Rumania

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Rumania
România
Bandera Escudo de armas
Himno : De?teapt?-te, Romane!
Despierta, rumano!

Desteapta-te, romane!. Ogg

Ubicación de Rumania (verde oscuro) - en el continente europeo (verde y gris oscuro) - en la Unión Europea (verde) - [Leyenda]
Ubicación de   Rumania    (Verde oscuro)

- En el continente europeo    (Verde y gris oscuro)
- En la Unión Europea    (Verde) - [ Leyenda ]

Capital
(Y ciudad más grande)
Masterminds.ro - Stema Bucuresti - Transparenta.png Bucarest
44 ° 25'N 26 ° 06'E / 44.417 ° N 26.1 ° E / 44.417, 26.1
El idioma oficial (s) Rumano
Grupos étnicos (2002) 89,5% de los rumanos ,
6,6% húngaros , el 2,5% gitanos , un 2% a otros [1]
Gentilicio Rumano
Gobierno Unitaria semipresidencial República
- Presidente Traian B?sescu
- Primer ministro Emil Boc ( PD-L )
- Presidente del Senado Mircea Geoana ( PSD )
- Presidente de la Cámara Roberta Anastase ( PD-L )
Legislatura Parlamentul României
- Cámara Alta Senado
- Cámara Baja Cámara de Diputados
Formación
- Poco Unión 24 de enero 1859 2
- Independencia de la Imperio Otomano 1877/1878 3
- Gran Unión 4 01 de diciembre 1918
Área
- Total 238.391 kilometros 2 ( 82a )
92.043 millas cuadradas
- De agua (%) 3
Población
- Según estimaciones para 2008 21.524.042 [2] ( 53a )
- Censo de 2002 21698181
- Densidad 90/km 2 ( 104a )
233/sq mi
PIB ( PPA ) 2010 estiman
- Total $ 254.160 millones de dólares [3]
- Per cápita $ 11.860 [3]
PIB (nominal) 2010 estiman
- Total $ 161,629 mil millones [3]
- Per cápita $ 7.542 [3]
Gini (2008) 32 [cuatro] (medio)
IDH (2010) aumento 0.767 [5] (alta) ( 50a )
Moneda Leu rumano 4 ( RON )
Huso horario EET ( UTC +2)
- Verano ( DST ) EEST ( UTC +3)
Unidades en el derecho
ISO 3166 RO
Dominio Internet . Ro 5
Código de llamada 40
1 La Unión Poco se refiere a la doble elección de John Alexander Cuza en Valaquia y Moldavia (05 de enero, respectivamente, 24 de enero 1859).
2 Independencia proclamada el 9 de mayo de 1877, reconocida internacionalmente en 1878.
3 La Gran Unión de la Unión de Rumanía con Besarabia , Bucovina y Transilvania en 1918 y la creación de la Gran Rumania .
Los cuatro leu fue redenominado el 1 de julio de 2005. A partir de esa fecha, 10.000 (de edad) lei (ROL) = 1 (nuevo) leu (RON).
5 El . eu dominio también se utiliza, como en otros de la Unión Europea los Estados miembros.

Rumanía ( Escuchar i / r o? m e? n i ? / roh-may-nee-? , también se escribe: Rumania, [6] de fecha: Rumania, [7] Rumania : Rumania [rom?ni.a] ( escuchar )) es un país ubicado en el cruce de la central y el sudeste de Europa , en el Bajo Danubio , dentro y fuera del arco de los Cárpatos , que bordean el Mar Negro . [8] comparte una frontera con Rumanía, Hungría y Serbia al oeste, Ucrania y Moldavia en el noreste y el este, y Bulgaria al sur.

En 238.391 kilómetros cuadrados (92.043 millas cuadradas), Rumanía es el noveno país más grande de la Unión Europea por la zona, y tiene la mayor población de séptimo de la Unión Europea con 21,5 millones de personas. [9] Su capital y ciudad más grande es Bucarest ( Rumania : Bucarest [bukure?t ?] ( escuchar )), la sexta ciudad más grande de la UE con cerca de dos millones de personas.

El Reino de Rumania surgió cuando los principados de Moldavia y Valaquia se unieron bajo el Príncipe Alejandro Juan Cuza en 1859. Independencia de la Imperio Otomano fue declarada el 9 de mayo de 1877, y fue internacionalmente reconocido al año siguiente. Al final de la Primera Guerra Mundial , Transilvania , Bucovina y Besarabia unida con el reino de Rumania. Rumanía Grande surgió en una época de progreso y prosperidad que continuaría hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial . Al final de la guerra, muchas áreas del noreste de los territorios de Rumania fueron ocupadas por la Unión Soviética , Rumania y la fuerza se convirtió en una república socialista y miembro del Pacto de Varsovia .

Con la caída de la Cortina de Hierro y la revolución de 1989 , Rumania se inició la transición hacia la democracia y un capitalista economía de mercado . Después de una década de problemas de la revolución post-económica, las amplias reformas impulsado la recuperación económica y el país se unió a la Unión Europea el 1 de enero de 2007. Rumania es ahora una renta media alta, país con un alto desarrollo humano [10] y los estándares de vida relativamente alto. [11]

Rumania se unió a la OTAN el 29 de marzo de 2004, y es también un miembro de la Unión Latina , de la Francofonía , de la OSCE y de las Naciones Unidas , así como un miembro asociado de la CPLP . En la actualidad, Rumania es un unitario república semi-presidencial , en la que el poder ejecutivo se compone del Presidente y el Gobierno . [12]

Contenido

[ editar ] Historia

[ editar ] Etimología

El nombre de Rumania, Rumania, viene de los romanos (antes Ruman), que significa "rumanos (hombre, persona)", que a su vez es un derivado de la romanus en latín significa "ciudadano de Roma" . [13] El hecho de que los rumanos llaman a sí mismos un derivado de Romano se menciona por primera vez en el siglo 16 por los italianos humanistas viajar en Transilvania , Moldavia y Valaquia . [14] [15] [16] [17]

El primer registro escrito de una lengua romance hablada en la Edad Media en los Balcanes fue escrito por el cronista bizantino Teófanes Confesor en el siglo sexto de una expedición militar contra los ávaros de 587, cuando un arriero Vlach que acompaña al ejército bizantino dio cuenta de que la carga fue la caída de uno de los animales y le gritó a un compañero Torna, torna fratre (Volver, el hermano de regreso!).

El documento más antiguo escrito en rumano es una carta de 1521 conocida como la " Carta de Neacsu de Câmpulung ". [18] Entre otras primicias, este texto también se destaca por tener la primera aparición documentada de la palabra rumana que indica el nombre del país: Valaquia se menciona con el nombre de ?eara Rumâneasc? ("La Tierra de Rumania", ?eara de la América : Terra "tierra"; ortografía actual: Tara Romaneasca).

En los siglos siguientes, los documentos rumanos utilizan indistintamente dos formas de ortografía: Román y Ruman. [nota 1] Socio-lingüístico evolución a finales del siglo décimo séptimo lugar a un proceso de diferenciación semántica: la forma Ruman, presumiblemente habitual entre las clases bajas, recibió el significado de "fiador", mientras que el romano forma mantiene un significado étnico-lingüístico. [19] Después de la abolición de la servidumbre en 1746, el Ruman forma desaparece gradualmente y la ortografía estabiliza definitivamente a los romanos la forma, Romanesc. [nota 2] Tudor Vladimirescu , un líder revolucionario de principios del siglo 19, que se utiliza el término para Rumania se refieren exclusivamente al Principado de Valaquia, al sur de la actual Rumania. [20]

El nombre România como patria común de todos los rumanos se documenta en el siglo 19. [nota 3] Este nombre ha sido oficialmente en uso desde 11 diciembre 1861. [21] Inglés-idioma de las fuentes todavía se utilizan los términos Rumania o Rumanía, tomados de Roumanie la ortografía francesa, tan recientemente como la Segunda Guerra Mundial , [22] , pero desde entonces los términos han sido reemplazados con la ortografía oficial Rumania. [23]

[ editar ] Prehistoria y la Antigüedad

[ editar ] Prehistoria

Característica Cucuteni-Trypillian cerámica, con elaboradas decoraciones

Algunos restos humanos de 42.000 años de antigüedad fueron descubiertos en la " cueva con huesos ", y ser la más antigua de Europa sigue siendo de Homo sapiens , que pueden representar los primeros humanos modernos que han entrado en el continente. [24]

Entre los restos más antiguos de la existencia humana y la actividad se encuentra en Rumania son los que datan del Paleolítico . Estos "tesoros arqueológicos" se encontraron en Bugiule?ti ( Vâlcea ), Ohaba-Ponor ( Hunedoara ) o Valea Dârjovului ( Condado de Olt ), pertenecientes a algunos de los ancestros humanos más distantes ( Homo habilis y Homo sapiens ). De acuerdo con estudios de antropología histórica, estos homínidos utilizan herramientas de piedra tallada, fueron recolectores, pescadores y cazadores, vivían organizados en bandas y se refugiaron en cuevas y oquedades.

La revolución neolítica se refiere a la transición de las herramientas de piedra tallada, específicos para el Paleolítico y Mesolítico , a las herramientas de piedra pulida y perforada, el descubrimiento de los primeros metales y el crecimiento de la complejidad de la organización social por la conversión de las bandas en gens y tribus. Una vez con el neolítico , se produce también una diversificación de las ocupaciones - la alfarería , la metalurgia del hierro , etc -, Como una especialización de las comunidades humanas como las distintas actividades practicadas: el cultivo de plantas, respectivamente, el crecimiento del animal. No fue así, en una escala de salto cada vez más grandes, de una economía predatoriamente a una economía productiva. La consecuencia de este cambio muy importante en la vida humana era su sedentaria, acentuada por la aparición de los primeros asentamientos. A finales de los Eneolítico celebró la India y la europeización .

