Religión

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Los símbolos que representan algunas religiones del mundo, de izquierda a derecha:
fila 1: el cristianismo , el judaísmo , el hinduismo
fila 2: el islam , el budismo , el sintoísmo
fila 3: el sijismo , Bahai , el jainismo
Religiones por país

Religión Portal v · d · e

La religión es un conjunto de sistemas culturales , los sistemas de creencias y visiones del mundo que establece los símbolos que se refieren a la humanidad a la espiritualidad y los valores morales. [1] Muchas religiones tienen narrativas , símbolos , tradiciones e historias sagradas que pretenden dar sentido a la vida o explicar a el origen de la vida o el universo . Ellos tienden a derivar la moralidad , la ética , las leyes religiosas o prefieren el estilo de vida de sus ideas sobre el cosmos y la naturaleza humana .

La palabra religión se utiliza a veces alternativamente con la fe o sistema de creencias , pero la religión es diferente de la creencia en privado que tiene un aspecto público. La mayoría de las religiones se han organizado las conductas , incluidas las jerarquías clericales , una definición de lo que constituye la adhesión o pertenencia, las congregaciones de los laicos , las reuniones ordinarias o servicios en el sentido de la veneración de una deidad o de la oración , los santos lugares (ya sea natural o arquitectónico), y / o escrituras . La práctica de una religión también puede incluir los sermones , la conmemoración de las actividades de un dios o dioses , sacrificios , festivales , fiestas , trance , iniciaciones , servicios funerarios , servicios matrimoniales , la meditación , la música , el arte , la danza , de servicio público , u otros aspectos de la cultura humana.

El desarrollo de la religión ha tomado diferentes formas en diferentes culturas. Algunas religiones ponen énfasis en la creencia, mientras que otros se centran en la práctica. Algunas religiones se centran en la experiencia subjetiva de la persona religiosa, mientras que otros consideran que las actividades de la comunidad religiosa más importante. Algunas religiones dicen ser universal, creyendo que sus leyes y la cosmología de ser obligatoria para todo el mundo, mientras que otros están destinados a ser practicado sólo por un grupo estrechamente definido o localizada. En muchos lugares, la religión ha sido asociada con las instituciones públicas, tales como la educación , los hospitales , la familia , gobierno y política jerarquías.

Algunos académicos a estudiar el tema se han dividido las religiones en tres grandes categorías: las religiones del mundo , un término que se refiere a transcultural , internacional religiones, las religiones indígenas , que se refiere a los más pequeños, específicos de la cultura o nación específica de los grupos religiosos, y los nuevos movimientos religiosos , que se refiere a las creencias desarrolladas recientemente. [2] Una de las teorías modernas académico de la religión, el construccionismo social , dice que la religión es un concepto moderno que sugiere que todos los espiritual práctica y el culto sigue un modelo similar al de la religiones abrahámicas como un sistema de orientación que ayuda a interpretar la realidad y definir los seres humanos, [3] y por lo tanto la religión, como concepto, se ha aplicado inadecuadamente a las culturas no occidentales que no están basados ??en tales sistemas, o en que estos sistemas son una construcción mucho más simple.

Contenido

Etimología

La religión (la religión O.Fr. "comunidad religiosa", de L. religionem (nom. religioso) "el respeto a lo sagrado, la reverencia a los dioses", [4] "obligación, el vínculo entre el hombre y los dioses" [ 5] ) se deriva del latín religio, el origen último del que se desconocen. Una posibilidad es la derivación de una reduplicación de * le-ligare, una interpretación remonta a Cicerón conexión lego "leer", es decir, re (de nuevo) + lego en el sentido de "elegir", "ir de nuevo" o "considerar cuidadosamente". Los estudiosos modernos, tales como Tom Harpur y Joseph Campbell a favor de la derivación de ligare "bind, connect", probablemente de un prefijo re-ligare, es decir, re (de nuevo) + ligare o "volver a conectar", que se hizo prominente por San Agustín , siguiendo la interpretación de Lactancio . [6] [7] Los suplentes uso medieval con el fin de designar a las comunidades en condiciones de servidumbre como los de las órdenes monásticas : "se habla de la" religión "del vellocino de oro , de un caballero "de la religión de Avys '". [8]

Según el filólogo Max Müller , la raíz de la palabra Inglés "religión", la América religioso , originalmente se utilizaba para significar solamente "temor de Dios o los dioses, una cuidadosa ponderación de las cosas divinas, la piedad "(que Cicerón más deriva en el sentido de "diligencia"). [9] [10] Max Müller caracteriza a muchas culturas de todo el mundo, incluyendo a Egipto, Persia y la India, que tiene una estructura de poder similares a este punto en la historia. Lo que se llama la antigua religión de hoy, tendrían que sólo se le llama "ley". [11]

Muchas lenguas tienen palabras que puede traducirse como "religión", sino que puede utilizarlos de una manera muy diferente, y algunos no tienen una palabra para la religión. Por ejemplo, el sánscrito, la palabra dharma , a veces traducido como "religión", también significa la ley. A lo largo de clásicos del sur de Asia , el estudio de la ley consiste en conceptos tales como penitencia por la piedad y tradiciones ceremoniales, así como la práctica . Japón medieval en un primer momento había una unión similar entre "la ley imperial" y universal o "ley de Buda", pero más tarde se convirtieron en fuentes de energía independientes. [12] [13]

No hay un equivalente exacto de la "religión" en hebreo y judaísmo no distingue claramente entre las identidades religiosas, nacionales, raciales o étnicos. [14] Uno de sus conceptos centrales es " halajá ", a veces traducido como" ley "", que sirve de guía práctica y creencia religiosa, y muchos aspectos de la vida cotidiana.

