. Recently a controversial proposal by the Ponca tribe of Nebraska was approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission . It will allow the tribe to build a casino in Carter Lake, Iowa , which sits geographically on the west side of the Missouri River, adjacent to Omaha, where casinos are illegal. [ 226 ] [ 227 ] [ 228 ]

[ editar ] Infraestructura

First National Bank Tower in Downtown Omaha is the tallest building in the state.

In 2008 Kiplinger's Personal Finance magazine ranked Omaha the No. 3 best city in the United States to "live, work and play." [ 229 ] Omaha's growth has required the constant development of new urban infrastructure that influence, allow and encourage the constant expansion of the city.

Retail natural gas and water public utilities in Omaha are provided by the Metropolitan Utilities District . [ 230 ] Nebraska is the only public power state in the nation. All electric utilities are non-profit and customer-owned. Electricity in the city is provided by the Omaha Public Power District . [ 231 ] Public housing is governed by the Omaha Housing Authority , and public transportation is provided by Metro Area Transit . Qwest and Cox provide local telephone services. The City of Omaha maintains two modern sewage treatment plants . [ 232 ]

Portions of the Enron corporation began as Northern Natural Gas Company in Omaha. Northern currently provides three natural gas lines to Omaha. Enron formerly owned UtiliCorp United, Inc., which became Aquila, Inc. . Peoples Natural Gas, a division of Aquila, Inc., currently serves several surrounding communities around the Omaha metropolitan area, including Plattsmouth . [ 233 ]

There are several hospitals in Omaha . Research hospitals include the Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of Nebraska Medical Center and the Creighton University Medical Center . The Boys Town facility is well-known for world-class researchers in hearing-related research and high quality treatment. The University of Nebraska Medical Center hosts the Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases , a world-renowned cancer treatment facility named in honor of Omahan Eugene Eppley . [ 234 ] [ 235 ]

[ editar ] Transporte

Omaha's central role in the history of transportation across America earned it the nickname "Gate City of the West." [ 1 ] Despite President Lincoln's decree that Council Bluffs, Iowa, be the starting point for the Union Pacific Railroad, construction began from Omaha on the eastern portion of the first transcontinental railroad. [ 236 ] By the middle of the 20th century, Omaha was served by almost every major railroad. Today, the Omaha Rail and Commerce Historic District celebrates this connection, along with the listing of the Burlington Train Station and the Union Station on the National Register of Historic Places. First housed in the former Herndon House , the Union Pacific Railroad's corporate headquarters have been in Omaha since the company began. [ 237 ] Their new headquarters, the Union Pacific Center , was opened in Downtown Omaha in 2004. Amtrak , the national passenger rail system, provides service through Omaha. There is Greyhound lines in Omaha

Ak-Sar-Ben Bridge toll booth in 1938

Omaha's position as a transportation center was finalized with the 1872 opening of the Union Pacific Missouri River Bridge linking the transcontinental railroad to the railroads terminating in Council Bluffs. [ 238 ] In 1888, the first road bridge, the Douglas Street Bridge , opened. In the 1890s, the Illinois Central drawbridge opened as the largest bridge of its type in the world. Omaha's Missouri River road bridges are now entering their second generation, including the Works Progress Administration -financed South Omaha Bridge , now called Veteran's Memorial Bridge, which was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2006, Omaha and Council Bluffs announced joint plans to build the Missouri River Pedestrian Bridge , which is expected to become a city landmark at its scheduled opening in November 2008. [ 239 ]

Today, the primary mode of transportation in Omaha is by automobile, with I-80 , I-480 , I-680 , I-29 , and US Route 75 (JFK Freeway and North Freeway) providing freeway service across the metropolitan area. [ 240 ] The expressway along West Dodge Road ( US Route 6 and Nebraska Link 28B ) and US Route 275 has been upgraded to freeway standards from I-680 to Fremont . City owned Metro Area Transit provides public bus service to hundreds of locations throughout the Metro.

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Omaha 21st most walkable of fifty largest US cities. [ 241 ] There is an extensive trail system throughout the city for walkers, runners, bicyclists, and other pedestrian modes of transportation.

Omaha's Eppley Airfield , located in East Omaha

Omaha is laid out on a grid plan , with 12 blocks to the mile with a North to South house numbering system. [ 242 ] Omaha is the location of a historic boulevard system designed by HWS Cleveland who sought to combine the beauty of parks with the pleasure of driving cars. [ 243 ] The historic Florence and Fontenelle Boulevards , as well as the modern Sorenson Parkway , are important elements in this system. [ 244 ]

Eppley Airfield , Omaha's airport, serves the region with over 4.2 million passengers in 2006. [ 245 ] United Airlines , Southwest Airlines , US Airways , Continental Airlines , Delta Air Lines , American Airlines , Frontier Airlines , and ExpressJet Airlines , serve the airport with direct and connecting service. Eppley is situated in East Omaha, with many users driving through Carter Lake, Iowa and getting a view of Carter Lake before getting there. General aviation airports serving the area are the Millard Municipal Airport, North Omaha Airport and the Council Bluffs Airport . Offutt Air Force Base continues to serve as a military airbase; it is located at the southern edge of Bellevue, which in turn lies immediately south of Omaha.

[ editar ] Gente notable

Fred and Adele Astaire circa 1906 in Omaha

Omaha is the historic and modern birthplace and home of notable politicians, actors, musicians, business leaders, sportsmen and cultural leaders. Numerous actors, including Gabrielle Union , [ 246 ] Montgomery Clift , [ 247 ] Fred Astaire and Adele Astaire , [ 248 ] Dorothy McGuire , [ 249 ] Marlon Brando [ 250 ] and Nick Nolte , [ 251 ] were born in Omaha. Academy Award winner Henry Fonda also grew up in Omaha. Marlon Brando's mother encouraged Henry Fonda to pursue acting at the Omaha Community Playhouse . [ 252 ] His son Peter Fonda also briefly lived in Omaha. [ 253 ] Mrs. Brando helped found the playhouse. His family's home still stands on South 33rd Street, a few blocks from the site of the first home of Gerald Ford .

Jazz Age magazine illustrator, Broadway scenic designer, and comic strip artist Russell Patterson was born in Omaha. [ 254 ] Tennis player Andy Roddick , former ATP ranking leader, was born in Omaha. [ 255 ] Omaha's rich musical history produced legends such as Wynonie Harris , Preston Love , Buddy Miles , Sara Olson, Calvin Keys, Eugene McDaniels and others. [ 256 ] Members of 311 [ 257 ] and Bright Eyes [ 258 ] are part of the modern music scene. Chip Davis and Mannheim Steamroller began in and still headquarter out of Omaha. [ 259 ]

Warren Buffett , in 2008 the richest person in the world, lives in Omaha where he made his fortune in business. [ 260 ] Two native sons who achieved prominence nationally were born in Omaha, with their families moving away shortly thereafter. The Gerald Ford birthplace site memorializes the 38th President. African American activist and son of a Baptist minister , Malcolm X , first known as Malcolm Little, was also born in Omaha. Joining dozens of other important Omaha Landmarks, the Malcolm X House Site has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Professional wrestlers Steve Borden (Sting) and Ted DiBiase are billed as born in Omaha. Gale Sayers , a football player for the Chicago Bears was also born in Omaha.

[ editar ] Ciudades de hermana

Omaha has five (soon to be six) sister cities : [ 261 ]

[ editar ] Referencias

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