La presencia de cobre y objetos de metales preciosos, la producción y el uso extensivo de bronce y de hierro determina que varios e importantes desarrollos económicos de las comunidades humanas: crecimiento de la productividad en la agricultura y el aumento de las áreas cultivadas; mayor escala de las embarcaciones, entre los metales ocupa ahora un destacado lugar, la separación de la masa de los productores se especializan en este tipo de actividad, la intensificación de comerciante, y la aparición de la moneda, que permite el contacto con las comunidades cada vez más distantes, condujo a la progresiva difusión de nuevas técnicas.

La vida espiritual de la población en edad antigua fue también en un cambio deliberado, pero implacable, siguiendo de cerca las grandes transformaciones económicas y sociales. En Rumania, las primeras manifestaciones de arte rupestre son las pinturas rupestres de Lapus ( Maramure? ) y Cuciulat ( Distrito de S?laj ). Estatuas, como los de Baia ( Tulcea ), por ejemplo, son representaciones de deidades masculinas y femeninas, las expresiones de culto de la fecundidad sobre todo en la Edad de Piedra .

[ editar ] Antigüedad

El emperador Trajano anexión 's de Dacia en 106 sentó las bases para la etnogénesis de los rumanos moderna

El primer testimonio escrito de las personas que viven en el territorio de la Rumania de hoy en día, el geto-dacios , viene de Heródoto , en su 440 IV aC libro de su Historia (Herodoto) . [25] dacios , considerado como una parte de los getas tribus mencionadas por Herodoto, eran una rama de los tracios que habitaban en Dacia (que corresponde principalmente a la actual Rumania). El reino de Dacia alcanzó su apogeo entre 82-44 aC durante el reinado de Burebista .

Durante el siguiente siglo, las relaciones entre los dacios y los romanos son relativamente pacífica, después de que el ascenso al trono de Roma del emperador Tito Flavio Domiciano ( 81 dC), los daños radicalmente las relaciones entre el Imperio Romano y dacios. Apoyó feroces guerras con ellos en 87 y 88 dC en Tapae, continuó en 101 - 102 , respectivamente, 105 - 106 por Trajano , el éxito de presentar los dacios y adjuntar Dacia para el gran Imperio Romano . La población Dacian estará sujeta al proceso de etno-lingüísticos de la romanización y Dacia se transforma en provincia romana imperial.

Debido a los depósitos de mineral rico de Dacia (sobre todo oro y plata), [26] Roma trajo colonos de todas partes del imperio. [27] Esto provocó el latín vulgar y comenzó un período de intensa romanización que daría a luz a la lengua proto-rumano . [28] [29] Durante el siglo tercero, con las invasiones de las poblaciones migratorias, el Imperio Romano se vio obligado a retirarse de Dacia alrededor de 271 dC, por lo que es la primera provincia en ser abandonada. [30] [31]

Después de que el ejército romano y la administración de izquierda Dacia, el territorio fue invadido por varias poblaciones migratorias como los godos , [32] hunos , [33] gépidos , [34] ávaros , [35] búlgaros , [34] pechenegos , [36] y cumanos . [37] Varias teorías que compiten se han generado para explicar el origen de los rumanos moderna . El análisis lingüístico y geo-históricos tienden a indicar que los rumanos se han unido como principal grupo étnico del Sur y del Norte del Danubio, en las regiones anteriormente colonizadas por los romanos. [38]

Gesta Hungarorum , también conocida Crónica de Anonymus, mencionó la existencia, a finales del siglo IX , de tres voivodías: Voivodeship de Gélou , Voivodeship de Alegre y Voivodeship de Menumorut . Una inscripción da fe de eslavos, en 943 dC, jupan Dimitrie, que llevaron en algún lugar de Dobrogea. En el siglo XI , la leyenda de San Gerardo menciona la existencia de un jefe local en Banat . Fue llamado Ahtum y compartir la fe ortodoxa. Princesa bizantina Ana Comnena mencionados en el Alexiada las formaciones dirigido por Seslav, Sacea y Tatos, todos en el Dobrogea del Sur (1086).

[ editar ] Edad Media

El Castillo Bran fue construido en 1212, y se convirtió en conocido comúnmente como el Castillo de Drácula después de los mitos de ser el hogar de Vlad III el Empalador .

En la Edad Media , los rumanos vivían en tres distintos principados : Valaquia ( Rumania : Tara Romaneasca - "rumanos Tierra"), Moldavia ( Rumania : Moldavia) y Transilvania ( Rumanía : Transilvania). En el siglo 11, Transilvania se convirtió en parte en gran parte autónoma del Reino de Hungría , [39] y llegó a ser independiente como el Principado de Transilvania del siglo 16, [40] hasta 1711. [41] En Valaquia y Moldavia muchos estados locales pequeños con diversos grados de independencia desarrollados, pero sólo en el siglo 14 fue el más grande principados de Valaquia (1310) y Moldavia (alrededor de 1352) surgen para combatir la amenaza del Imperio Otomano . [42] [43]

Moldavia , Valaquia y Transilvania se unieron brevemente bajo el gobierno de Miguel el Valiente en 1600.

Al 1541, toda la península de los Balcanes y la mayor parte de Hungría se convirtió en provincias otomanas. Moldavia, Valaquia y Transilvania eran menores otomano soberanía , la preservación parcial de plena autonomía interna hasta mediados del siglo 19 (Transilvania a 1699). Durante este periodo las tierras rumanas se han caracterizado por la lenta desaparición de la feudal sistema. A pocos gobernantes de hoy en día territorios rumanos se han distinguido: los gobernantes son Esteban el Grande , Vasile Lupu , y Dimitrie Cantemir en Moldavia; Matei Basarab , Vlad III el Empalador , y Constantin Brancoveanu en Valaquia, y Juan Hunyadi (Corvino Ioannes) y Gabriel Bethlen de Transilvania . [44]

En 1600, los principados de Valaquia, Moldavia y Transilvania se dirigían al mismo tiempo por el príncipe de Valaquia Miguel el Valiente (Mihai Viteazul), Ban de Oltenia , pero la posibilidad de que una unidad disuelto después de Mihai fue asesinado, un año más tarde, por los soldados de Austria general del ejército Giorgio Basta . Después de su muerte, como vasallo de estados tributarios, Moldavia y Valaquia se completa autonomía interna y la independencia externa, que se perdió finalmente en el siglo 18. En 1699, Transilvania se convirtió en un territorio de los Habsburgo imperio austriaco tras la victoria de Austria sobre los turcos en la guerra turca Gran . Los Habsburgo, a su vez amplió su imperio en 1718 para incluir una parte importante de Valaquia, llamado Oltenia (que fue devuelto sólo en 1739) y en 1775 más de la parte norte-occidental de Moldavia, más tarde llamado Bucovina . La mitad oriental del principado de Moldavia (llamada Besarabia ) fue ocupada en 1812 por Rusia. [44]

Los cambios territoriales de Rumanía desde 1859 hasta la actualidad

[ editar ] La independencia y la monarquía

Durante el período de Austro-Húngaro regla en Transilvania y el otomano soberanía sobre Valaquia y Moldavia , la mayoría de los rumanos se encontraban en la situación de ser ciudadanos de segunda clase o incluso a los no ciudadanos [45] en un territorio donde se formaron la mayoría de la población. [46] [47] En algunas ciudades de Transilvania, como Bra?ov (en ese momento un Saxon ciudadela), los rumanos no se les permitió incluso a residir dentro de los muros de la ciudad. [48]

Proclamación de la unión de Valaquia Moldo-, la pintura por Theodor Aman

Tras el levantamiento de Valaquia de 1821 , más levantamientos seguido en 1848 en Valaquia y Moldavia . La bandera adoptada por Valaquia por los revolucionarios era una bandera tricolor azul-amarillo-rojo (con azul de arriba, en línea con el significado de "Libertad, Justicia, Fraternidad"), [49] mientras que los estudiantes de Rumania en París, elogió el nuevo gobierno con el mismo bandera "como símbolo de unión entre moldavos y Muntenians ". [50] [51] Esta bandera más tarde se convertiría en la adoptó como bandera de Rumania . Pero después de la fallida revolución de 1848 , la grandes potencias no apoyaron el deseo de los rumanos expresado oficialmente a unirse en un solo estado, lo que obligó a Rumania para actuar solos contra los otomanos . Los electores, tanto en Moldavia y Valaquia en 1859 eligió la misma persona - Alejandro Juan Cuza - como príncipe ( Domnitor en rumano .) [52]

Por lo tanto, Rumania fue creado como una unión personal , aunque sin incluir Transilvania. Allí, la clase alta y la aristocracia se mantuvo principalmente húngaros y un fuerte apoyo de Austria, y el establecimiento de la monarquía austro-húngara monarquía dual en 1867, mantuvo a los húngaros con firmeza en el control incluso en las zonas de Transilvania donde los rumanos constituyen una mayoría local. [ cita requerida ]

En 1866 un golpe de Estado, Cuza fue exiliado y reemplazado por el príncipe Carlos de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , que llegó a ser conocido como el príncipe Carol de Rumania . Durante la guerra Russo-Turca Rumania luchó en el bando ruso, [53] y en el Tratado de San Stefano y el Tratado de Berlín , Rumania fue reconocido como un independiente del estado por el Imperio Otomano y la grandes potencias . [54] [55 ] Por su parte, Rumania cedió tres distritos del sur de Besarabia a Rusia y adquirido Dobruja . En 1881, el Principado se eleva a un reino y el príncipe Carol se convirtió en el rey Carol I . [ cita requerida ]