El uso de otros términos, tales como la obediencia a Dios o al Islam son igualmente basada en historias particulares y vocabularios. [15]

Creencia religiosa

Las principales denominaciones y religiones del mundo

Las creencias religiosas por lo general [ cita requerida ] se refiere a la existencia, naturaleza, y la adoración de una deidad o deidades y la participación divina en el universo y la vida humana. Alternativamente, también puede estar relacionada con los valores y prácticas transmitidas por un espirituales [ cita requerida ] líder. [16] En algunas religiones, como las religiones abrahámicas , se sostiene que la mayoría de las creencias fundamentales han sido reveladas por Dios .

La creencia religiosa en el judaísmo

Aunque el judaísmo, o la adhesión a la Torá mandamientos de los individuos y la sociedad, es considerado uno de los primeros sistemas religiosos monoteístas, la creencia en Dios no es un requisito expresado por Dios en cualquier parte del Tanaj . La necesidad de conocimiento de Dios se expresa muchas veces como un requisito para la nación de Israel, por ejemplo, en la conclusión de las cinco expresiones de redención que Dios le dijo a Moisés para transmitir al pueblo de Israel en Egipto :

"Por tanto, di a los hijos de Israel : "Yo soy Hashem , y te llevaré a cabo (v'hotzeiti) por debajo de las cargas de Egipto, yo te libraré (v'heetzalti) de su ministerio, yo os redimiré ( . v'ga'alti) con el brazo extendido y con juicios grandes que se llevará (v'lakachti) a mi pueblo y yo seré un Dios para ti, y sabréis que yo soy Jehová vuestro Dios, que tiene que salir de debajo de las cargas de Egipto, yo os llevaré a la tierra sobre la cual yo levanté la mano para darle a. Abraham , Isaac y Jacob , y yo se lo daré como herencia - Yo soy HaShem "( Va'eira 6:6-8.) [17]

El Shema afirmación, que halakhicly requiere rezo de la mañana y la tarde los servicios de la congregación, expresa una creencia judía: "Escucha, Israel: el Señor es nuestro Dios, el Señor es uno." ( Deuteronomio 6:4. ), lo que reafirma el principio que hay un solo Dios.

Algunos Judios Reforma decir que ni el conocimiento ni la creencia de Dios es necesaria, [18] , y han sugerido que la creencia es relativamente poco importante para los Judios. "Para ser un Judio", dice Nicholas de Lange , "significa, ante todo, pertenecer a un grupo, el pueblo judío, y las creencias religiosas son secundarias." [19]

Maimónides 's Trece Principios de la Fe se toman a veces como los fundamentos simplificada del conocimiento en el judaísmo, especialmente por Judios ortodoxos . Se pueden resumir de la siguiente manera:

  • Dios es el Creador.
  • Dios es una unidad.
  • Dios es incorpóreo.
  • Dios es el primero y el último.
  • Es derecho de orar a Dios y no a otros.
  • Las palabras de los profetas son verdaderas.
  • La profecía de Moisés era cierto.
  • La Torá fue dada a Moisés.
  • La Torá nunca cambiará.
  • Dios conoce todas las obras de los seres humanos y todos sus pensamientos.
  • Dios recompensa a aquellos que guardan sus mandamientos y castiga a aquellos que las transgreden.
  • El Mesías vendrá.
  • Los muertos serán resucitados.

Sin embargo, estos principios han sido objeto de controversia, incluso dentro de la Ortodoxia, con la mayoría de Judios ortodoxos aceptar que esta es la expresión minimalista del judaísmo. [20]

Las creencias religiosas en el cristianismo

Las diferentes religiones conceden diferentes grados de importancia a la creencia. El cristianismo pone más énfasis en la creencia de otras religiones. La Iglesia tiene a lo largo de su historia figuran creencias que definen la creencia correcta para los cristianos y que identifican a la herejía . Luke Timothy Johnson escribe que "la mayoría de las religiones ponen más énfasis en la ortopraxis (práctica correcta) que en la ortodoxia (creencia correcta). Judaísmo y el Islam tienen cada uno creado sistemas sofisticados de la ley para guiar el comportamiento, pero han permitido una asombrosa libertad de convicción y de expresión intelectual. Ambos han sido capaces de llevarse bien con las declaraciones relativamente corto de la creencia. budismo y el hinduismo se concentran en las prácticas del ritual y la transformación y no en la uniformidad de las creencias y las religiones tribales expresar su visión de la realidad a través de una variedad de mitos, no una "regla de la fe" para sus miembros. " El cristianismo por el contrario pone un énfasis especial en la creencia y ha creado las declaraciones cada vez más elaborados y oficiales en sus credos. [21] Algunas denominaciones cristianas, especialmente las formadas desde la Reforma , no tienen credos, y algunos, por ejemplo, el Testigos de Jehová , [22] explícitamente rechaza.

La creencia religiosa en el Islam

Los musulmanes declaran la shahada o testimonio: "Soy testigo de que no hay nada digno de adoración excepto Dios , y soy testigo de que Muhammad es el siervo y mensajero de Dios . " [23]

Movimientos religiosos

En los siglos 19 y 20, la práctica académica de la religión comparativa divide las creencias religiosas en categorías definir filosóficamente llamado "religiones del mundo." Sin embargo, algunos estudios recientes han argumentado que no todos los tipos de la religión son necesariamente separados por filosofías mutuamente excluyentes, y que además la utilidad de atribuir una práctica de una cierta filosofía, o incluso llamar a una determinada práctica religiosa, más que cultural, política, o de naturaleza social, es limitada. [24] [25] [26] El estado actual del estudio psicológico sobre la naturaleza de la religiosidad sugiere que es mejor referirse a la religión como un fenómeno en gran medida invariante que debe distinguirse de las normas culturales (es decir, "religiones"). [27] La lista de movimientos religiosos se da aquí es por lo tanto, un intento de resumir las influencias más importantes regionales y filosóficas en las comunidades locales, pero no es una descripción completa de cada comunidad religiosa, ni se explica los elementos más importantes de la religiosidad individual.

Los cuatro principales grupos religiosos por la población, que se estima representan entre el 5 y 6 millones de personas, son el cristianismo, el islam, el budismo y el hinduismo.

