Filipinas

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República de las Filipinas
República ng Pilipinas
Bandera Escudo de armas
Lema : Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, en Makabansa [1]
("Por Dios, gente, naturaleza, y País")
Himno :
Lupang Hinirang instrumental.ogg

Lupang Hinirang
Ubicación de Filipinas (verde) de la ASEAN (gris oscuro) - [Leyenda]
Ubicación de   Filipinas    (Verde)

en la ASEAN    (Gris oscuro) - [ Leyenda ]

Capital Manila
14 ° 35'N 121 ° 0'E / 14.583 ° N 121 ° E / 14.583, 121
La ciudad más grande Quezon City
El idioma oficial (s) Filipino (basado en el tagalo )
Inglés
Reconocido lenguas regionales Bikol , cebuano , hiligaynon , Ilokano , Pampango , Pangasinense , tagalo , Waray [2]
Otros idiomas una Español y árabe [3]
La lengua nacional Filipino
Gentilicio Filipino / filipina
Gobierno Unitaria presidencial constitucional república
- Presidente Benigno Aquino III ( LP )
- Vice Presidente Jejomar Binay ( PDP-Laban )
- El presidente del Senado Juan Ponce Enrile ( PMP )
- Presidente de la Cámara Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. ( LP )
- Corte Suprema de Justicia Renato Corona
Legislatura Congreso
- Cámara Alta Senado
- Cámara Baja Cámara de Representantes
Independencia de España b
de Estados Unidos
- Establecido 27 de abril 1565
- Declarado 12 de junio 1898
- Gobierno autónomo 24 de marzo 1934
- Reconocido 04 de julio 1946
- La actual Constitución 02 de febrero 1987
Área
- Tierra 299.764 kilometros 2 [2] ( 72a )
115.831 millas cuadradas
- De agua (%) 0,61% [4] (aguas continentales)
Población
- 2011 estiman 101 833 938 [5] ( 12 )
- Censo de 2007 88574614 [6]
- Densidad 306.6/km 2 ( 43a )
794.1/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2010 estiman
- Total $ 351.370 millones de dólares [7] ( 33 ª )
- Per cápita $ 3.737 [7]
PIB (nominal) 2010 estiman
- Total $ 188,719 mil millones [7] ( 46a )
- Per cápita $ 2.007 [7]
Gini (2006) 45,8 [4] (medio)
IDH (2010) aumento 0.638 [8] (medio) ( 97a )
Moneda Peso (Filipino: piso)
? ( PHP )
Huso horario PST ( UTC +8)
- Verano ( DST ) no se observa ( UTC +8)
Unidades en el derecho [9]
ISO 3166 PH
Dominio Internet . Ph
Código de llamada 63
1 ^ A la Constitución filipina de 1987 especifica ", español y árabe, se promoverá de forma voluntaria y opcional."
2 ^ B revolucionarios Filipinas declaró su independencia de España el 12 de junio de 1898, pero la reclamación española de la soberanía pasó de España a los Estados Unidos en el Tratado de París . Esto llevó a la guerra Filipino-Americana .
3 ^ C puntuación más arriba se han tomado de las páginas de Wikipedia como asociados de octubre de 2010 y pueden estar basadas en datos de otras fuentes de datos de los que aparecen aquí.

Filipinas ( Escuchar i / f ? ? l p i ? n z / ; filipinos : Pilipinas [? p?l?pin?s] ), conocida oficialmente como la República de las Filipinas ( Filipinas : República ng Pilipinas), es un país en el sudeste de Asia en el Océano Pacífico occidental . Al norte a través del estrecho de Luzón se encuentra Taiwán . Al oeste por el Mar de China Meridional se encuentra Vietnam . El mar de Sulu , al suroeste se encuentra entre el país y la isla de Borneo , y al sur con el Mar de Célebes se separa de las otras islas de Indonesia . Está limitado al este por el Mar de Filipinas . Su ubicación en el Anillo de Fuego del Pacífico y su clima tropical que Filipinas propenso a los terremotos y tifones, pero también han dotado al país con los recursos naturales y la convirtió en una de las zonas más ricas de la biodiversidad en el mundo. Un archipiélago compuesto por 7.107 islas, Filipinas se clasifica ampliamente en tres divisiones geográficas: Luzón , Visayas y Mindanao . Su capital es Manila .

Con una población estimada de alrededor de 101 millones de personas, de las Filipinas es el país del mundo en 12 más poblado . Otros 11 millones de filipinos que viven en el extranjero . Varias etnias y culturas se encuentran en las islas. En tiempos prehistóricos, Negritos fueron algunos de los primeros habitantes del archipiélago. Ellos fueron seguidos por las sucesivas oleadas de pueblos austronesia que trajeron con ellos las influencias malayas , hindú y islámica sociedades. Comercio presentó chino influencias culturales.

La llegada de Fernando de Magallanes en 1521 marcó el comienzo de una era de español de interés y el dominio eventual. Manila surgió como el centro de Asia del galeón de Manila-Acapulco de la flota . El trabajo misionero llevado a una cristiandad . A medida que el siglo 19 dio lugar a la 20, le siguió en rápida sucesión la efímera revolución filipina , la Guerra Española-Americana , y la guerra Filipino-Americana . En el período posterior, el Estados Unidos reemplazó a España como el poder dominante. Aparte de la época de la ocupación japonesa , los Estados Unidos mantuvo la soberanía sobre las islas hasta el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial , cuando las Filipinas obtuvo la independencia . Los Estados Unidos donó a la Argentina el idioma Inglés y una mayor afinidad por la cultura occidental. Desde la independencia de Filipinas ha tenido una experiencia a menudo tumultuosa con la democracia , con el popular " People Power "movimientos de derrocar a un dictadura en un caso, pero también subrayando la debilidad institucional de la república constitucional en los demás .