El período 1878-1914 fue uno de estabilidad y el progreso de Rumania. Durante la Segunda Guerra de los Balcanes , Rumania se unió a Grecia , Serbia , Montenegro y Turquía contra Bulgaria , y en la paz del Tratado de Bucarest (1913) Rumania ganó el sur de Dobrudja . [56]

[ editar ] Guerras Mundiales y la Gran Rumania

En agosto de 1914, cuando la Primera Guerra Mundial estalló, Rumanía declaró la neutralidad . Dos años más tarde, bajo la presión de los aliados (sobre todo Francia, desesperado por abrir un nuevo frente), el 27 de agosto de 1916, Rumania se unió a los aliados, declarando la guerra a Austria-Hungría . Para esta acción, en los términos de la convención militar secreto , Rumania prometió apoyo a su objetivo de unidad nacional para todos los rumanos. [57]

La campaña militar de Rumania terminó en un desastre para Rumania como potencias centrales conquistado dos terceras partes del país y derrotó a su ejército en unos meses. Sin embargo, Moldavia quedó en manos de Rumania después de que las fuerzas invasoras fueron detenidos en 1917. Total de muertes desde 1914 hasta 1918, militares y civiles, dentro de las fronteras actuales, se estima en 748.000. [58] Al final de la guerra, Austria-Hungría y el Imperio Ruso se había derrumbado y se desintegró, Besarabia , Bucovina y Transilvania proclamado los sindicatos con el Reino de Rumania en 1918. Por el 1920 Tratado de Trianon , Hungría se vio obligado a renunciar en favor de Rumanía, todas las reclamaciones de la monarquía austro-húngara en Transilvania . [59] La unión de Rumania con Bukovina fue ratificado en 1919 en el Tratado de Saint Germain , [60 ] y con Besarabia en 1920 por el Tratado de París . [61]

El rumano expresión România Mare (traducción literal "Gran Rumanía", pero más comúnmente traducida como "Gran Rumanía") generalmente se refiere al estado rumano en el período de entreguerras , y por extensión, a la Rumania territorio cubierto en el momento. Rumania logró en ese momento su mayor extensión territorial (casi 300.000 km 2 / 120.000 millas cuadradas), [62] para unir a la gestión de prácticamente la totalidad de los territorios habitados por rumanos. [62]

General Ion Antonescu y la Guardia de Hierro líder Corneliu Codreanu Zelea en un evento de esquí en 1935
Ejército rumano R35 tanques de entrar en Kishinev en 1941.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Rumania intentó otra vez de permanecer neutral, pero el 28 de junio de 1940, que recibió un ultimátum soviético con una amenaza implícita de la invasión en caso de incumplimiento. [63] Bajo la presión de los nazis y soviéticos, el gobierno rumano y el ejército se vieron obligados a retirarse de Besarabia y Bucovina del norte para evitar la guerra. [64] Esto, en combinación con otros factores, llevaron al gobierno a unirse al Eje . A partir de entonces, el sur de Dobruja fue cedida a Bulgaria, mientras que Hungría recibe norte de Transilvania , como resultado de un arbitraje del Eje. [65] El autoritarismo del rey Carol II abdicó en 1940, y fue sucedido por el Estado Nacional de la Legión , en el que el poder era compartido por Ion Antonescu y la Guardia de Hierro . En cuestión de meses, Antonescu había aplastado la Guardia de Hierro , y al año siguiente Rumania entró en la guerra del lado de los poderes del Eje . Durante la guerra, Rumania fue la fuente más importante de petróleo de la Alemania nazi , [66] que atrajo a múltiples redadas bombardeo por la aliados . Por medio de la invasión del Eje de la Unión Soviética , Rumania se recuperó la Besarabia y Bucovina del norte de la Rusia soviética, bajo la dirección del general Ion Antonescu . El régimen de Antonescu desempeñado un papel importante en el Holocausto , [67] siguiente, en menor medida los nazis política de opresión y matanza de los Judios , y Romma , principalmente en Rumania territorios orientales ocupados o recuperados de la Unión Soviética ( Transnistria ) y en Moldavia . [68] judíos víctimas del Holocausto fue de 469.000, incluyendo 325.000 en Besarabia y Bucovina. [69]

En agosto de 1944, Antonescu fue derrocado y detenido por el rey Miguel I de Rumania y Rumania cambió de bando y se unió a los aliados . Pero su papel en la derrota de la Alemania nazi no fue reconocido por la Conferencia de Paz de París de 1947, [70] . el ejército rumano había sufrido 170.000 bajas después de cambiar de bando [71]

[ editar ] El comunismo

Durante la ocupación soviética de Rumania , el comunista dominada por el gobierno llamó a nuevas elecciones , que ganó con el 80% de los votos a través de la intimidación y el fraude electoral [ cita requerida ]. De este modo, rápidamente se estableció como la fuerza política dominante. [72] En 1947, los comunistas obligado el Rey Miguel I a abdicar y abandonar el país, y proclamó a Rumanía una república popular . [73] [74] Rumania se mantuvo bajo la directa ocupación militar y el control económico de la URSS hasta finales de 1950. Durante este período, los vastos recursos naturales de Rumanía fueron drenados continuamente mezclados soviético-rumana empresas ( SovRoms ), creado con fines de explotación. [75] [76] [77]

En 1948, el Estado comenzó a nacionalizar las empresas privadas, y para colectivizar la agricultura al año siguiente. [78] Desde la década de 1940 y principios de 1960, los comunistas del gobierno estableció un régimen de terror, llevada a cabo principalmente a través de la Securitate (el nuevo secreto la policía). Durante este tiempo se puso en marcha varias campañas para eliminar los " enemigos del Estado ", en el que numerosas personas fueron asesinadas o encarceladas por arbitrarias razones políticas o económicas. [79] El castigo incluye la deportación, el exilio interior, y el internamiento en campos de trabajos forzados y las prisiones; la disidencia fue reprimida enérgicamente. Un experimento notable en este período se llevó a cabo en la prisión de Pite?ti , donde un grupo de opositores políticos fueron puestos en un programa de reeducación a través de la tortura. Los registros históricos muestran cientos de miles de abusos, muertes y casos de tortura en contra de una amplia gama de personas, de los opositores políticos a los ciudadanos comunes. [80] Sin embargo, rumanos armados de oposición al régimen comunista fue uno de los de mayor duración en el Bloque del Este . [81]

Nicolae Ceau?escu condenar la invasión soviética de Checoslovaquia en frente a una multitud en el año 1968. Rumania fue el único del Pacto de Varsovia nación que se negó a participar en la invasión.

En 1965, Nicolae Ceau?escu llegó al poder y comenzó a aplicar políticas independientes, como ser el único del Pacto de Varsovia país para condenar a la Unión Soviética dirigida por la invasión de 1968 Checoslovaquia , y de continuar las relaciones diplomáticas con Israel después de la Guerra de los Seis Días de 1967; establecer económica (1963) y diplomáticos (1967) las relaciones con la República Federal de Alemania . [82] Además, los estrechos vínculos con el árabe países (y de la OLP ) permitió Rumania a jugar un papel clave en el Israel - Egipto e Israel- OLP los procesos de paz. [83] Sin embargo, como la deuda externa de Rumania un fuerte aumento entre 1977 y 1981 (de 3 a 10 billones de dólares EE.UU.), [84] la influencia de los organismos financieros internacionales como el FMI o el Banco Mundial, creció, en conflicto con Nicolae Ceau?escu autocráticos políticas. Finalmente se inició un proyecto de reembolso total de la deuda externa mediante la imposición de las políticas que los rumanos pobres y agotado la economía rumana, mientras que también se extiende en gran medida la autoridad de la policía estatal , y la imposición de un culto a la personalidad . Esto condujo a una dramática disminución en la popularidad de Ceausescu y que culminó con su derrocamiento y ejecución de la sangrienta revolución rumana de 1989 .

A 2006 la Comisión Presidencial para el Estudio de la dictadura comunista en Rumania estima que el número de víctimas directas [ aclaración necesaria ] de la represión comunista en dos millones de personas. Este número no incluye a personas que murieron en libertad como resultado de su tratamiento en las prisiones comunistas, ni tampoco se incluyen las personas que murieron a causa de las difíciles circunstancias económicas en que se encontraba el país. [85] [86]

[ editar ] Hoy en día la democracia

Después de la revolución, el Frente de Salvación Nacional , dirigido por Ion Iliescu , tuvo parciales de varias partes las medidas de mercado libre y democrática. [87] [88] Varios partidos políticos más importantes de la época anterior a la guerra fueron resucitados. Después de importantes reuniones políticas, en abril de 1990, una sentada en protesta por impugnar los resultados de las recientes elecciones parlamentarias se inició en Plaza de la Universidad de Bucarest , acusando al Frente de estar formado por antiguos comunistas y miembros de la Securitate . Los manifestantes pidieron la elección antidemocrática y pidió la exclusión de la vida política de los ex altos miembros del Partido Comunista, al igual que Iliescu y el Frente de Salvación Nacional . La protesta creció rápidamente hasta convertirse en lo que el presidente Iliescu llamado Golaniad . Las manifestaciones pacíficas degenerado en violencia, lo que provocó la intervención de los mineros del carbón, convocado por Iliescu en junio de 1990, desde el valle del Jiu . Este episodio ha sido ampliamente documentado por tanto a nivel local [89] y los medios de comunicación extranjeros, [90] y es recordado como el 06 1990 Mineriad . [91] [92]

La posterior desintegración del Frente producido varios partidos políticos, entre ellos el Partido Social Demócrata , el Partido Demócrata y la Alianza para Rumania . El ex gobernado Rumania desde 1990 hasta 1996 a través de varias coaliciones y los gobiernos con Ion Iliescu como Jefe de Estado. Desde entonces ha habido algunos cambios de gobierno democrático: en 1996 la oposición democrática-liberal y su líder Emil Constantinescu accedió al poder, en 2000 los socialdemócratas volvieron al poder, con Iliescu, una vez más el presidente, y en 2004 Traian B?sescu fue elegido presidente, con una coalición electoral denominada Alianza Justicia y Verdad . B?sescu se estrecha re-elegido en 2009. [93]

Rumania se unió a la Unión Europea en 2007 y firmó el Tratado de Lisboa .