Cuatro religiones más grandes Los partidarios [ cita requerida ] % De la población mundial Artículo
De la población mundial 6800 millones [28] [29] Cifras tomadas de los distintos artículos:
Cristianismo 1,9 mil millones a 2.1 mil millones 29% - 32% Cristianismo por país
Islam 1,3 mil millones a 1570 millones [30] 19% - 21% Islam por país
Budismo 500 millones a 1,5 mil millones 7% - 21% El budismo por país
Hinduismo 950 millones a 1 mil millones 14% - 15% El hinduismo por país
Total 4,65 mil millones a 6,17 mil millones 68,38% - 90,73%
El patriarca Abraham (por József Molnár)
Hay otros grupos más pequeños, como los Testigos de Jehová y los Santos de los Últimos Días movimiento , cuya inclusión en el cristianismo a veces se pone.
Musulmanes orando en torno a la Kaaba , el lugar más sagrado en el Islam
  • El Islam se refiere a la religión enseñada por el profeta islámico Mahoma , una importante figura política y religiosa de la 7 ª CE siglo. El Islam es la religión dominante del norte de África, Oriente Medio y Asia del Sur. Al igual que con el cristianismo, no hay ninguna sola ortodoxia en el Islam, sino una multitud de tradiciones que son generalmente clasificados como sunitas y chiítas , aunque hay otros grupos menores también. wahabí es el dominante musulmana escuelas de pensamiento en el Reino de Arabia Saudita . Hay también varias repúblicas islámicas , incluyendo Irán , que está dirigido por un chií líder supremo .
  • La Fe Bahá'í fue fundada en el siglo 19 en Irán, y desde entonces se ha propagado en todo el mundo. Se enseña la unidad de todas las filosofías religiosas y acepta todos los profetas del judaísmo, el cristianismo y el Islam, así como los profetas adicionales, incluyendo su fundador Bahá'u'lláh .
  • Pequeños grupos regionales de Abraham, incluyendo samaritanismo (sobre todo en Israel y Cisjordania), el movimiento Rastafari (principalmente en Jamaica) y drusos (principalmente en Siria y Líbano).
Hindú estatua de Rama en Kalaram Templo ( India )
Zoroastrian Fire Temple
Incienso quemador en China
Un estilo moderno y unitario santuario

Clasificación sociológica de los movimientos religiosos sugieren que dentro de un determinado grupo religioso, una comunidad puede asemejarse a los diversos tipos de estructuras, incluyendo las "iglesias", "denominaciones", "sectas", "cultos", y "las instituciones".

Los hindúes de la población del sur de Asia cuenta con alrededor de 2.000 castas . [33] Según algunos la literatura hindú, hay 330 millones de dólares (incluyendo locales y regionales) las deidades hindúes . [34]

Tipos de religión

Historia de las religiones
figuras fundadoras

Antropología
Religión comparada
Desarrollo
Neuroteología / gen de Dios
Orígenes
Psicología

Prehistórico
Antiguo Cercano Oriente
· Antiguo Egipto
· semita
Indoeuropeo
· hinduismo védico
· Greco - Romano
· Celtic · germánicas
Era Axial
· Vedanta · Shramana
· Dharma · Tao
· helenismo
· El monismo · dualismo
· Monoteísmo
Cristianización
Islamización
Renacimiento · Reforma
Edad de la Razón
Los nuevos movimientos religiosos
· Gran Despertar
· El fundamentalismo
· Nueva Era
Postmodernismo

Abraham
· Judaísmo
· Cristianismo
· Islam
· Fe Bahá'í
Indic
· Hinduismo
· El budismo
· Jainismo
· sijismo
· Ayyavazhi
· taoísmo
Neopagan
· Wicca

Algunos estudiosos clasifican las religiones, ya sea como religiones universales que buscan la aceptación en todo el mundo y buscan activamente nuevos creyentes, o las religiones étnicas que se identifican con un determinado grupo étnico y no buscan conversos. [35] Otros rechazan la distinción, señalando que todas las prácticas religiosas , cualquiera que sea su origen filosófico, son de origen ya que provienen de una cultura particular. [36] [37] [38]

Las cuestiones modernas de la religión

La cooperación entre religiones

Porque la religión sigue siendo reconocido en el pensamiento occidental como un impulso universal, muchos practicantes religiosos se han dirigido a unirse en religiones diálogo y la cooperación. El diálogo principal fue la del Parlamento de las Religiones del Mundo en el 1893 Feria mundial de Chicago , que sigue siendo notable, incluso hoy en día tanto en la afirmación de "valores universales" y el reconocimiento de la diversidad de prácticas entre las diferentes culturas. El siglo 20 ha sido especialmente fructífera en el uso del diálogo interreligioso como medio para resolver los conflictos étnicos, políticos o religiosos, incluso, con la reconciliación entre cristianos y judíos que representa un retroceso total en las actitudes de muchas comunidades cristianas hacia la Judios.

Las recientes iniciativas interreligiosas incluyen "Una palabra común", lanzado en 2007 y se centró en reunir a los líderes musulmanes y cristianos juntos, [39] el "Diálogo Mundial C1", [40] la "Common Ground" iniciativa entre el Islam y el budismo, [41] y de las Naciones Unidas patrocinado "Semana Mundial de la armonía interreligiosa". [42] [43]

Secularismo y la irreligión

Como la religión se convirtió en una cuestión más personal en la cultura occidental, las discusiones de la sociedad encuentra un nuevo enfoque en el significado político y científico, y las actitudes religiosas (predominantemente cristianas) se vieron cada vez más irrelevante para las necesidades del mundo europeo. En el aspecto político, Ludwig Feuerbach refundición creencias cristianas a la luz del humanismo, allanando el camino para Karl Marx caracterización 's famosa de la religión como " el opio del pueblo ". Mientras tanto, en la comunidad científica, TH Huxley en 1869 acuñó el término " agnóstico ", un término, posteriormente adoptado por figuras como Robert Ingersoll -que, aunque directamente en conflicto con la novela y la tradición cristiana, es aceptado y abrazado, incluso en algunos otros las religiones. Más tarde, Bertrand Russell dijo al mundo ¿Por qué no soy cristiano , que influyó en varios autores más tarde para discutir su ruptura con su propia uprbringings religiosa del Islam al hinduismo.