Contenido

Etimología

Filipinas nombre se deriva de la del rey Felipe II de España . El explorador español Ruy López de Villalobos durante su expedición en 1542 el nombre de las islas de Leyte y Samar Felipinas después de que el entonces Príncipe de Asturias (España). Con el tiempo el nombre de Las Islas Filipinas se utiliza para cubrir todas las islas del archipiélago. Antes de convertirse en nombres comunes, tales como las Islas del Poniente (Islas del Oeste) y el nombre de Magallanes para el Lázaro islas San también fueron utilizados por los españoles para referirse a las islas. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

El nombre oficial de la Argentina ha cambiado varias veces en el curso de la historia del país. Durante la revolución filipina , el Congreso de Malolos proclamó el establecimiento de la República Filipina y la República de Filipinas . Desde la época de la Guerra Española-Americana y la Guerra Filipino-Americana hasta la Commonwealth período, las autoridades coloniales de América a que se refiere al país como las Islas Filipinas, una traducción del nombre en español. Durante el período americano de Filipinas nombre comenzó a aparecer y desde entonces se ha convertido en nombre común del país. [15] Desde la independencia el nombre oficial del país ha sido la República de las Filipinas.

Historia

El metatarso del hombre Callao se informa que han sido confiablemente datado por uranio-serie que data de 67.000 años [16] lo que se sustituye el hombre Tabon de Palawan , el carbono-datan de alrededor de hace 24.000 años [17] [18] como el humano más antiguo los restos encontrados en el archipiélago. Negritos fueron de los primeros habitantes del archipiélago, pero su aparición en las Filipinas no ha sido fechado con fiabilidad. [19] Hay varias teorías opuestas sobre los orígenes de los antiguos filipinos. F. Landa Jocano la teoría de que los antepasados ??de los filipinos evolucionado a nivel local . Wilhelm Solheim 's teoría del origen Isla [20] postula que el poblamiento del archipiélago ocurrió a través de redes comerciales originarios de la antediluviana Sundaland área alrededor de 48000 a 5000 a. C. en vez de por una amplia migraciones masivas. La Teoría de la expansión austronesia afirma que Malayo-Polinesios provenientes de Taiwan comenzaron a emigrar a la Argentina alrededor de 4000 aC, desplazando a principios de llegadas. [21] [22] En cualquier caso, por el año 1000 aC los habitantes del archipiélago se había convertido en cuatro clases de sociales grupos:. cazadores y recolectores, las tribus, las sociedades guerreras, plutocracias menores y marítimo centrado en los principados del puerto [23]

El comercio entre los pueblos marítimos y orientado a otros países asiáticos durante el período posterior trajo influencias del hinduismo , el budismo y el Islam . Durante este tiempo no había estado unificación política que abarque todo el archipiélago filipino. En cambio, las islas fueron divididas entre los que compiten talasocracias gobernado por varios datus , rajás , o sultanes . Entre ellos se encontraban los reinos de Maynila , Namayan , y Tondo , el rajahnates de Butuan y Cebú , y los sultanatos de Maguindanao y Sulu . [24] [25] [26] [27] Algunas de estas sociedades forman parte de los imperios Malaya de Srivijaya , Majapahit , y Brunei . [28] [29] El Islam fue llevado a las Filipinas por los comerciantes y proselitistas de Malasia e Indonesia. [30] En el siglo 15, el Islam se estableció en el archipiélago de Sulu, y para 1565 había llegado a Mindanao , el Visayas y Luzón . [31]

Un marcos de borde elaborar una ilustración de una longitud total se asociaría con un manuscrito de un hombre y una mujer. El hombre de piel oscura vestida con túnica roja, pantalones, y el pañuelo y el uso de una cadena de oro está buscando gratamente por encima del hombro en la dirección de la mujer rubia que, ataviada con un oscuro vestido con flecos de oro que cubre toda la longitud de su cuerpo, excepto sus pies descalzos, tiene la menor Esboza una sonrisa.
Una página del Códice Boxer . Izquierda, es un general, de la Rajahnate de Butuan , a la derecha es una princesa de Tondo .

En 1521, Portugal explorador Hernando de Magallanes llegó a las Filipinas y reclamó las islas para España. [32] La colonización se inició cuando el explorador español Miguel López de Legazpi llegó de México en 1565 y formaron los primeros asentamientos europeos en Cebu. En 1571, después de tratar con los locales de las familias reales a raíz de la conspiración de Tondo y derrotar al pirata chino señor de la guerra Limahong , los españoles establecieron en Manila como la capital de la Indias españolas del Este . [33] [34]

El gobierno español ha contribuido significativamente a llevar la unidad política en el archipiélago. Desde 1565 a 1821, las Filipinas, fue gobernado como un territorio de los Virreinato de Nueva España y luego se administra directamente desde Madrid después de la Guerra de Independencia de México . Los galeones de Manila Manila une a Acapulco viajado una vez o dos veces al año entre los siglos 16 y 19. Los alimentos introducidos, tales como el comercio de maíz , tomates , papas , chiles , y las piñas de las Américas. [34] Católica Romana misioneros convirtieron a la mayoría de los habitantes de tierras bajas para el cristianismo y fundó escuelas, una universidad y los hospitales. Aunque un decreto españoles introdujeron la educación pública y gratuita en 1863, los esfuerzos en la educación pública de masas, principalmente se convirtió en realidad durante el período estadounidense. [35]