Post– Cold War Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe , eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest. [ 94 ] The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a member on 1 January 2007. [ 95 ] Following the free travel agreement and politics of the post–Cold War period, as well as hardship of the life in the 1990s economic depression, Romania has an increasingly large diaspora , estimated at over 2 million people. The main emigration targets are Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, UK, Canada and the USA. [ 96 ]

During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred to as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe." [ 97 ] This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in human development. [ 98 ] The country has been successful in reducing internal poverty and establishing a functional democracy. [ 99 ] However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s recession as a large gross domestic product contraction and a large budget deficit in 2009 led to Romania borrowing heavily, [ 100 ] eventually becoming the largest debitor to the International Monetary Fund in 2010. [ 101 ] Romania still faces issues related to infrastructure, [ 102 ] medical services, [ 103 ] education, [ 104 ] and corruption. [ 105 ]

[ editar ] Geografía

General map of Romania

With a surface area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe. [ 106 ] It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N , and longitudes 20° and 30° E .

Romania's terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m/6,600 ft, and the highest point at Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m/8,346 ft). [ 106 ] These are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus and Pannonian and Wallachian plains. Romania's geographical diversity has led to an accompanying diversity of flora and fauna. [ 106 ]

A large part of Romania's border with Serbia and Bulgaria is formed by the Danube . Prut River , one of its major tributaries , forms the border with the Moldova . [ 106 ] The Danube flows into the Black Sea within Romania's territory forming the Danube Delta , the second largest and the best preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site . [ 107 ] Other major rivers are Siret (596 km), Olt (614 km), Prut (742 km), Some? (388 km), and Mure? (761 km). [ 106 ]

[ editar ] Clima

Owing to its distance from the open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate and continental , with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north. [ 108 ] The extreme recorded temperatures were 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) at Ion Sion 1951 and ?38.5 °C (?37.3 °F) at Bod 1942. [ 109 ]

Spring is pleasant with cool mornings and nights and warm days. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with summer (June to August) average maximum temperatures in Bucharest being around 28 °C (82 °F) , with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 16 °C (61 °F) . Autumn is dry and cool, with fields and trees producing colorful foliage. Winters can be cold, with average maxima even in lower-lying areas being no more than 2 °C (36 °F) and below ?15 °C (5 °F) in the highest mountains. [ 110 ] Precipitation is average with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains—much of it falling as snow, which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the south-central parts of the country (around Bucharest) the level of precipitation drops to around 600 mm (24 in), [ 111 ] while in the Danube Delta, rainfall levels are very low, and average only around 370 mm.

In Romania, because of the geographical location, respectively the regional orographic peculiarities, exists a very varied range of the local winds. Humid winds from the northwest are most common, but often the drier winds from the northeast are strongest. A hot southwesterly wind, the austru , blows over western Romania, particularly in summer . In winter , cold and dense air masses encircle the eastern portions of the country, with the cold northeasterly known as the criv?? blowing in from the Russian Plain , and oceanic air masses from the Azores , in the west , bring rain and mitigate the severity of the cold. Other local winds are: nemirul , black wind , foehn , b?lt?re?ul , zephyr , cosava etc. Romania enjoys four seasons , though there is a rapid transition from winter to summer. Autumn is frequently longer, with dry warm weather from September to late November . [ 112 ]

[ editar ] Medio Ambiente

A high percentage (47% of the land area) of the country is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems. [ 113 ] Since almost half of all forests in Romania (13% of the country) have been managed for watershed conservation rather than production, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe. [ 113 ] The integrity of Romanian forest ecosystems is indicated by the presence of the full range of European forest fauna, including 60% and 40% of all European brown bears and wolves, respectively. [ 114 ] There are also almost 400 unique species of mammals (of which Carpathian chamois are best known), birds, reptiles and amphibians in Romania. [ 115 ] The fauna consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate . [ 116 ]

Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments , 74 missing, 39 are endangered, 171 vulnerable and 1,253 are considered rare. [ 116 ] The three major vegetation areas in Romania are the alpine zone, the forest zone and the steppe zone. The vegetation is distributed in an storied manner in accordance with the characteristics of soil and climate and includes various species of oaks , sycamores , beechs , spruces , firs , willows , poplars , meadows , and pines . [ 117 ] [ 118 ]

There are almost 10,000 km 2 (3,900 sq mi) (almost 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves: the Danube Delta , Retezat National Park , and Rodna National Park . [ 119 ] The Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere is the largest and least damaged wetland complex in Europe, covering a total area of 5,800 km 2 (2,200 sq mi). [ 120 ] The significance of the biodiversity of the Danube Delta has been internationally recognised. It was declared a Biosphere Reserve in September 1990, a Ramsar site in May 1991, and over 50% of its area was placed on the World Heritage List in December 1991. [ 121 ] Within its boundaries lies one of the most extensive reed bed systems in the world. [ 122 ]

Protected areas of Romania
Danube Delta in Romania.
Pietrosu Mare peak, Rodna National Park .
The Bicaz Canyon .
Trasc?u, Apuseni Mountains .
Bucegi Mountains in springtime.
Turda Gorges seen from the west end.

[ editar ] Divisiones administrativas

Current counties

Romania is divided into 41 counties and the municipality of Bucharest . Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level, who is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. [ 123 ]

Each county is further subdivided into cities and communes , which have own mayor and local council. There are a total of 319 cities and 2,686 communes in Romania. [ 124 ] A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality statuses, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors and has a prefect, a general mayor, and a general city council. [ 124 ]

The NUTS-3 ( Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics ) level divisions of European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. [ 125 ] The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions ) and NUTS-2 (eight development regions ) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity, and are instead used for co-ordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes . [ 125 ]

[ editar ] Política

[ editar ] Gobierno

Logo of the Government of Romania
The Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest

The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic [ 126 ] and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991. [ 126 ] A plebiscite held in October 2003 approved 79 amendments to the Constitution, bringing it into conformity with European Union legislation. [ 126 ] The country is governed on the basis of multi-party democratic system and of the segregation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. [ 126 ] Romania is a semi-presidential parliamentary democratic republic where executive functions are held by prime minister . The president is elected by popular vote for maximum two terms, and since the amendments in 2003, the terms are five years. [ 126 ] He appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers (based at Victoria Palace ). [ 126 ] The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament ), consists of two chambers – the Senate with 140 members, and the Chamber of Deputies with 346 members. [ 126 ] The members of both chambers are elected every four years under a system of party-list proportional representation . [ 126 ]

The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice , which is the supreme court of Romania. [ 127 ] There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model , [ 126 ] [ 128 ] considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court ( Curtea Constitu?ional? ) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the Romanian Constitution , which is the fundamental law of the country. The constitution, which was introduced in 1991, can only be amended by a public referendum, the last one being in 2003. Since this amendment, the court's decisions cannot be overruled by any majority of the parliament.

The country's entry into the European Union in 2007 [ 129 ] has been a significant influence on its domestic policy. As part of the process, Romania has instituted reforms including judicial reform , increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption. Nevertheless, in 2006 Brussels report, Romania and Bulgaria were described as the two most corrupt countries in the EU, [ 130 ] and it was ranked as the most corrupt EU country by Transparency International in 2009, alongside Bulgaria and Greece . [ 100 ]

[ editar ] Relaciones Exteriores

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union . It joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it had joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization . [ 131 ]

The current government has stated its goal of strengthening ties with and helping other Eastern European countries (in particular Moldova , Ukraine and Georgia ) with the process of integration with the West. [ 132 ] Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus . [ 132 ] Romania also declared its public support for Turkey , Croatia and Moldova joining the European Union. [ 132 ] With Turkey, Romania shares a privileged economic relation. [ 133 ] Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed strong relations with Hungary . [ 134 ]

In December 2005, President Traian B?sescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a US military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country. [ 135 ] In May 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA" during a visit of the Romanian foreign minister. [ 136 ]

Relations with Moldova are a special case considering that the two countries practically share the same language, and a fairly common historical background . [ 132 ] A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule, [ 137 ] but faded away in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania. [ 138 ] Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs and has officially rejected the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact , [ 137 ] but the two countries have been unable even to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty. [ 139 ]

[ editar ] Militares

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Land , Air , and Naval Forces , and are led by a Commander-in-chief who is managed by the Ministry of Defense . The president is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces during wartime. Of the 90,000 men and women that comprise the Armed Forces, 15,000 are civilians and 75,000 are military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields. [ 140 ] The total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP , or approximately US$ 2.9 billion ( 39th in the world ), and a total of about 11 billion will be spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment. [ 141 ]

The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in the past few years, and today are an army with multiple NATO capabilities, participating in a NATO peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan . [ 142 ] The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21 LanceR fighters which are due to be replaced by new fighters by 2013, according to present plans. However due to poor economical conditions this may change. [ 143 ] The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlift to replace the bulk of the old transport force. [ 144 ] Two modernized Type 22 frigates were acquired by the Naval Forces in 2004 from the Royal Navy , and a further four modern missile corvettes have been commissioned by 2010. [ citation needed ]

[ editar ] Economía

Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show, 2009

With a GDP of around $254 billion and a GDP per capita ( PPP ) of $11,860 [ 145 ] for the year 2010, Romania is an upper-middle income country economy [ 146 ] and has been part of the European Union since 1 January 2007.