The terms " atheist " (lack of belief in any gods) and "agnostic" (belief in the unknowability of the existence of gods), though specifically contrary to theistic (eg Christian, Jewish, and Muslim) religious teachings, do not by definition mean the opposite of "religious". There are religions (including Buddhism and Taoism), in fact, that classify some of their followers as agnostic, atheistic, or nontheistic .

The true opposite of "religious" is the word "irreligious". Irreligion describes an absence of any religion; antireligion describes an active opposition or aversion toward religions in general.

Critics of religious systems as well as of personal faith have posed a variety of arguments against religion. [ clarification needed ] Some modern-day critics hold that religion lacks utility in human society; they may regard religion as irrational. [ 44 ] Some [ who? ] assert that dogmatic religions are morally deficient, elevating as they do to moral status ancient, arbitrary, and ill-informed rules. [ 45 ]

Related forms of thought

Religion and philosophy

Religion and philosophy meet in several areas — notably in the study of metaphysics and cosmology . In particular, a distinct set of religious beliefs will often entail a specific metaphysics and cosmology. That is, a religion will generally offer answers to metaphysical and cosmological questions about the nature of being, of the universe, humanity, and the divine.

Religion and superstition

Superstition has been described as "the incorrect establishment of cause and effect" or a false conception of causation. [ 46 ] Religion is more complex and includes social institutions and morality. But religions may include superstitions or make use of magical thinking. Members of one religion often think other religions as superstition|superstitious. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Some atheists , agnostics , deists , and skeptics regard religious belief as superstition. Religious practices are likely to be labeled "superstitious" when they include belief in miracles or extraordinary events, supernatural interventions, apparitions, charms, omens, incantations, an afterlife or the efficacy of prayer. [ citation needed ] .

Greek and Roman pagans, who saw their relations with the gods in political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled with fear at the thought of the gods ( deisidaimonia ), as a slave might fear a cruel and capricious master. The Romans called such fear of the gods superstitio . [ 49 ] Early Christianity was outlawed as a superstitio Iudaica , a "Jewish superstition", by Domitian in the 80s AD. In AD 425, when Rome had become Christian, Theodosius II outlawed pagan traditions as superstitious.

The Roman Catholic Church considers superstition to be sinful in the sense that it denotes a lack of trust in the divine providence of God and, as such, is a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that superstition "in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion" (para. #2110). "Superstition," it says, "is a deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, eg, when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. Cf. Matthew 23:16-22" (para. #2111)

Myth

The word myth has several meanings.

  1. A traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon;
  2. A person or thing having only an imaginary or unverifiable existence; or
  3. A metaphor for the spiritual potentiality in the human being. [ 50 ]
Urarina shaman , 1988

Ancient polytheistic religions, such as those of Greece , Rome , and Scandinavia , are usually categorized under the heading of mythology . Religions of pre-industrial peoples, or cultures in development, are similarly called "myths" in the anthropology of religion . The term "myth" can be used pejoratively by both religious and non-religious people. By defining another person's religious stories and beliefs as mythology, one implies that they are less real or true than one's own religious stories and beliefs. Joseph Campbell remarked, "Mythology is often thought of as other people's religions, and religion can be defined as mis-interpreted mythology." [ 51 ]

In sociology, however, the term myth has a non-pejorative meaning. There, myth is defined as a story that is important for the group whether or not it is objectively or provably true. Examples include the death and resurrection of Jesus , which, to Christians, explains the means by which they are freed from sin and is also ostensibly a historical event. But from a mythological outlook, whether or not the event actually occurred is unimportant. Instead, the symbolism of the death of an old "life" and the start of a new "life" is what is most significant. Religious believers may or may not accept such symbolic interpretations.

Religion and health

Mayo Clinic researchers examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality, and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. The authors reported that: "Most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life (even during terminal illness) and less anxiety, depression, and suicide." [ 52 ]

Religion and violence

The Crusades were a series of a military campaigns fought mainly between Christian Europe and Muslims . Shown here is a battle scene from the First Crusade . They were inspired at the jihad of the Islam civilization.

Charles Selengut characterizes the phrase "religion and violence" as "jarring", asserting that "religion is thought to be opposed to violence and a force for peace and reconciliation. He acknowledges, however, that "the history and scriptures of the world's religions tell stories of violence and war as they speak of peace and love." [ 53 ]

Hector Avalos argues that, because religions claim divine favor for themselves, over and against other groups, this sense of righteousness leads to violence because conflicting claims to superiority, based on unverifiable appeals to God, cannot be adjudicated objectively. [ 54 ]

Some critics of religion (in general) such as Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins go further and argue that religions do tremendous harm to society in three ways: [ 55 ] [ page needed ] [ 56 ] [ page needed ]

Regina Schwartz argues that all monotheistic religions are inherently violent because of an exclusivism that inevitably fosters violence against those that are considered outsiders. [ 57 ] Lawrence Wechsler asserts that Schwartz isn't just arguing that Abrahamic religions have a violent legacy, but that the legacy is actually genocidal in nature. [ 58 ]

Byron Bland asserts that one of the most prominent reasons for the "rise of the secular in Western thought" was the reaction against the religious violence of the 16th and 17th centuries. He asserts that "(t)he secular was a way of living with the religious differences that had produced so much horror. Under secularity, political entities have a warrant to make decisions independent from the need to enforce particular versions of religious orthodoxy. Indeed, they may run counter to certain strongly held beliefs if made in the interest of common welfare. Thus, one of the important goals of the secular is to limit violence." [ 59 ]