Durante su gobierno, los españoles lucharon contra varias revueltas indígenas y varios desafíos externos coloniales de piratas chinos, los holandeses y los portugueses. En una extensión de los combates de la Guerra de los Siete Años , las fuerzas británicas bajo el mando del general de brigada William Draper y el contraalmirante Samuel Cornish ocuparon brevemente Manila . Encontraron aliados locales como Diego y Gabriela Silang quien aprovechó la oportunidad para dirigir una revuelta, pero el dominio español fue restaurado con el tiempo tras el Tratado de París de 1763 . [30] [36] [37]

José Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar, y Mariano Ponce: los líderes del Movimiento de Propaganda

En el siglo 19, los puertos de Filipinas se han abierto al comercio mundial y los cambios se producen en la sociedad filipina. Muchos españoles nacidos en Filipinas ( criollos ) y los de ascendencia mixta ( mestizos ) se hizo rico. La afluencia de colonos españoles y latinos secularizada iglesias y abrió las posiciones del gobierno tradicionalmente en manos de españoles nacidos en la Península Ibérica ( peninsulares ). Los ideales de la revolución también empezó a propagarse a través de las islas. Insatisfacción Criollo resultó en la revuelta en Cavite El Viejo en 1872 que fue un precursor de la Revolución Filipina. [30] [38] [39] [40] [41]

Los sentimientos revolucionarios se avivó en 1872 después de tres sacerdotes- Mariano Gómez , José Burgos y Jacinto Zamora (colectivamente conocidos como Gomburza )-fueron acusados ??de sedición por las autoridades coloniales y ejecutados. [38] [39] Esto inspiraría un movimiento de propaganda en España , organizado por Marcelo H. del Pilar , José Rizal , y Mariano Ponce , el cabildeo de las reformas políticas en las Filipinas. Rizal fue ejecutado el 30 de diciembre de 1896, bajo cargos de rebelión. [42] Como los intentos de reforma se reunieron con la resistencia, Andrés Bonifacio en el año 1892 estableció la sociedad secreta llamada el Katipunan , una sociedad a lo largo de las líneas de los masones , que buscaba la independencia de España a través de una revuelta armada. [40] Bonifacio y el Katipunan comenzó la revolución filipina en 1896. Una facción del Katipunan, la Magdalo de Cavite provincia, llegaron a desafiar la posición de Bonifacio como el líder de la revolución y Emilio Aguinaldo se hizo cargo. En 1898, la Guerra Española-Americana comenzó en Cuba y llegó a las Filipinas. Aguinaldo declaró la independencia de Filipinas de España en Kawit, Cavite el 12 de junio de 1898 y la primera República de Filipinas se estableció el año siguiente. Mientras tanto, las islas fueron cedidas por España a Estados Unidos para EE.UU. 20 millones de dólares en el tratado 1898 de París . [43] Como se hizo cada vez más claro que Estados Unidos no reconocería la primera República de Filipinas, la guerra Filipino-Americana estalló . Terminó con el control estadounidense sobre las islas que se administró como una zona insular . [44]

En 1935, Filipinas se le concedió la Commonwealth de estado. Los planes para la independencia en la próxima década se vieron interrumpidos por la Segunda Guerra Mundial , cuando el imperio japonés invadió y estableció un gobierno títere . Muchas atrocidades y crímenes de guerra cometidos durante la guerra como la de marzo de la Muerte de Bataan y la masacre de Manila , que culminó en la Batalla de Manila . [45] Las tropas aliadas derrotaron a los japoneses en 1945. Al final de la guerra se estima en un millón de filipinos habían muerto. [46] El 4 de julio de 1946, la Argentina logró su independencia. [4] Inmediatamente después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial , la Argentina se enfrentó a una serie de desafíos. El país tuvo que ser reconstruido a partir de los estragos de la guerra. También tuvo que llegar a un acuerdo con los colaboradores japoneses. Mientras tanto, los restos de los descontentos Hukbalahap ejército rebelde comunista que había luchado y resistido frente a los japoneses continuaron deambulan por las zonas rurales regiones . Finalmente, esta amenaza fue tratado por el Secretario de la Defensa Nacional y más tarde el presidente Ramón Magsaysay , pero los casos esporádicos de la insurgencia comunista siguió de luces para arriba mucho tiempo después. [47] [48] En 1965, Ferdinand Marcos fue elegido presidente, su esposa Imelda Marcos en su secundarios. Casi al final de su segundo mandato y constitucionalmente impedido de buscar una tercera parte, se declaró la ley marcial el 21 de septiembre de 1972. Mediante el uso de las divisiones políticas, la tensión de la Guerra Fría , y el fantasma de la rebelión comunista y la insurgencia islámica, como justificación, fue capaz de gobernar por decreto . [49]

Un estatuto de metal de una mujer que llevaba una capa con capucha con una expresión bondadosa cuyo hombro y la mano extendida se encuentran encaramadas en las aves estilizadas
Una estatua de la Virgen María, construida en el Santuario de EDSA después de la revolución del poder popular