After the Communist regime was overthrown in late 1989 , the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onwards, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation . In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office , GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe. [ 147 ] Growth dampened to 6.1% in 2007, [ 148 ] but was expected to exceed 8% in 2008 because of a high production forecast in agriculture (30–50% higher than in 2007). The GDP grew by 8.9% in the first nine months of 2008, but growth fell to 2.9% in the fourth quarter and stood at 7.1% for the whole 2008 because of the financial crisis . [ 149 ] Thereafter, the country fell into a recession in 2009 and 2010, where the GDP contracted ?7.1% and ?1.3% respectively. It is estimated by the IMF that the GDP will grow again by 1.5% in 2011 and 4.4% in 2012. [ 145 ]

According to Eurostat data, the Romanian PPS GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2010. [ 150 ] Inflation in 2010 was 6.1%. [ 145 ] Unemployment in Romania was at 7.6% in 2010, [ 145 ] which is very low compared to other middle-sized or large European countries such as Poland , France, Germany and Spain. General government gross debt is also comparatively low, at 34.8% of GDP. [ 151 ] Exports have increased substantially in the past few years, with a 13% annual rise in exports in 2010. Romania's main exports are cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The current account balance in 2010 held a deficit of $6.842 billion. [ 145 ]

After a series of privatisations and reforms in the late 1990s and early 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies. [ 152 ] In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, resulting in the country having the lowest fiscal burden in the European Union, [ 153 ] a factor which has contributed to the growth of the private sector. The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 51.2% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 36% and 12.8% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 29.6% of the Romanian population was employed in 2006 in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe. [ 151 ]

Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe. Foreign direct investment was valued at €8.3 billion in 2006. [ 154 ] According to a 2006 World Bank report, Romania currently ranks 55th out of 175 economies in the ease of doing business, scoring higher than other countries in the region such as the Czech Republic . [ 155 ] Additionally, the same study judged it to be the world's second-fastest economic reformer (after Georgia ) in 2006. [ 156 ]

The average gross wage per month in Romania was 1855 lei in May 2009, [ 157 ] equating to €442.48 (US$627.70) based on international exchange rates, and $1110.31 based on purchasing power parity. [ 158 ] In 2009 the Romanian economy contracted as a result of the global economic downturn . Gross domestic product contracted 7.2% in the fourth quarter of 2009 from the same period a year earlier, [ 159 ] and the budget deficit for 2009 reached 7.2% of GDP. [ 160 ] Industrial output growth however reached 6.9% year-on-year in December 2009, the highest in the EU-27. [ 161 ]

[ editar ] Transporte

Road network of Romania
The Transf?g?r??an , one of the highest and most dramatic paved roads in the country.
CFR 's icon, the " Blue Arrow " assembled in Arad

All transportation infrastructure in Romania is the property of the state, and is administered by the Ministry of Transports, Constructions and Tourism, except when operated as a concession, in which case the concessions are made by the Ministry of Administration and Interior. [ 162 ]

According to CIA Factbook , Romania total road network is estimated to be 198,817 km long, out of which 60,043 km are paved and 138,774 km (2004) are unpaved. [ 163 ] The World Bank estimates that the road network that is outside of cities and communes (ie excluding streets and village roads) is about 78,000 km long. [ 162 ]

Due to its location, Romania is a major crossroad for International economic exchange in Europe . However, because of insufficient investment, maintenance and repair, the transport infrastructure does not meet the current needs of a market economy and lags behind Western Europe . [ 164 ] Nevertheless, these conditions are rapidly improving and catching up with the standards of Trans-European transport networks . Several projects have been started with funding from grants from ISPA and several loans from International Financial Institutions ( World Bank , IMF , etc.) guaranteed by the state, to upgrade the main road corridors . Also, the Government is actively pursuing new external financing or public-private partnerships to further upgrade the main roads, and especially the country's motorway network . [ 164 ]

Romania has a relatively well-developed airport infrastructure compared to other countries in Eastern Europe , but still underdeveloped compared to Western European standards. There are 17 commercial airports in service today, most of them opened for international traffic. Five of the airports (OTP, BBU, TSR, CND, SBZ) have runways of over 3,000 m in length and are capable of handling wide-body aircraft . Three of the airports (BCM, CRA, SUJ) have runways of 2,500 m in length, while the rest of them have runways of 1,800 to 2,000 m. As of December 2006, TCE and CSB are the only airports with no regular flights. Almost all the airports have experienced traffic growth in the last 4 years.

The World Bank estimates that the railway network in Romania comprised 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track in 2004, which would make it the fourth largest railroad network in Europe. [ 165 ] The railway transport experienced a dramatic fall in freight and passenger volumes from the peak volumes recorded in 1989 mainly due to the decline in GDP and competition from road transport. In 2004, the railways carried 8.64 billion passenger-km in 99 million passenger journeys, and 73 million metric tonnes, or 17 billion ton-km of freight. [ 126 ] The combined total transportation by rail constituted around 45% of all passenger and freight movement in the country. [ 126 ]

Bucharest is the only city in Romania which has an underground railway system. The Bucharest Metro was only opened in 1979 and is now one of the most accessed systems of the Bucharest public transport network with an average ridership of 600,000 passengers during the workweek. [ 166 ]

[ editar ] Turismo

Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy. In 2006, the domestic and international tourism generated about 4.8% of gross domestic product and 5.8% of the total jobs (about half a million jobs). [ 167 ] Following commerce, tourism is the second largest component of the services sector. Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors of the economy of Romania and characterized by a huge potential for development.

According to the World Travel and Tourism Council , Romania is the fourth fastest growing country in the world in terms of travel and tourism total demand with a yearly potential growth of 8% from 2007 to 2016. [ 168 ] The number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004. [ 126 ] Similarly, the revenues grew from 400 million in 2002 to 607 in 2004. [ 126 ] In 2006, Romania registered 20 million overnight stays by international tourists, an all-time record, [ 169 ] but the number for 2007 is expected to increase even more. [ 170 ] Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005. [ 171 ]

Over the last years, Romania has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans (more than 60% of the foreign visitors were from EU countries), [ 170 ] thus attempting to compete with Bulgaria , Greece , Italy and Spain. Romania destinations such as Mangalia , Saturn , Venus , Neptun , Olimp , Constan?a and Mamaia (sometimes called the Romanian Riviera ) are among the most popular attraction during summer. [ 172 ] During winter, the skiing resorts along the Valea Prahovei and Poiana Bra?ov are popular with foreign visitors.

For their medieval atmosphere and castles , Transylvanian cities such as Sibiu , Bra?ov , Sighi?oara , Cluj-Napoca , Târgu Mure? or Miercurea Ciuc have become major touristic attractions for foreigners. Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative recently, [ 173 ] and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle , the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia , the Wooden churches of Maramure? and S?laj , or the Merry Cemetery in Maramure? County ( S?pân?a ). [ 174 ] Other major natural attractions in Romania such as Danube Delta , [ 126 ] Iron Gates ( Danube Gorge), Sc?ri?oara Cave and several other caves in the Apuseni Mountains have yet to receive great attention.

In terms of tourism potential, Romania benefits from splendid cities, scattered on the smooth plains or high peaks. These include Sibiu , city ??built by Saxons , with cobblestone streets and colorful houses. In the picturesque town of Hunedoara can be visited the Hunyad Castle , one of the most important monuments of Gothic architecture in Transylvania . Also, the resorts ( B?ile Felix , B?ile Herculane , B?ile Tu?nad etc.) are points of interest for local and foreign tourists. [ 175 ] The Romanian seaside is the most exploited tourist area of Romania. In 2009, Romania's Black Sea seaside was visited by 1.3 million tourists, of which 40,000 were foreign. [ 176 ] The shore is very varied, formed by slightly wavy shapes, with emphasized capes and extended deep bays into the Dobrogea valleys, with cliffs , beaches and sand cords. In Târgu Jiu can be seen the sculptures of Constantin Brâncu?i (1876–1957), Romanian sculptor with overwhelming contributions to the renewal of plastic language and vision in the contemporary sculpture. [ 177 ] These include The Endless Column , The Gate of the Kiss , The Table of Silence , which together represent the three parts of monumental sculpture of Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncu?i at Târgu Jiu . [ 178 ] Also, in the Bihor Mountains is a complex system of caves ( Bear Cave , Sc?ri?oara Cave etc.), that continues throughout the Piatra Craiului Mountains , Rodna Mountains , respectively Anina Mountains ( Comarnic Cave ).