Nonetheless, believers have used similar arguments when responding to atheists in these discussions, pointing to the widespread imprisonment and mass murder of individuals under atheist states in the twentieth century: [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ]

" And who can deny that Stalin and Mao, not to mention Pol Pot and a host of others, all committed atrocities in the name of a Communist ideology that was explicitly atheistic? Who can dispute that they did their bloody deeds by claiming to be establishing a 'new man' and a religion-free utopia? These were mass murders performed with atheism as a central part of their ideological inspiration, they were not mass murders done by people who simply happened to be atheist. – Dinesh D'Souza [ 62 ] "

Religion and the law

There are laws and statutes that make reference to religion. [ 63 ] This has led scholar Winnifred Sullivan to claims that religious freedom is impossible. [ 64 ] Others argue that the Western legal principle of separation of church and state tends to engender a new, more inclusive civil religion . [ 65 ]

Religion and science

Religious knowledge, according to religious practitioners, may be gained from religious leaders, sacred texts ( scriptures ), and/or personal revelation . Some religions view such knowledge as unlimited in scope and suitable to answer any question; others see religious knowledge as playing a more restricted role, often as a complement to knowledge gained through physical observation. Some religious people maintain that religious knowledge obtained in this way is absolute and infallible ( religious cosmology ).

The scientific method gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop theories through elucidation of facts or evaluation by experiments and thus only answers cosmological questions about the physical universe . It develops theories of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to later refinement in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as facts (such as the theories of gravity or evolution).

Christianity and science

Early science such as geometry and astronomy was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars . The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation .

Many scientists have held strong religious beliefs (see List of Christian thinkers in science and List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics ) and have worked to harmonize science and religion. Isaac Newton , for example, believed that gravity caused the planets to revolve about the Sun , and credited God with the design. In the concluding General Scholium to the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica , he wrote: "This most beautiful System of the Sun, Planets and Comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being." Nevertheless, conflict has repeatedly arisen between religious organizations and individuals who propagated scientific theories that were deemed unacceptable by the organizations. The Roman Catholic Church , for example, has in the past [ 66 ] reserved to itself the right to decide which scientific theories were acceptable and which were unacceptable. In the 17th century, Galileo was tried and forced to recant the heliocentric theory based on the church's stance that the Greek Hellenistic system of astronomy was the correct one. [ 67 ] [ 68 ]

Today, religious belief among scientists is less prevalent than it is in the general public. Surveys on the subject give varying results. The Pew Research Center found in 2009 that 33% of American scientists and 83% of the general public believe in God, another 18% of scientists and 12% of the public believe more generally in a higher power, and 41% of scientists and 4% of the public believe in neither. [ 69 ] A mailed survey to members of the National Academy of Sciences found that 7% of respondents to believed in a personal God. [ 70 ] Elaine Howard Ecklund found that about two-thirds of scientists at elite research universities believed in God [ 71 ] and that nearly 50 percent of them were religious. [ 72 ] [ 73 ]

The philosophical theory of pragmatism (first propounded by William James ) has been used to reconcile scientific with religious knowledge. Pragmatism holds that the truth of a set of beliefs is indicated by its usefulness in helping people cope with a particular context of life. Thus, the fact that scientific beliefs are useful in predicting observations in the physical world can indicate a certain truth for scientific theories and the fact that religious beliefs can be useful in helping people cope with difficult emotions or moral decisions can indicate a certain truth for those beliefs. (For a similar postmodern view, see grand narrative .)

The Catholic Church has always concurred with Augustine of Hippo who explicitly opposed a literal interpretation of the Bible whenever the Bible conflicted with science. The literal way to read the sacred texts became especially prevalent after the rise of the Protestant reformation , with its emphasis on the Bible as the only authoritative source concerning the ultimate reality. [ 74 ] This view is often shunned by both religious leaders (who regard literally believing it as petty and look for greater meaning instead) and scientists who regard it as an impossibility.

Some Christians [ who? ] have disagreed with the validity of Keplerian astronomy , the theory of evolution [ citation needed ] , the scientific account of the creation of the universe and the origins of life . However, Stanley Jaki has suggested that the Christian worldview was a crucial in the emergence of modern science. [ clarification needed ] Historians are moving away from the view that Christianity was always in conflict with science—the so-called conflict thesis . [ 75 ] [ 76 ] Gary Ferngren in his historical volume about science and religion states: "While some historians had always regarded the conflict thesis as oversimplifying and distorting a complex relationship, in the late 20th century it underwent a more systematic reevaluation. The result is the growing recognition among historians of science that the relationship of religion and science has been much more positive than is sometimes thought. Although popular images of controversy continue to exemplify the supposed hostility of Christianity to new scientific theories, studies have shown that Christianity has often nurtured and encouraged scientific endeavour, while at other times the two have co-existed without either tension or attempts at harmonization. If Galileo and the Scopes trial come to mind as examples of conflict, they were the exceptions rather than the rule." [ 77 ]

Other religions and science

In the Bahá'í Faith , the harmony of science and religion is a central tenet. [ 78 ] The principle states that that truth is one, and therefore true science and true religion must be in harmony, thus rejecting the view that science and religion are in conflict. [ 78 ] `Abdu'l-Bahá , the son of the founder of the religion, asserted that science and religion cannot be opposed because they are aspects of the same truth; he also affirmed that reasoning powers are required to understand the truths of religion and that religious teachings which are at variance with science should not be accepted; he explained that religion has to be reasonable since God endowed humankind with reason so that they can discover truth. [ 79 ] Shoghi Effendi , the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, described science and religion as "the two most potent forces in human life." [ 80 ]

Proponents of Hinduism claim that it is not afraid of scientific explorations, nor of the technological progress of mankind. According to them, there is a comprehensive scope and opportunity for Hinduism to mold itself according to the demands and aspirations of the modern world; it has the ability to align itself with both science and spiritualism . This religion uses some modern examples to explain its ancient theories and reinforce its own beliefs. For example, some Hindu thinkers have used the terminology of quantum physics to explain some basic concepts of Hinduism such as Maya or the illusory and impermanent nature of our existence.