El 21 de agosto de 1983, su principal rival, Marcos "líder de la oposición Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. ignoró las advertencias y regresó del exilio en los Estados Unidos. Él fue asesinado cuando fue sacado del avión en el Aeropuerto Internacional de Manila (ahora se llama el aeropuerto internacional Ninoy Aquino en su memoria). Que la presión política, finalmente Marcos pidió snap elecciones presidenciales en 1986 . [47] Corazón Aquino , viuda de Benigno, fue persuadido para convertirse en el candidato presidencial y abanderado de la oposición. Las elecciones se creía que como amañado, cuando Marcos fue proclamado el ganador. Esto llevó a la revolución del poder popular , instigado cuando dos viejos aliados-Marcos de las Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas, el Vice Jefe del Estado Mayor de Fidel V. Ramos y el secretario de la Defensa Nacional, Juan Ponce Enrile , renunció y se atrincheraron en el campamento de Aguinaldo y campo Crame . Exhortados por el Cardenal Arzobispo de Manila, Jaime Sin , personas se reunieron en apoyo de los líderes rebeldes y protestó en Epifanio de los Santos Avenida (EDSA). A la vista de las protestas masivas y las deserciones militares, Marcos y sus aliados huyeron a Hawai y al exilio. Corazón Aquino fue reconocido como presidente. [48] [50]

El retorno de la democracia y las reformas del gobierno después de los acontecimientos de 1986 se vieron obstaculizados por la deuda nacional, la corrupción del gobierno, los intentos de golpe de Estado, una persistente insurgencia comunista , y los separatistas islámicos . La mejora de la economía durante el gobierno de Fidel V. Ramos, quien fue elegido presidente en 1992. [51] Sin embargo, las mejoras económicas fueron negados con el inicio de la crisis financiera de Asia en 1997. En el año 2001, en ??medio de acusaciones de corrupción y un proceso de juicio político estancado, el sucesor de Ramos Joseph Estrada fue derrocado de la presidencia de la Revolución EDSA 2001 y reemplazado por Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo . Como resultado de las elecciones de mayo 2010 , Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III fue elegido presidente.

Política y gobierno

Sesión de Sala de la Cámara de Representantes

Filipinas es una república constitucional con un sistema presidencial de gobierno. Que se rige como un Estado unitario , con la excepción de la Región Autónoma Musulmana de Mindanao , que es en gran parte libre del gobierno nacional. El Presidente funciona tanto como jefe de Estado y jefe de gobierno y es el comandante en jefe de las fuerzas armadas . El presidente es elegido por voto popular para un único mandato de seis años, durante el cual él o ella nombra y preside el gabinete . [2]

El bicameral Congreso está compuesto por el Senado , que actúa como cámara alta , con miembros elegidos para un mandato de seis años, y la Cámara de Representantes , que actúa como Cámara de Diputados , con miembros elegidos para un mandato de tres años. Los senadores son elegidos en general, mientras que los representantes son elegidos por los distritos legislativos y por medio de la representación sectorial. [2]

El judicial es el poder reside en el Tribunal Supremo , compuesto por un Presidente del Tribunal Supremo como presidente y catorce jueces asociados , todos los cuales son nombrados por el Presidente entre los candidatos presentados por el Judicial y el Colegio de Abogados . [2]

Ha habido intentos de cambiar el gobierno a un federal , unicameral , o el gobierno parlamentario desde el gobierno de Ramos. [52] [53]

Seguridad y defensa

Filipinas defensa está a cargo de la Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas y se compone de tres ramas: la Fuerza Aérea , el Ejército y la Armada (incluyendo la Infantería de Marina ). Seguridad civil está a cargo de Policía Nacional de Filipinas en el Departamento de Interior y Gobierno Local (DILG) .

En la Región Autónoma Musulmana de Mindanao , la mayor organización separatista, el Frente Nacional de Liberación Moro , es ahora la participación del gobierno político. Otros grupos más militantes, como el Frente Moro de Liberación Islámica , el comunista Nuevo Ejército del Pueblo , y el grupo Abu Sayyaf todavía deambulan por las provincias , pero su presencia ha disminuido en los últimos años debido a la seguridad de éxito proporcionada por el gobierno de Filipinas. [54] [55]

Filipinas ha sido un aliado de los Estados Unidos desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Un tratado de defensa mutua entre los dos países fue firmado en 1951. Filipinas apoyó la política norteamericana durante la Guerra Fría, y participó en la de Corea y Vietnam guerras. Fue un miembro del ahora disuelto SEATO , un grupo que estaba destinado a desempeñar una función similar a la OTAN y que incluye Australia , Francia , Nueva Zelanda , Pakistán , Tailandia , el Reino Unido y los Estados Unidos. [56] Después de la inicio de la guerra contra el terror , las Filipinas, fue parte de la coalición que apoyó a los Estados Unidos en Irak. [57] Los Estados Unidos designó al país un importante aliado no-OTAN . Filipinas se encuentra trabajando para poner fin a su derecho interno, la insurgencia con la ayuda de los Estados Unidos.

Relaciones internacionales

La Embajada de Filipinas en Washington DC , Estados Unidos.