[ editar ] La ciencia y la tecnología

Traian Vuia , early flight pioneer

During the 1990s and early 2000s, the development of Romanian science was hampered by several factors, including corruption, low funding and a considerable brain drain . [ 179 ] However, since the country's accession to the European Union, this has begun to change. After being slashed by 50% in 2009 due to the global recession, R&D spending was increased by 44% in 2010 and now stands at $0.5 billion (1.5 billion lei). [ 180 ] In January 2011, the Parliament also passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review". [ 181 ] The country has joined or is about to join several major international organizations such as CERN and the European Space Agency . [ 182 ] [ 183 ] Overall, the situation has been characterized as "rapidly improving", albeit from a low base. [ 184 ]

In the nineteenth century , Romania experienced a gradual breakthrough, based on the results of the exact sciences. The role of mathematics is becoming increasingly important. Mathematicians Spiru Haret and Gheorghe ?i?eica sustain PhD thesis at Paris , appreciated for their scientific value. Also, the physics made progress, by the contribution of professors Emanoil Bacaloglu and Nicolae Teclu , inventor of the gas bulb with automatic adjustment, that bears his name. Achievements in chemistry , domain in which can be noted the work of Petru Poni , have been applied in industry : the manufacture of paints, perfumes, fertilizers and explosives. In 1920 was founded the Institute of Industrial Chemistry . Romanians make original contributions in aeronautics . Traian Vuia is the inventor of the first heavier machine than air, raised and powered by its own board. It was presented on March 18, 1906 at Montesson , France . Henri Marie Coand? is the creator of the first jet aircraft in the world, presented at Aeronautics salon, Paris (December 14, 1910), and Aurel Vlaicu built two aircrafts that did demonstrations in Bucharest and Vienna . Victor Babe? is the author of the first treaty of bacteriology in the world (1885), Gheorghe Marinescu is the founder of the Romanian school of neurology, and Ioan Cantacuzino founded the modern Romanian school of microbiology and experimental medicine. In the domain of natural sciences, Grigore Antipa , member of several foreign academies, founded the Museum of Natural History . Institute and the Botanical Garden of Bucharest was founded by Dimitrie Brândz? .

Historically, Romanian researches and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields, such as: aeronautics, medicine, mathematics, computer science/engineering, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry and biology. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coand? discovered the Coand? effect of fluidics. Preceding him, Elie Carafoli was a pioneering contributor to the field of aerodynamics in the world.

Victor Babe? discovered more than 50 germs and a cure for a disease named after him, babesiosis ; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin. Another biologist, Emil Palade , received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology . George Constantinescu created the theory of sonics , while Laz?r Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and also invented the modern method of refining crude oil . Costin Neni?escu found new methods for the synthesis of pirilium salts, of carbenes , triptamine , serotonine , two new syntheses for the indole nucleus, and a new method of polymerisation of ethylene .

Several mathematicians distinguished themselves as well, among them: Gheorghe ?i?eica , Spiru Haret , Grigore Moisil , Miron Nicolescu , Nicolae Popescu and ?tefan Odobleja ; the latter is also regarded as the ideological father behind cybernetics .

Notable physicists and inventors also include: Horia Hulubei in atomic physics, ?erban ?i?eica in theoretical physics, Mihai Gavril? specialized in quantum theory and discoverer of the atomic dichotomy phenomenon, Alexandru Proca known for the first meson theory of nuclear forces and Proca's equations of the vectorial mesonic field, ?tefan Procopiu known for the first theory of the magnetic moment of the electron in 1911 (now known as the Bohr-Procopiu magneton ), Theodor V. Ionescu - the inventor of a multiple-cavity magnetron in 1935, a hydrogen maser in 1947, 3D imaging for cinema/television in 1924 and hot deuterium plasma studies for controlled nuclear fusion , Ionel Solomon known for the nuclear magnetic resonance theory in solids, Solomon equations [ 185 ] [ 186 ] and photovoltaic devices, Petrache Poenaru , Nicolae Teclu and Victor Toma, with the latter known for the invention and construction of the first Romanian computer, the CIFA-1 in 1955. [ 187 ]

Also, Romania has two space agencies: ROSA (Romanian Space Agency) , the national coordinator for space-related technology, activities and programs since 1991 (member of European Space Agency since 2011 [ citation needed ] ) and ARCA (Romanian Cosmonautics and Aeronautics Association) , a non-governmental organization that promotes aerospace projects as well as other space-related activities. [ citation needed ]

The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania. [ 188 ]

[ edit ] Demographics

[ edit ] Demographic evolution

Ethnic map of Romania in 2002
Bilingual sign in Sibiu , showing the city's name in Romanian and German

In 2002, Romania had a population of 21,698,181. Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to gradually decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates . Romanians make up 89.5% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians , who make up 6.6% of the population and Gypsies , who make up 2.46% of the population. [ note 4 ] [ 189 ]

Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties as well as other ethnic groups, account for the remaining 1.4% of the population. [ 190 ]

In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans in Romania , [ 191 ] but only about 60,000 remain today. [ 192 ] In 1924, there were 796,056 Jews in the Kingdom of Romania. [ 193 ] The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. [ 96 ] As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, [ 98 ] primarily from Moldova , Turkey and China .

The fertility rate is decreasing, with 1.4 births per woman recorded in 2009. The birth rate (10.61‰, 2008) is slightly lower than mortality rate (11.84‰, 2008), so that natural increase is negative (?0.125%), resulting in a shrinking and aging population. [ 2 ]

[ edit ] Languages

The official language of Romania is Romanian , a Romance language related to Italian , French , Spanish , Portuguese , Occitan , and Catalan . Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population. Hungarian and Vlax Romani are the most important minority languages, spoken by 6.7% and 1.1% of the population, respectively. [ 190 ] In the 1990s, there were also a substantial number of German-speaking Transylvanian Saxons , even though most have since emigrated to Germany, leaving only 45,000 native German speakers in Romania. There are approximately 32,000 Turkish speakers in Romania. [ 194 ]

In localities where a given ethnic minority makes up more than 20% of the population, that minority's language can be used in the public administration and justice system, while native-language education and signage is also provided. English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. English is spoken by 5 million Romanians, French is spoken by 4–5 million, and German, Italian and Spanish are each spoken by 1–2 million people. [ 195 ]

Historically, French was the predominant foreign language spoken in Romania, but English has since superseded it. Consequently, Romanian English-speakers tend to be younger than Romanian French-speakers. Romania is, however, a full member of La Francophonie , and hosted the Francophonie Summit in 2006. [ 196 ] German has been taught predominantly in Transylvania, due to traditions tracing back to the Austro-Hungarian rule in this province.

[ editar ] Religión

Religion in Romania
religion por ciento
Orthodoxy
86.7%
Protestantismo
5.2%
Roman Catholicism
4,7%
Greek Catholicism
0,9%
Islam
0,3%
Metropolitan Cathedral, Ia?i , the largest Orthodox church in Romania, founded in 1833

Romania is a secular state and has no state religion . However, an overwhelming majority of the country's citizens are Christian . 86.7% of the country's population identified as Orthodox Christian according to the 2002 census, vasy majority of which belongs to the Romanian Orthodox Church . Other important Christian denominations include Protestantism (5.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.7%) and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (0.9%). [ 190 ] The latter two religious organizations suffered most severely under the communist dictatorial regimes established in power after 1947 as they were outlawed by the communist government in 1948; [ 197 ] later, under the Ceau?escu dictatorship several churches in Transylvania suffered a worse fate being demolished.

The foundation of the oldest-known Romanian orthodox church is still visible at Turnu-Severin today, and dates from the 14th century; however, much earlier crypts with unearthed relics of Christian martyrs executed at the orders of the Roman emperor Diocletian were found in Romanian church records dating as far back as the third century AD. Thus, the relics of the famous Saint Sava the Goth who was martyred by drowning in the river Buz?u in Romania, under Athanaric , on April 12, in 372 AD, were reverently received by St. Basil the Great . Earlier still, the first known Daco-Roman Christian priest Montanus and his wife Maxima were drowned because of their Christian faith, as martyrs, on March 26, in 304 AD.

Romania also has a Muslim minority concentrated in Dobrogea , mostly of Turkish ethnicity and numbering 67,500 people. [ 198 ] According to the results of the 2002 census, there are 66,846 Romanian citizens of the Unitarian faith (0.3% of the total population). Church officials place the number of believers at 80,000–100,000.[2] Of the total Hungarian-speaking minority in Romania, Unitarians represent 4.55%, being the third denominational group after members of the Reformed Church in Romania (47.10%) and Roman Catholics (41.20%). Since 1700, the Unitarian Church has had 125 parishes—in 2006, there were 110 Unitarian ministers and 141 places of worship in Romania. [ citation needed ] According to the 2002 census, there were 6,179 Jews , 23,105 people who are of no religion and/or atheist , and 11,734 who refused to answer. On 27 December 2006, a new Law on Religion was approved under which religious denominations can only receive official registration if they have at least 20,000 members, or about 0.1% of Romania's total population. [ 199 ]

The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Orthodox church . It is in full communion with other Orthodox churches, and is ranked seventh in order of precedence. The Primate of the church has the title of Patriarch . Its jurisdiction covers the territory of Romania, with dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Moldova , Serbia and Hungary , as well as diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

It is the only Orthodox church using a Romance language . The majority of people in Romania (18,817,975, or 86.8% of the population, according to the 2002 census data [ 200 ] ) belong to it, as well as some 720,000 Moldovans . [ 201 ] The Romanian Orthodox Church is the second-largest in size behind the Russian Orthodox Church .