S?t? monk in Arashiyama , Kyoto

Religion as a Christian concept

The social constructionists

In recent years, some academic writers have described religion according to the theory of social constructionism , which considers how ideas and social phenomena develop in a social context. Among the main proponents of this theory of religion are Timothy Fitzgerald, Daniel Dubuisson and Talal Assad. The social constructionists argue that religion is a modern concept that developed from Christianity and was then applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures.

Dubuisson, a French anthropologist, says that the idea of religion has changed a lot over time and that one cannot fully understand its development by relying on etymology, which "tends to minimize or cancel out the role of history". [ 81 ] "What the West and the history of religions in its wake have objectified under the name 'religion'", he says, " is ... something quite unique, which could be appropriate only to itself and its own history." [ 81 ] He notes that St. Augustine 's definition of religio differed from the way we used the modern word "religion". [ 81 ] Dubuisson prefers the term "cosmographic formation" to religion. Dubuisson says that, with the emergence of religion as a category separate from culture and society, there arose religious studies . The initial purpose of religious studies was to demonstrate the superiority of the "living" or "universal" European world view to the "dead" or "ethnic" religions scattered throughout the rest of the world, expanding the teleological project of Schleiermacher and Tiele to a worldwide ideal religiousness. [ 82 ] Due to shifting theological currents, this was eventually supplanted by a liberal-ecumenical interest in searching for Western-style universal truths in every cultural tradition. [ 83 ] Clifford Geertz 's definition of religion as a "cultural system" was proposed in the 20th century and continues to be widely accepted today.

According to Fitzgerald, the history of other cultures' interaction with the religious category is not about a universal constant, [ clarification needed ] but rather concerns a particular idea that first developed in Europe under the influence of Christianity . [ 84 ] Fitzgerald argues that from about the 4th century CE Western Europe and the rest of the world diverged. As Christianity became commonplace, the charismatic authority identified by Augustine, a quality we might today call "religiousness", exerted a commanding influence at the local level. This system persisted in the eastern Byzantine Empire following the East-West Schism , but Western Europe regulated unpredictable expressions of charisma through the Roman Catholic Church . As the Church lost its dominance during the Protestant Reformation and Christianity became closely tied to political structures, religion was recast as the basis of national sovereignty , and religious identity gradually became a less universal sense of spirituality and more divisive, locally defined, and tied to nationality. [ 85 ] It was at this point that "religion" was dissociated with universal beliefs and moved closer to dogma in both meaning and practice. However there was not yet the idea of dogma as personal choice, only of established churches . With the Enlightenment religion lost its attachment to nationality, says Fitzgerald, but rather than becoming a universal social attitude, it now became a personal feeling or emotion. [ 86 ] Friedrich Schleiermacher in the late 18th century defined religion as das schlechthinnige Abhängigkeitsgefühl , commonly translated as "a feeling of absolute dependence". [ 87 ] His contemporary Hegel disagreed thoroughly, defining religion as "the Divine Spirit becoming conscious of Himself through the finite spirit." [ 88 ] William James is an especially notable 19th century subscriber to the theory of religion as feeling.

Asad argues that before the word "religion" came into common usage, Christianity was a disciplina , a "rule" just like that of the Roman Empire. This idea can be found in the writings of St. Augustine (354–430). Christianity was then a power structure opposing and superseding human institutions, a literal Kingdom of Heaven. It was the discipline taught by one's family, school, church, and city authorities, rather than something calling one to self-discipline through symbols. [ 89 ]

These ideas are developed by N. Balagangadhara. In the Age of Enlightenment , Balagangadhara says that the idea of Christianity as the purest expression of spirituality was supplanted by the concept of "religion" as a worldwide practice. [ 90 ] This caused such ideas as religious freedom , a reexamination of classical philosophy as an alternative to Christian thought, and more radically Deism among intellectuals such as Voltaire . Much like Christianity, the idea of "religious freedom" was exported around the world as a civilizing technique, even to regions such as India that had never treated spirituality as a matter of political identity. [ 24 ] In Japan , where Buddhism was still seen as a philosophy of natural law , [ 91 ] the concept of "religion" and "religious freedom" as separate from other power structures was unnecessary until Christian missionaries demanded free access to conversion, and when Japanese Christians refused to engage in patriotic events. [ 92 ]

Confucianism , Taoism , and Buddhism are one , a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty

Other writers

Similar views have been put forward by writers who are not social constructionists. George Lindbeck , a Lutheran and a postliberal theologian , says that religion does not refer to belief in " God " or a transcendent Absolute, but rather to "a kind of cultural and/or linguistic framework or medium that shapes the entirety of life and thought ... it is similar to an idiom that makes possible the description of realities, the formulation of beliefs, and the experiencing of inner attitudes, feelings, and sentiments.” [ 93 ] Nicholas de Lange , Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies at Cambridge University , says that "The comparative study of religions is an academic discipline which has been developed within Christian theology faculties, and it has a tendency to force widely differing phenomena into a kind of strait-jacket cut to a Christian pattern. The problem is not only that other 'religions' may have little or nothing to say about questions which are of burning importance for Christianity, but that they may not even see themselves as religions in precisely the same way in which Christianity sees itself as a religion." [ 94 ]