Las relaciones de la Argentina "internacionales se basan en el comercio con otras naciones y el bienestar de los 11 millones de filipinos en el extranjero que viven fuera del país. [58] Como miembro fundador y activo de las Naciones Unidas , la Argentina ha sido elegido varias veces en el Consejo de Seguridad . Carlos P. Rómulo era un ex Presidente de la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas . El país es un participante activo en el Consejo de Derechos Humanos , así como en el mantenimiento de la paz misiones, en particular en Timor Oriental . [59] [60] [61] [62]

Además de miembro de las Naciones Unidas, el país también es miembro fundador y activo de la ASEAN (Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático), una organización diseñada para fortalecer las relaciones y promover el crecimiento económico y cultural entre los Estados de la región del sudeste asiático. [63 ] Ha sido sede de varias cumbres y contribuye activamente a la dirección y las políticas del bloque. [64] Las relaciones que actualmente tiene con otros estados del sudeste asiático están en contraste con sus relaciones con ellos antes de la década de 1970, cuando fue a la guerra con Vietnam y fue en gran medida la controversia Sabah con Malasia , a pesar de los desacuerdos siguen existiendo debido a las Islas Spratly . [65]

Filipinas valora sus relaciones con los Estados Unidos . [58] Se apoyó a los Estados Unidos durante la Guerra Fría y la Guerra contra el Terror y es un importante aliado no-OTAN . A pesar de esta historia de buena voluntad, las controversias relacionadas con la presencia del ahora ex bases militares de EE.UU. en la bahía de Subic y Clark y el actual Acuerdo de Fuerzas Visitantes han estallado de vez en cuando. [58] Japón , el mayor contribuyente de la asistencia oficial para el desarrollo de el país, [66] se considera como un amigo. A pesar de las tensiones históricas siguen existiendo en temas como la situación de las mujeres de solaz gran parte de la animosidad inspirado en los recuerdos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial se han desvanecido. [67]

Relaciones con otros países son en general positivas. Valores democráticos compartidos facilitar las relaciones con los países occidentales y europeos, mientras que las preocupaciones económicas similares ayudar en las relaciones con otros países en desarrollo. Los lazos históricos y similitudes culturales también sirven como un puente en las relaciones con España y América Latina . A pesar de cuestiones como la violencia doméstica y la guerra que afectan a los trabajadores filipinos y los obstáculos que plantea la insurgencia islámica en Mindanao, las relaciones con Oriente Medio países (entre ellos Egipto , Irán , Irak , Libia , Arabia Saudita , y los Emiratos Árabes Unidos ) son amistosos como se ve en el empleo continuo de más de dos millones de filipinos en el extranjero que viven allí.

Con el comunismo ya no es la amenaza que una vez fue, una vez que las relaciones hostiles en la década de 1950 entre las Filipinas y la República Popular de China han mejorado mucho. Asuntos relacionados con Taiwan, las Islas Spratly, y las preocupaciones de expansión de la influencia china, sin embargo, seguimos recomendando a un grado de cuidado. [67] de la política exterior reciente ha sido en su mayoría sobre las relaciones económicas con sus vecinos del Sudeste Asiático y Asia-Pacífico. [58]

Filipinas es un miembro de la Cumbre de Asia Oriental (EAS), la Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), la Unión Latina , el Grupo de los 24 , y el Movimiento de Países No Alineados . [2] También se busca fortalecer las relaciones con los países islámicos, haciendo campaña en calidad de observador en la Organización de la Conferencia Islámica . [68] [69]

Divisiones administrativas

Filipinas está dividido en tres grupos de islas: Luzón , Visayas y Mindanao . En marzo de 2010 , estos fueron divididos en 17 regiones , 80 provincias , 138 ciudades , 1.496 municipios y 42.025 barangays . [70] Además, la Sección 2 de la Ley de la República N º 5446 afirma que la definición del mar territorial en todo el archipiélago de Filipinas no afecta a la demanda sobre Sabah . [71]

Provincias y regiones de las Filipinas
Región Designación Centro regional
Ilocos Región Región I San Fernando , La Unión
Cagayan Valley Región II Tuguegarao , Cagayan
Luzón Central Región III San Fernando , Pampanga
CALABARZON Región IV-A Calamba , Laguna
MIMARO Región IV-B Calapan , Mindoro Oriental
Bicol Region V Región Legazpi , Albay
Visayas Occidental Región VI Iloilo City
Visayas Central Región VII Cebu City
Visayas Oriental VIII Región Tacloban
Zamboanga Península IX Región La ciudad de Zamboanga
El norte de Mindanao X Región Cagayan de Oro
Región de Davao XI Región Davao City
SOCCSKSARGEN XII Región Koronadal , Cotabato del Sur
Caraga Región XIII Butuan
Región Autónoma del Mindanao Musulmán ARMM Cotabato City
Cordillera COCHE Baguio
National Capital Region NCR Manila

Geografía

Filipinas es un archipiélago de 7.107 islas [2] , con una superficie total, incluidos los cuerpos de agua continentales, de aproximadamente 300.000 kilómetros cuadrados (116.000 millas cuadradas ). Sus 36.289 kilometros (22.549 millas) de costa hace que sea el país con la quinta línea de costa más larga del mundo. [2] [72] Se encuentra entre los 116 ° 40 'y 126 ° 34' de longitud E. y 4 ° 40 y 21 ° 10 'de latitud N. y está bordeada por el mar de Filipinas al este, el Mar de China Meridional al oeste y el Mar de Célebes al sur. La isla de Borneo está situado a unos cientos de kilómetros al suroeste de Taiwán y se encuentra justo al norte. El Molucas y Sulawesi se encuentra al sur-suroeste y Palau se encuentra al este de las islas. [2]