[ edit ] Urbanization

Bra?ov , one of the largest and oldest cities in Romania

Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania. At the census in 2002, its population was over 1.9 million. [ 202 ] The LUZ area of Bucharest has a population of about 2.15 million. [ 203 ] There are several plans to further increase its metropolitan area to about 20 times the area of the city proper . [ 204 ] [ 205 ] [ 206 ]

Romania has five other cities that are among the European Union's 100 most populous . These are Ia?i , Timi?oara , Cluj-Napoca , Constan?a , and Craiova . The other cities with populations over 200,000 are Gala?i , Bra?ov , Ploie?ti , Br?ila and Oradea . Another 13 cities have a population of over 100,000. [ 9 ]

At present, several of the largest cities have a metropolitan area : Constan?a (450,000 people), Bra?ov , Ia?i (both with around 400,000), Cluj-Napoca (380,000), Craiova (335,000) and Oradea (260,000), and several others are planned: Timi?oara , Br?ila-Gala?i , Bac?u and Ploie?ti . [ 207 ]

view · talk · edit view · talk · edit Largest cities of Romania
January 1, 2010 estimates [ 208 ]
Bucarest
Bucarest

Ia?i
Ia?i

Rango Nombre de la ciudad County Pop. Rango Nombre de la ciudad County Pop. Timi?oara
Timi?oara

Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca

1 Bucharest Bucarest 1,944,367 11 Oradea Bihor 204,477
2 Ia?i Ia?i 315,649 12 Bac?u Bac?u 177,087
3 Timi?oara Timi? 312,113 13 Pite?ti Arge? 166,893
4 Cluj-Napoca Cluj 306,009 14 Arad Arad 166,003
5 Constan?a Constan?a 302,040 15 Sibiu Sibiu 154,548
6 Craiova Dolj 298,643 16 Târgu Mure? Mure? 145,151
7 Gala?i Gala?i 290,733 17 Baia Mare Maramure? 139,154
8 Bra?ov Bra?ov 278,003 18 Buz?u Buz?u 132,210
9 Ploie?ti Prahova 228,378 19 Boto?ani Boto?ani 116,110
10 Br?ila Br?ila 211,884 20 Satu Mare Satu Mare 112,705

[ edit ] Education

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989 , the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has been both praised and criticized. [ 209 ] According to the Law on Education adopted in 1995, the educational system is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Research . Each level has its own form of organization and is subject to different legislation. Kindergarten is optional for children between 3 and 6 years old. Schooling starts at age 7 (sometimes 6), and is compulsory until the 10th grade (which usually corresponds to the age of 17 or 16). [ 210 ] Primary and secondary education are divided into 12 grades. Higher education is aligned with the European higher education area .

The library building of Politehnica University of Bucharest

Aside from the official schooling system, and the recently [ when? ] added private equivalents, there exists a semi-legal, informal, fully private tutoring system. Tutoring is mostly used during secondary as a preparation for the various examinations, which are notoriously difficult. Tutoring is widespread, and it can be considered a part of the Education System. It has subsisted and even prospered during the Communist regime. [ 211 ]

In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population were enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten, 3.11 million (14% of population) in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 (3% of population) in tertiary level (universities). [ 212 ] In the same year, the adult literacy rate was 97.3% (45th worldwide), while the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools was 75% (52nd worldwide). [ 213 ]

The results of the PISA assessment study in schools for the year 2000 placed Romania on the 34th rank out of 42 participant countries with a general weighted score of 432 representing 85% of the mean OECD score. [ 214 ] According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities , in 2006 no Romanian university was included in the first 500 top universities world wide. [ 215 ] Using similar methodology to these rankings, it was reported that the best placed Romanian university, Bucharest University , attained the half score of the last university in the world top 500. [ 216 ] Notably, Bucharest boasts the largest university in Europe by number of students, Spiru Haret University . [ 217 ]

[ editar ] Cultura

The Palace of Culture in Ia?i , built on the ruins of the Royal Court of Moldavia, hosts the largest art collection in Romania.

Romania has a unique culture, which is the product of its geography and of its distinct historical evolution. Like Romanians themselves, it is fundamentally defined as the meeting point of three regions: Central Europe , Eastern Europe , and the Balkans , but cannot be truly included in any of them. [ 218 ]

[ edit ] Arts, literature and philosophy

Mihai Eminescu (1850–1889), Romania's national poet

A unified Romanian literature began to develop with the revolutions of 1848 and the union of the two Danubian Principalities in 1859. The origin of the Romanians began to be discussed and by the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, Romanian Transylvanian scholars along with Romanian scholars from Moldavia and Wallachia began studying in France, Italy and Germany. [ 219 ] German philosophy and French culture were integrated into modern Romanian literature, and a new elite of artists led to the appearance of some of the classics of Romanian literature such as Mihai Eminescu , George Co?buc , Ioan Slavici . Although not particularly renowned outside the country, these writers are widely appreciated within Romania for giving birth to modern Romanian literature. Eminescu is considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceaf?rul . [ 220 ] Among other writers that rose to prominence in the second half of 19th century are Mihail Kog?lniceanu (also the first prime minister of Romania), Vasile Alecsandri , Nicolae B?lcescu , Ion Luca Caragiale , and Ion Creang? .

Constantin Brâncu?i , prominent sculptor

The first half of the 20th century is regarded by many scholars as the Golden Age of Romanian culture, as it is the period when it reached its greatest level of international affirmation and enjoyed a strong connection to Western European cultural trends. [ 221 ] The most prominent Romanian artist of this time was sculptor Constantin Brâncu?i , a central figure of the modern movement and a pioneer of abstraction, the innovator of world sculpture by immersion in the primordial sources of folk creation. His works present of blend simplicity and sophistication that led the way for modernist sculptors. [ 222 ] As a testimony to his skill, one of his pieces, Bird in Space , was sold in an auction for $27.5 million in 2005, a record for any sculpture. [ 223 ] [ 224 ]

In the period between the two world wars, authors like Tudor Arghezi , Lucian Blaga , Eugen Lovinescu , Ion Barbu , Liviu Rebreanu made efforts to synchronize Romanian literature with the European literature of the time.

After the World Wars, Communism brought 'absolute' censorship and used the cultural world as well as a means to tightly control the population in addition to the much feared "Securitate " paramilitary organization, numerous formers and their informers. Freedom of expression was constantly restricted in various ways, but the likes of Gellu Naum , Nichita St?nescu , Marin Sorescu or Marin Preda managed to escape censorship, broke with " socialist realism " and were the leaders of a small "Renaissance" in Romanian literature. [ 225 ] While not many of them managed to obtain international acclaim due to censorship, some, like Constantin Noica , Paul Goma and Mircea C?rt?rescu , had their works published abroad even though they were jailed for various political reasons.

Some artists chose to leave the country for good and continued to make contributions in exile. Among them Eugen Ionescu , Mircea Eliade and Emil Cioran became renowned internationally for their works. Other literary figures who enjoy acclaim outside of the country include the poet Paul Celan and Nobel laureate Elie Wiesel , both survivors of the Holocaust. The novelist, poet and essayist Herta Müller also received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2009.

Romanian contemporary cinema has achieved worldwide acclaim with the appearance of such films as The Death of Mr. L?z?rescu , directed by Cristi Puiu , ( Cannes 2005 Prix un certain regard winner) and 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days , directed by Cristian Mungiu ( Cannes 2007 Palme d'Or winner). [ 226 ] The latter, according to Variety , is "further proof of Romania's new prominence in the film world." Also, the cinematographic drama If I Want to Whistle, I Whistle directed by Florin ?erban was nominated for the Golden Bear at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival and won the Jury Grand Prix (the Silver Bear ). [ 227 ] [ 228 ]

[ editar ] Música

Inna , famous Romanian dance singer

The first half of the 20th century saw the rise of George Enescu , Romania's greatest composer. [ 229 ] A child prodigy, Enescu created his first musical composition at the age of five and became an accomplished composer , violinist , pianist , conductor and teacher. [ 230 ] The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in his honor. Also active in this period was Dinu Lipatti , a pianist notable for his interpretations of Chopin , Mozart and Bach .

Some famous postwar Romanian musicians are folk artists Maria T?nase , Tudor Gheorghe , and virtuoso of the pan flute Gheorghe Zamfir , the latter having sold over 120 million albums worldwide. [ 231 ] [ 232 ]

Artists from Romania have recently [ when? ] begun to inch their way onto the international pop music scene, scoring millions of views on YouTube and selling hundreds of thousands of singles. Among the best known are Edward Maya and Inna .

Maya's " Stereo Love " became the first number one song in Billboard ' s year-end Dance Airplay chart to have reached number one three times in its chart run, while competing in a line-up that included Lady Gaga . Since the 2009 release of " Stereo Love ", the Bucharest -born composer has won gold and platinum albums from Canada to Spain and toured clubs as far away as India and Pakistan . [ 233 ]

Inna , however, has been the most successful, having sold nearly two million singles worldwide, notably in the United States and United Kingdom . Inna has had more than 114 million views on YouTube for her hits like " Amazing ", " Sun Is Up ", " Hot ", " 10 Minutes " or " Club Rocker " and more than two million fans on Facebook . Inna's commercial success earned her more than €700,000 in 2011. [ citation needed ] Alexandra Stan , also a very popular singer has managed millions of views on YouTube and has won many song contests. She has also put together her first album consisting of songs such as " Mr. Saxobeat " and " Lollipop ".

Mihai Tr?istariu is the Romanian singer with most international performances. His song, " Tornerò ", was ranked the fourth place at Eurovision Song Contest 2006 , with 172 points. He has sold over 1.5 million albums in Romania and abroad. Also, Paula Seling and Ovi Martin were ranked third place at televoting results of Eurovision Song Contest 2010 , with 113 points. [ 234 ]

[ editar ] Monumentos

The Romanian Athenaeum in Bucharest was opened in 1888.