Véase también

Referencias

Notas

  1. ^ While religion is difficult to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz , who simply called it a "cultural system" (Clifford Geertz, Religion as a Cultural System , 1973). A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." (Talal Asad, The Construction of Religion as an Anthropological Category , 1982.)
  2. ^ Harvey, Graham (2000). Indigenous Religions: A Companion . (Ed: Graham Harvey). London and New York: Cassell. Page 06.
  3. ^ Vergote, Antoine, Religion, belief and unbelief: a psychological study , Leuven University Press, 1997, p. 89
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "religion" . Online Etymology Dictionary . http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=religion .  
  5. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ In The Pagan Christ: Recovering the Lost Light. Toronto. Thomas Allen, 2004. ISBN 0-88762-145-7
  7. ^ In The Power of Myth , with Bill Moyers, ed. Betty Sue Flowers, New York, Anchor Books, 1991. ISBN 0-385-41886-8
  8. ^ Johan Huizinga , The Waning of the Middle Ages (1919) 1924:75.
  9. ^ Max Müller , Natural Religion , p.33, 1889
  10. ^ Lewis & Short, A Latin Dictionary
  11. ^ Max Müller . Introduction to the science of religion . p. 28.
  12. ^ Kuroda, Toshio and Jacqueline I. Stone, translator. " The Imperial Law and the Buddhist Law ." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 23.3-4 (1996)
  13. ^ Neil McMullin. Buddhism and the State in Sixteenth-Century Japan . Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 1984.
  14. ^ Hershel Edelheit, Abraham J. Edelheit, History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary , p.3, citing Solomon Zeitlin , The Jews. Race, Nation, or Religion? ( Philadelphia: Dropsie College Press, 1936).
  15. ^ Colin Turner. Islam without Allah? New York: Routledge, 2000. pp. 11-12.
  16. ^ Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought , Pascal Boyer, Basic Books (2001)
  17. ^ Scherman, N., ed., Tanach: The Torah, Prophets, Writings - The twenty-four books of the Bible newly translated and annotated , Mesorah Publications, Ltd., New York, 1996, p.147
  18. ^ Menachem Kellner, Must a Jew Believe Anything? , Littman Library of Jewish Civilisation
  19. ^ Nicholas de Lange, Judaism , Oxford University Press, 1986.
  20. ^ Marc B. Shapiro , The Limits of Orthodox Theology: Maimonides' Thirteen Principles Reappraised , The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2004
  21. ^ Luke Timothy Johnson, The Creed: What Christians Believe and Why it Matters , Doubleday, 2003
  22. ^ "Creeds — Any Place in True Worship?", Awake! , October 8, 1985
  23. ^ "Proclaiming the Shahada is the First Step Into Islam." [ dead link ] Islamic Learning Materials. Accessed: 17 May 2009
  24. ^ a b Brian Kemble Pennington Was Hinduism Invented? New York: Oxford University Press US, 2005. ISBN 0195166558
  25. ^ Russell T. McCutcheon. Critics Not Caretakers: Redescribing the Public Study of Religion . Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.
  26. ^ Nicholas Lash. The beginning and the end of 'religion'. Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0521566355
  27. ^ Joseph Bulbulia. "Are There Any Religions? An Evolutionary Explanation." Method & Theory in the Study of Religion 17.2 (2005), pp.71-100
  28. ^ http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf
  29. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  30. ^ Mapping the Global Muslim Population - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition" etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Gavin Flood (2003), pp. 1-17. René Guénon in his Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines (1921 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-74-8 , proposes a definition of the term "religion" and a discussion of its relevance (or lack of) to Hindu doctrines (part II, chapter 4, p. 58).
  33. ^ India – Caste . La Enciclopedia Británica.
  34. ^ Jeffrey Brodd (2003). World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery . Saint Mary's Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780884897255 . http://books.google.com/?id=vOzNo4MVlgMC&pg=PA45&dq=%22330+million%22   : '[..] many gods and goddesses (traditionally 330 million!) [...] Hinduism generally regards its 330 million as deities as extensions of one ultimate reality, many names for one ocean, many "masks" for one God.'
  35. ^ Hinnells, John R. (2005). The Routledge companion to the study of religion . Routledge. pp. 439–440. ISBN 0415333113 . http://books.google.com/?id=IGspjXKxIf8C . Retrieved 2009-09-17 .  
  36. ^ Timothy Fitzgerald. The Ideology of Religious Studies . New York: Oxford University Press USA, 2000.
  37. ^ Craig R. Prentiss. Religion and the Creation of Race and Ethnicity . New York: NYU Press, 2003. ISBN 081476701X
  38. ^ Tomoko Masuzawa. The Invention of World Religions, or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 0226509885
  39. ^ A Common Word
  40. ^ C1 World Dialogue
  41. ^ Islam and Buddhism Common Ground
  42. ^ World Interfaith Harmony Week
  43. ^ UN resolution
  44. ^ Bryan Caplan. "Why Religious Beliefs Are Irrational, and Why Economists Should Care" . http://econfaculty.gmu.edu/bcaplan/ldebate.htm .   The article about religion and irrationality.
  45. ^ Nobel Peace Laureate, Muslim and human rights activist Dr Shirin Ebadi has spoken out against undemocratic Islamic countries justifying "oppressive acts" in the name of Islam. Speaking at the Earth Dialogues 2006 conference in Brisbane, Dr Ebadi pronounced her native Iran - as well as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Yemen "among others" - guilty of violating human rights. "In these countries, Islamic rulers want to solve 21st century issues with laws belonging to 14 centuries ago," she said. "Their views of human rights are exactly the same as it was 1400 years ago."
  46. ^ Kevin R. Foster and Hanna Kokko, "The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour", Proc. R. Soc. B (2009) 276, 31–37 [ dead link ]
  47. ^ Boyer (2001). "Why Belief" . Religion  
  48. ^ Fitzgerald 2007 , p. 232
  49. ^ Veyne 1987, p 211 [ clarification needed ]
  50. ^ Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth , p. 22 ISBN 0-385-24774-5
  51. ^ Joseph Campbell, Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor . Ed. Eugene Kennedy. New World Library ISBN 1-57731-202-3 .
  52. ^ Paul S. Mueller, MD; David J. Plevak, MD; Teresa A. Rummans, MD. "Religious Involvement, Spirituality, and Medicine: Implications for Clinical Practice" . http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf . Retrieved 13 November 2010 . "We reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. We also reviewed articles that provided suggestions on how clinicians might assess and support the spiritual needs of patients. Most studies have shown that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life (even during terminal illness) and less anxiety, depression, and suicide"  