La mayoría de las islas montañosas están cubiertas de bosque tropical y de origen volcánico. La montaña más alta es el monte Apo . Mide hasta 2.954 metros (9.692 pies) sobre el nivel del mar y está situado en la isla de Mindanao. La profundidad de Galathea en la Fosa de Filipinas es el punto más profundo en el país y la más profunda tercero en el mundo . La zanja se encuentra en el mar de Filipinas . El río más largo es el río Cagayan , en el norte de Luzón. bahía de Manila , a la orilla de la cual la ciudad capital de Manila se encuentra, está conectado a la Laguna de Bay , el lago más grande de las Filipinas, por el río Pasig . Subic Bay , el Davao del Golfo , y el golfo de Moro son otros importantes bahías. El estrecho de San Juanico separa las islas de Samar y Leyte, pero que es atravesada por el puente de San Juanico . [73]

Los antiguos filipinos utilizan la agricultura en terrazas para el cultivo en las regiones montañosas escarpadas del norte de Filipinas.

Situado en la margen occidental del Anillo de Fuego del Pacífico , Filipinas experiencias frecuente actividad sísmica y volcánica. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction . [ 74 ] Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake . [ 75 ] There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano , Mount Pinatubo , and Taal Volcano . The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. [ 76 ] Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River . The white sand beaches that make Boracay a popular vacation getaway are made of coral remnants.

Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. [ 77 ] It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. [ 77 ] Geothermal energy , however, is another product of volcanic activity that the country has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power. [ 78 ]

Flora and fauna


The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures. [ 79 ] It is one of the ten most biologically mega-diverse countries and is at or near the top in terms of biodiversity per unit area. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ] Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. [ 83 ] Endemic species include the tamaraw of Mindoro, the Visayan spotted deer , the Philippine mouse deer , the Visayan warty pig , the Philippine flying lemur , and several species of bats . [ 84 ]

The Philippines lacks large predators, with the exception of snakes , such as pythons and cobras , and birds of prey , such as the national bird , known as the Philippine eagle . [ 85 ] Other native animals include the palm civet cat , the dugong , and the Philippine tarsier associated with Bohol . With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, [ 83 ] Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia . [ 86 ] [ 87 ] The narra is considered as the most important type of hardwood . [ 88 ]

Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2.2 million square kilometers (850,000 square miles) producing unique and diverse marine life and is an important part of the Coral Triangle . [ 71 ] There are 2,400 fish species and over 500 species of coral. [ 79 ] [ 83 ] The Apo Reef is the country's largest contiguous coral reef system and the second-largest in the world. [ 89 ] Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds. [ 79 ] [ 90 ]

Deforestation , often the result of illegal logging , is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the country's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia , which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the century. [ 93 ] According to Conservation International , "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation." [ 86 ]

Climate

Typhoon Megi (Juan) , one of the strongest typhoons ever recorded.

The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate and is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw , the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan , the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig , the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. [ 94 ] Temperatures usually range from 21° C (70°F) to 32°C (90°F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May. [ 2 ] [ 95 ]

The average yearly temperature is around 26.6°C (79.88° F ). [ 94 ] In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 feet) above sea level is 18.3°C (64.9°F), making it a popular destination during hot summers. [ 94 ] Likewise, Tagaytay is a favored retreat.

Sitting astride the typhoon belt , most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October, [ 96 ] with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 inches) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 inches) in some of the sheltered valleys. [ 96 ] The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone , which dropped over 1,168 millimetres (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City. [ 100 ] Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines. [ 100 ]

Economía

The national economy of the Philippines is the 46th largest in the world , with an estimated 2010 gross domestic product (nominal) of $189 billion. [ 7 ] Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments , copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil , and fruits . [ 4 ] Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore , South Korea , the Netherlands , Hong Kong , Germany , Taiwan , and Thailand. [ 4 ] Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (? or PHP).

Skyline of Metro Manila.

A newly industrialized country , the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 38.1 million, [ 4 ] the agricultural sector employs close to 32% but contributes to only about 13.8% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 13.7% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile the 46.5% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56.2% of GDP. [ 101 ] [ 102 ]

The unemployment rate as of July 2009 stands at around 7.6% and due to the global economic slowdown inflation as of September 2009 reads 0.70%. [ 102 ] Gross international reserves as of February 2010 are $45.713 billion. [ 103 ] In 2004, public debt as a percentage of GDP was estimated to be 74.2%; in 2008, 56.9%. [ 4 ] Gross external debt has risen to $66.27 billion. [ 4 ] The country is a net importer. [ 102 ]

After World War II, the country was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan. [ 58 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] However, by the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility. [ 58 ] [ 105 ] The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession . Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover. [ 58 ] [ 105 ]

The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. But the extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. [ 51 ] There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. [ 7 ] [ 106 ] [ 107 ] Yet average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole and the daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2. [ 108 ] [ 109 ] Despite enjoying sustained economic growth during the first decade of the 21st century, as of 2010 , the country's economy remains smaller than those of its Southeast Asian neighbors Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore in terms of GDP and GDP per capita (nominal). [ 110 ]

Other incongruities and challenges exist. The economy is heavily reliant on remittances which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Regional development is uneven with Luzon—Metro Manila in particular—gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, [ 111 ] although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. [ 102 ] [ 112 ] Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the " Next Eleven " economies. [ 113 ] But China and India have emerged as major economic competitors. [ 114 ]

The Philippines is a member of the World Bank , the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in Mandaluyong City , the Colombo Plan , and the G-77 among other groups and institutions. [ 4 ]