The list of World Heritage Sites [ 235 ] includes Romanian sites such as the Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania , the Painted churches of northern Moldavia with their fine exterior and interior frescoes, the Wooden Churches of Maramure? unique examples that combine Gothic style with traditional timber construction, the Monastery of Horezu , the citadel of Sighi?oara , and the Dacian Fortresses of the Or??tie Mountains . [ 236 ]

Pele? Castle ( Sinaia ), built between 1873–1914, is considered one of the most beautiful castles in Romania and Eastern Europe . [ 237 ] Unique architecture and gold gilded rooms attract thousands of visitors daily. Vorone? Monastery , built in 1488, is one of the most valuable foundations of Stephen the Great . Also, Unirii Square is the treasure in the heart of Cluj-Napoca , on which rises the St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church , guarded by two "twin" buildings on the eastern side. Located at 29.7 km (18 mi) from Bra?ov , between Bucegi and Piatra Craiului Mountains, Bran Castle is a major national monument and tourist landmark. Built by Saxons in the 14th century, today it hosts an art and furniture collection by Queen Marie , but is also marketed as the legendary residence of Bram Stoker's Dracula. [ 238 ]

Romania's contribution to the World Heritage List stands out because it consists of some groups of monuments scattered around the country, rather than one or two special landmarks. [ 239 ] Also, in 2007, the city of Sibiu , famous for its Brukenthal National Museum , is the European Capital of Culture alongside the city of Luxembourg . [ 240 ]

[ editar ] Deportes

Lucian Bute , the current IBF Super Middleweight champion in professional boxing and chosen number 1 at the Super Middleweight in 2011 by Boxrec

Association football is the most popular sport in Romania. [ 241 ] The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation , which belongs to UEFA .

At the international level, the Romanian National Football Team has taken part seven times in the Football World Cup . It had its most successful period in the 1990s, when during the 1994 World Cup in the United States , Romania reached the quarter-finals and was ranked sixth by FIFA .

The core player of this " Golden Generation " [ 242 ] and perhaps the best known Romanian player internationally is Gheorghe Hagi (nicknamed the Maradona of the Carpathians ). [ 243 ]

Famous currently active players are Adrian Mutu and Cristian Chivu .

The most famous football club is Steaua Bucure?ti , who in 1986 became the first Eastern European club ever to win the prestigious European Champions Cup title, and who played the final again in 1989 . Another successful Romanian team Dinamo Bucure?ti played a semifinal in the European Champions Cup in 1984 and a Cup Winners Cup semifinal in the 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid Bucure?ti , CFR 1907 Cluj-Napoca and FC Universitatea Craiova .

Ilie N?stase , first number 1 of the ATP

Tennis is the second most popular sport in terms of registered sportsmen. [ 241 ] Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times (1969, 1971, 1972). The tennis player Ilie N?stase won several Grand Slam titles and dozens of other tournaments, and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP from 1973 to 1974. His doubles and Davis Cup Partner as well as mentor, Ion ?iriac is now the most successful businessman in the country. Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, while in 1980 she was runner-up. Floren?a Mihai was another female tennis player from Romania who played the final of the French Open in 1977. The Romanian Open is held every fall in Bucharest since 1993.

Popular team sports are rugby union ( national rugby team has so far competed at every Rugby World Cup ), basketball and handball . [ 241 ] The Romania national handball team is a four-time world champion team, with Sweden and France (record holder), while Oltchim Râmnicu Vâlcea is a top team in women's handball .

Some popular individual sports are: athletics, chess, sport dance, and martial arts and other fighting sports. [ 241 ] Fighting sports are actually popular in Romania, especially in the TV broadcastings. Famous boxers include Nicolae Linca , Francisc Va?tag , Mihai Leu , Leonard Doroftei , Adrian Diaconu and Lucian Bute , while Daniel Ghi?? became the first Romanian kickboxer to qualify for the K-1 World Grand Prix Final . Famours athletes with outstanding results in this sport were: Iolanda Bala? , Lia Manoliu , Doina Melinte , Viorica Viscopoleanu , Mihaela Pene? , Argentina Menis , Ileana Silai , Ani?oara Cu?mir , Maricica Puic? , Paula Ivan , Gabriela Szabo , Lidia Simon and lately Monica Iag?r , Marian Oprea , Mihaela Melinte or Constantina Di??-Tomescu .

Romanian gymnastics has had a large number of successes – for which the country became known worldwide. [ 244 ] In the 1976 Summer Olympics , the gymnast Nadia Com?neci became the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten. She also won three gold medals, one silver and one bronze, all at the age of fifteen. [ 245 ] Her success continued in the 1980 Summer Olympics , where she was awarded two gold medals and two silver medals. In her career she won 30 medals, of which 21 were gold.

Romania participated for the first time in the Olympic Games in 1900 and has taken part in 18 of the 24 summer games. Romania has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games ( 15th overall ) with a total of 283 medals won throughout the years, 82 of which are gold medals. [ 246 ]

[ editar ] Tradiciones

Along with religious aspects, in Romania, the Easter symbolizes the rebirth and the renewal of daily life. It's usual like in the Easter morning, after the returning of villagers from churches, children go to neighbors' homes, to bring luck and wealth, in exchange for a red egg. Also, in the Christmas Eve , young people carol the village homes, hosts giving in exchange nuts, sponge cakes, apples, pretzels and other delicacies. The Star boys' singing procession is a very important part of Romanian Christmas festivity. In the week between Christmas and New Year , in all villages, groups of lads prepare for "bid", complex system of customs and habits. On the evening, in the eve of respective year which arises promising, are expected to occur "Ursul", "Capra", "Bunghierii", "C?iu?ii", "Malanca", "Jienii", "Masca?ii" and others. [ 247 ]

[ editar ] Cocina

Amandine cakes

Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine but also includes influences from the cuisines of other neighbours, such as the Greeks ( musaca ), Bulgarians ( zacusc? ), and Hungarians ( lango?i ). Quite different types of dishes are sometimes included under a generic term; for example, the category ciorb? includes a wide range of soups with a characteristic sour taste. These may be meat and vegetable soups, tripe and calf foot soups, or fish soups, all of which are soured by lemon juice, sauerkraut juice, vinegar, or traditionally bor? (fermented wheat bran). Popular main courses include mititei , frig?rui and the ?ni?el . One of the most common dishes is m?m?liga , a cornmeal mush served on its own or as an accompaniment. Pork and chicken are the preferred meats, but beef, lamb and fish are also popular.

Sarmale are prepared from minced meat (pork, beef, mutton, poultry or fish meat, especially in the Danube Delta), mixed with rice and other aliments (pap, cu?-cu? etc.) and wrapped in cabbage (fresh or sour) or vine leaves in the form of rolls. Usually, they are served with polenta and smetana, but can be served with a spoonful of fresh butter.

The list of desserts includes names like amandine , cl?tite , chec , cozonac , gogo?i , gri? cu lapte , lapte de pas?re etc. In the north-western Romania, are prepared so-called ciureghe , gombo?i cu prune , pancove , pl?cinte cre?e , while in the north-eastern Romania, the traditional desserts are chec cu vi?ine , tart? cu mere , alivenci moldovene?ti . [ 248 ]

?uic? is a strong plum brandy that is widely regarded as the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, along with wine . Romania is the world's second largest plum producer (after the United States ) [ 249 ] and as much as 75% of Romania's plum production is processed into the famous ?uic? , a plum brandy obtained through one or more distillation steps. [ 250 ] Alcoholic beverages are also obtained from other fruits (see rachiu , palinc? and vi?inat? ). [ 251 ] Wine, however, is the preferred drink, and Romanian wines have a tradition of over three millennia. [ 251 ] Romania is currently the world's 9th largest wine producer, and recently [ when? ] the export market has started to grow. [ 251 ] Romania produces a wide selection of domestic varieties ( Feteasc? , Gras? , Tamâioas? ), as well as varieties from across the world ( Italian Riesling , Merlot , Sauvignon blanc , Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay , Muscat Ottonel ). Beer is also highly regarded, generally blonde pilsener beer , made with German influences. [ clarification needed ] There are some Romanian breweries with a long tradition, such as Timi?oreana and Ursus . Since the 19th century, beer has become increasingly popular, and today Romanians are amongst the heaviest beer drinkers in the world. [ 252 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

Notas
  1. ^ "am scris aceste sfente c?r?i de înv???turi, s? fie popilor rumânesti... s? în?eleag? to?i oamenii cine-s rumâni cre?tini" "Întrebare cre?tineasc?" (1559), Bibliografia româneasc? veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
    "...c? v?zum cum toate limbile au ?i înfluresc întru cuvintele sl?vite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limb? nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare munc? scoasem de limba jidoveasc? si greceasc? si srâbeasc? pre limba româneasc? 5 c?r?i ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru c?r?i ?i le d?ruim voo fra?i rumâni ?i le-au scris în cheltuial? mult?... ?i le-au d?ruit voo fra?ilor români,... ?i le-au scris voo fra?ilor români" Palia de la Or??tie (1581–1582), Bucure?ti, 1968.
    În ?ara Ardealului nu l?cuiesc numai unguri, ce ?i sa?i peste seam? de mul?i ?i români peste tot locul... , Grigore Ureche, Letopise?ul ??rii Moldovei, p. 133–134.
  2. ^ In his well known literary testament Ien?chi?? V?c?rescu writes: "Urma?ilor mei V?c?re?ti!/Las vou? mo?tenire:/Cre?terea limbei române?ti/?-a patriei cinstire."
    In the "Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vod? ?i a r?zmeri?ei din timpul lui pe la 1790" a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep dup?-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavrogheneasc?/Dela ?ara Româneasc?.
  3. ^ The first known mention of the term Romania in its modern denotation dates from 1816, as the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published in Leipzig his work The History of Romania , followed by The Geography of Romania .
    On the tombstone of Gheorghe Laz?r in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Laz?r din mor?i a înviat/A?a tu România din somn ai de?teptat."
  4. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity , gave a total of 535,250 Gypsies in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Romanies declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in the West and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination [ citation needed ] . Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards . International sources give higher figures than the official census( UNDP 's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank , "International Association for Official Statistics" (PDF). Archivado desde el original en  
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