  53. ^ Selengut, Charles (2008-04-28). Sacred fury: understanding religious violence . p.  
  54. ^ Avalos, Hector (2005). Fighting Words: The Origins of Religious Violence . Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.  
  55. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (2007). God is not Great . Twelve.  
  56. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion . Bantam Books.  
  57. ^ The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism By Regina M. Schwartz . University of Chicago Press. 1998.  
  58. ^ Wechsler, Lawrence. "Mayhem and Monotheism" . http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/2490/PDF/mayhem.pdf .  
  59. ^ Bland, Byron (May 2003). "Evil Enemies: The Convergence of Religion and Politics" . p. 4 . http://www.law.stanford.edu/program/centers/scicn/papers/religion_and_political_violence.pdf .  
  60. ^ John S. Feinberg, Paul D. Feinberg. Ethics for a Brave New World . Crossway Retrieved 2007–10–18 . "Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia: 'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.' Since then I have spend well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: 'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.'"  
  61. ^ Gregory Koukl . "The Real Murderers: Atheism or Christianity?" . Stand To Reason . http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5527 . Retrieved 2007–10–18 .  
  62. ^ a b Dinesh D'Souza . "Answering Atheist's Arguments" . Catholic Education Resource Center . http://catholiceducation.org/articles/apologetics/ap0214.htm . Retrieved 2007–10–18 .  
  63. ^ An example is the Establishment Clause in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution . However the US Supreme Court has intentionally not pinned down a precise legal definition to allow for flexibility in preserving rights for what might be regarded as a religion over time. [2]
  64. ^ Winnifred Fallers Sullivan, The Impossibility of Religious Freedom . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  65. ^ Ronald C. Wimberley and James A. Christenson. " Civil Religion and Church and State ". The Sociological Quarterly , Vol. 21, No. 1 (Winter, 1980), pp. 35-40
  66. ^ Quotation: " The Second Vatican Council affirmed academic freedom for natural science and other secular disciplines ". From the essay of Ted Peters about Science and Religion at "Lindsay Jones (editor in chief). Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition. Thomson Gale. 2005. p.8185"
  67. ^ By Dr Paul Murdin, Lesley Murdin Photographs by Paul New. Supernovae Astronomy Murdin Published 1985, Cambridge University Press Science,256 pages, ISBN 052130038X page 18.
  68. ^ Godfrey-Smith, Peter. 2003. Theory and reality: an introduction to the philosophy of science. Science and its conceptual foundations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Page 14.
  69. ^ Pew Research Center : " Public Praises Science; Scientists Fault Public, Media ", Section 4: Scientists, Politics and Religion . July 9, 2009.
  70. ^ Edward J. Larson and Larry Witham, Leading scientists still reject God , in Nature July 23, 1998
  71. ^ Scientists' faith varies starkly by discipline - Technology & science - Science - LiveScience - msnbc.com
  72. ^ Oxford University Press: Science vs. Religion: Elaine Howard Ecklund
  73. ^ Elaine Howard Ecklund (2010). Science Vs. Religion: What Scientists Really Think . Oxford University Press US. ISBN 9780195392982 . http://books.google.com/books?id=v6Pn1kbYjAEC . Retrieved 25 August 2010 .  
  74. ^ Stanley Jaki. Bible and Science , Christendom Press, 1996 (pages 110-111)
  75. ^ Spitz, Lewis (1987). (The Rise of modern Europe) The protestant Reformation 1517-1559. . Harper Torchbooks. p. 383. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-06-132069-2 For example, Lewis Spitz says "To set up a 'warfare of science and theology' is an exercise in futility and a reflection of a nineteenth century materialism now happily transcended"|0-06-132069-2 For example, Lewis Spitz says "To set up a 'warfare of science and theology' is an exercise in futility and a reflection of a nineteenth century materialism now happily transcended"]].  
  76. ^ Quotation: " The conflict thesis , at least in its simple form, is now widely perceived as a wholly inadequate intellectual framework within which to construct a sensible and realistic historiography of Western science. " (p. 7), from the essay by Colin A. Russell "The Conflict Thesis" on "Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0 ".
  77. ^ Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0 . (Introduction, p. ix)
  78. ^ a b Esslemont, JE (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-160-4 .  
  79. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace (Hardcover ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-172-8 . http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/PUP/ .  
  80. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1938). The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh . Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-231-7 . http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/WOB/index.html .  
  81. ^ a b c Daniel Dubuisson, The Western Construction of Religion
  82. ^ Daniel Dubuisson. "Exporting the Local: Recent Perspectives on 'Religion' as a Cultural Category", Religion Compass , 1.6 (2007), p.792.
  83. ^ Tomoko Masuzawa, The Invention of World Religions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
  84. ^ Fitzgerald, Timothy (2007). Discourse on Civility and Barbarity . Oxford University Press. pp. 45–46.  
  85. ^ Fitzgerald 2007 , p. 194
  86. ^ Fitzgerald 2007 , p. 268
  87. ^ Hueston A. Finlay. "'Feeling of absolute dependence' or 'absolute feeling of dependence'? A question revisited". Religious Studies 41.1 (2005), pp.81-94.
  88. ^ Max Müller . "Lectures on the origin and growth of religion."
  89. ^ Talal Asad, Genealogies of Religion . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993 p.34-35.
  90. ^ SN Balagangadhara. The Heathen in His Blindness... New York: Brill Academic Publishers, 1994. p.159.
  91. ^ Jason ?nanda Josephson. "When Buddhism Became a 'Religion'". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 33.1: 143–168.
  92. ^ Isomae Jun'ichi. "Deconstructing 'Japanese Religion'". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 32.2: 235–248.
  93. ^ George A. Lindbeck, Nature of Doctrine (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1984), 33.
  94. ^ Nicholas de Lange, Judaism , Oxford University Press, 1986

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