Demographics

Population growth of the Philippines.
Philippine ethnic groups per province.PNG

The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685. [ 115 ] As of 2011, the Philippines has become the world's 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 101 million. [ 7 ] [ 116 ] It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 of 3.21% decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period, but remains a contentious issue . [ 6 ] [ 117 ] The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. [ 4 ] Life expectancy at birth is 71.38 years, 74.45 years for females and 68.45 years for males. [ 118 ]

There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines. [ 119 ] Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 3.1 million. [ 120 ] [ 121 ] According to the United States Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification. [ 122 ] Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East , with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone. [ 123 ]

Origen étnico

According to the 2000 census 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% are classified as other. [ 4 ] [ 124 ] These general headings can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro , the Kapampangan , the Pangasinense , the Ibanag , and the Ivatan . [ 125 ] There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot , the Lumad , the Mangyan , the Bajau , and the tribes of Palawan . [ 126 ] Negritos , such as the Aeta and the Ati , are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands. [ 127 ]

Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. [ 126 ] It's believed that thousands of years ago Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, and displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands. [ 128 ]

Eventually Chinese, Spanish, and American arrivals intermarried with the various indigenous ethnic groups that had evolved. [ 128 ] Their descendants are known as mestizos . [ 129 ] Chinese Filipinos number about two million. [ 130 ] Other migrant ethnic groups who have settled in the country from elsewhere include Arabs , Britons, other Europeans , Indonesians, Japanese , Koreans , and South Asians .

Cities

Metro Manila is the most populous of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population. [ 131 ] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces ( Bulacan , Cavite , Laguna , and Rizal ) of Greater Manila , the population is around 24 million. [ 131 ] Davao City in Mindanao and Cebu City in the Visayas are other important urban centers.

The figure below shows the top ten largest cities by population in the Philippines. [ 132 ]

Lengua

Native Languages (2000) [ 133 ]
Tagalo 22 million
Cebuano 20 million
Ilokano 7.7 million
Hiligaynon 7 million
Waray-Waray 3.1 million

Ethnologue lists 175 individual languages in the Philippines, 171 of which are living languages while 4 no longer have any known speakers. They are part of the Borneo-Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian languages , which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family. [ 126 ]

According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution , Filipino and English are the official languages. Filipino is a de facto version of Tagalog , spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. The constitution designates regional languages such as Bicolano , Cebuano , Ilocano , Hiligaynon , Kapampangan , Pangasinan , Tagalog, and Waray-Waray as auxiliary official languages, and mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. [ 3 ]

Other languages such as Aklanon , Boholano , Chavacano , Zamboangueño , Cuyonon , Ifugao , Itbayat , Ivatan , Kalinga , Kamayo , Kankana-ey , Kinaray-a , Maguindanao , Maranao , Masbatenyo , Romblomanon , Surigaonon , Tausug , Yakan , and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.

Religión

More than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while 10% belong to other Christian denominations , such as the Philippine Independent Church , Iglesia ni Cristo , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , Seventh-day Adventist Church , United Church of Christ in the Philippines , Jehovah's Witnesses , and the Orthodox Church . [ 134 ] The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor .

Between five and ten percent of the population are Muslim , most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago—an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. [ 135 ] [ 136 ] Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Shafi'i , a form of Sunni Islam . [ 31 ]

Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by many aboriginal and tribal groups, often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism , folk religion , and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, through the albularyo , the babaylan , and the manghihilot . Buddhism , Taoism , and Chinese folk religion , are dominant in Chinese communities. [ 136 ] There are also followers of Baha'i . [ 137 ]

Educación

University of the Philippines Diliman , the flagship constituent university of the UP system

The National Statistics Office reports a simple literacy rate of 93.4% and a functional literacy rate of 84.1% for 2003. [ 4 ] [ 102 ] [ 108 ] Literacy is about equal for males and females. [ 4 ] Spending for education is around 2.5% of GDP. [ 4 ] According to the Department of Education , or DepEd, there were 44,846 elementary schools and 10,384 secondary schools registered for the school year 2009–2010 [ 138 ] while the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. [ 139 ] Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. [ 2 ] Republic Act No. 9155 gives the framework of basic education in the Philippines and provides for compulsory elementary education and free high school education. [ 140 ]

Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and nonformal education; the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development; and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education. [ 141 ] In 2004, madrasahs were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. [ 142 ] Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU). [ 139 ] SUCs are funded by the national government as determined by the Philippine Congress . [ 143 ] The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines. [ 144 ]

Health

Most of the national burden of health care is taken up by private health providers. In 2006, total expenditures on health represented 3.8% of GDP. 67.1% of that came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. External resources accounted for 2.9% of the total. Health expenditures represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52. [ 145 ] The proposed national health budget for 2010 is ?28 billion (about $597 million) or ?310 ($7) per person. [ 146 ] The government share of total spending on health has declined steadily, and with more people, there has been less to spend per person.

There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. [ 145 ] Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The country is the biggest supplier of nurses. [ 147 ] In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals , of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other estimates have as many as 12,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in 2005. [ 148 ]

Infrastructure

Transporte

Blue and white jeepney with a green and white bus behind it
A jeepney and a bus, common forms of public transport in the Philippines

The transportation infrastructure in the country is relatively underdeveloped. Partly this is due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but it is also the result of the government's persistent underinvestment in infrastructure. In 2003, only 3.6% of GDP went to infrastructure development which was significantly lower than that of some of its neighbors. [ 96 ] Consequently, while there are 203,025 kilometers (126,154 miles) of roads in the country, only around 20% of the total is paved. [ 149 ]

Nevertheless there are many ways to get around, especially in urban areas. Buses, jeepneys , taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registration increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%. [ 150 ] Train services are provided by three main railway networks that serve different areas of Metro Manila and parts of Luzon: the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT), the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT), and the Philippine National Railways (PNR).

Terminal 3 of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , the main gateway to the country

As an archipelago, inter-island travel via watercraft is often necessary. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga. [ 151 ] Passenger ships and other sea vessels such as those operated by Superferry , Negros Navigation , and Sulpicio Lines serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer (571-mile) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established. [ 152 ]

Some rivers that pass through metropolitan areas, such as the Pasig River and Marikina River , have air-conditioned commuter ferries. The Pasig River Ferry Service has numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina. [ 153 ] There are 3,219 kilometers (2,000 miles) of navigable inland waterways. [ 4 ]

There are 85 public airports in the country, and around 111 more that are private. [ 149 ] The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the main international airport. Other important airports include the Diosdado Macapagal International Airport , Mactan-Cebu International Airport , Francisco Bangoy International Airport and Zamboanga International Airport . Philippine Airlines , Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu Pacific , the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] [ 156 ]

Communications

The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. [ 157 ] As of 2008, there are about 67.9 million cellular phone subscribers in the Philippines. [ 158 ] Text messaging is a popular form of communication and has fostered a culture of quick greetings and forwarded jokes among Filipinos. In 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. [ 159 ] Out of this growing number of avid text message senders, over five million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks. [ 160 ]

The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country. [ 157 ] [ 161 ] Its wholly owned subsidiaries Smart Communications and Piltel , along with Globe Telecom of the Ayala Group , BayanTel , and Sun Cellular are the major cellular service providers in the country.

There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. [ 162 ] Estimates for internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people. [ 163 ] [ 164 ] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent internet activities. [ 165 ] [ 166 ]

Culture and society

Percussion instruments that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition

Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures . The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay [ 167 ] heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant amount of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival are a couple of the most well-known. These community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature the use of clashing bamboo poles. [ 168 ]

One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos. However, a Spanish name and surname does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the population. [ 169 ] The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor , but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. [ 24 ] Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites : the San Agustín Church in Manila, the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo. [ 170 ] Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-styled houses and buildings preserved there. [ 171 ]

The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends . This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food , film , and music . Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee , the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals. [ 172 ] [ 173 ] Filipinos regularly listen to and watch contemporary American, Asian, and European music and film just as they enjoy Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and local films .

Cuisine

The halo-halo is a dessert made of ice, milk, various fruits, and ice cream.

Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic , Chinese , American , and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas. Popular dishes include lechón , adobo , sinigang , kare-kare , tapa , crispy pata , pancit , lumpia , and halo-halo . Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins , coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain ), mangoes , milkfish , and fish sauce . Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors. [ 173 ] [ 174 ]

Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. [ 175 ] The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan is seen more often in less urbanized areas. [ 176 ]

Mythology and literature

Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influence can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Many of the myths are creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang (vampire), the diwata (fairy), and Nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling , Lam-Ang , and the Sarimanok . [ 177 ]

Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created in the 19th century. Francisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tangere ( Touch Me Not ) and El Filibusterismo ( The Filibustering , also known as The Reign of Greed ) and is considered a national hero. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. In the 20th century, among those officially recognized as National Artists of the Philippines in literature are NVM Gonzalez , Nick Joaquin , F. Sionil Jose , and Alejandro Roces . [ 178 ]

Medios de comunicación

Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN and GMA also have extensive radio presence. [ 179 ]

The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist scandals du jour. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas , Asianovelas , and anime . Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga , Showtime , and Happy, Yipee, Yehey . [ 180 ] Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American , Asian and European films . Critically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor for films like Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag ( Manila: In the Claws of Light ) and Himala ( Miracle ). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns. [ 181 ]

Sports and recreation

A PBA basketball game

Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball , boxing , volleyball , football , badminton , taekwondo , billiards , ten-pin bowling , chess , and sipa . Motocross , cycling , and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. [ 182 ] In almost every corner of the cities, there is a basketball court. [ 168 ]

Some Filipinos recognized for their achievements include Francisco Guilledo , Flash Elorde , and Manny Pacquiao in boxing; Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer); Carlos Loyzaga , Robert Jaworski , and Ramon Fernandez in basketball; Efren Reyes in billiards; Eugene Torre in chess; and Rafael Nepomuceno in bowling. [ 183 ] [ 184 ] [ 185 ]

Traditional Filipino games such as luksung baka , patintero , piko , and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth. [ 186 ] [ 187 ] Sungka is a traditional native Filipino board game. Card games are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its , being used as a form of illegal gambling . Mahjong is played in some Filipino communities. The yo-yo , a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name from the Ilokano language . [ 188 ] [ 189 ] Arnis is the national martial art and sport. [ 190 ]

Véase también

Referencias

  1. ^ "Republic Act No. 8491" . Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2007-12-05 . http://web.archive.org/web/20071205235342/http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/RA8491.asp . Retrieved 2008-09-30 .   Link was revisited on November 19, 2010
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  3. ^ a b 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7. Retrieved 2009-11-21 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library .
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