Theodore Roosevelt

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Theodore Roosevelt
26to Presidente de los Estados Unidos
En la oficina
Septiembre 14, 1901 hasta marzo 4, 1909
Vice Presidente Ninguno (1901-1905)
Charles W. Fairbanks (1905-1909)
Precedido por William McKinley
Sucesor: William Howard Taft
25a Vicepresidente de los Estados Unidos
En la oficina
Marzo 4, 1901 hasta septiembre 14, 1901
Presidente William McKinley
Precedido por Garret Hobart
Sucesor: Charles Fairbanks
33ro gobernador de Nueva York
En la oficina
1 en 1899 hasta 31 dic 1900
Teniente Tim Woodruff
Precedido por Frank Negro
Sucesor: Benjamin Odell
El subsecretario de la Marina
En la oficina
19 abril 1897-10 mayo 1898
Presidente William McKinley
Precedido por William McAdoo
Sucesor: Charles Allen
Datos personales
Nacido (27/10/1858) 27 de octubre 1858
Nueva York, Nueva York , Estados Unidos de América
Murió 06 de enero 1919 (01/06/1919) (60 años)
Oyster Bay, Nueva York , Estados Unidos de América
Lugar de descanso Young Memorial Cemetery
Oyster Bay, Nueva York
Partido político Republicano
Otro político
afiliaciones
Progresista (1912-1916)
Casamiento (s) Alice Lee (1880-1884)
Edith Carrow (1886-1919)
Niños Alicia
Theodore
Kermit
Ethel
Archie
Quentin
Alma máter La Universidad de Harvard
Universidad de Columbia
Profesión Autor
Historiador
Explorador
Conservacionista
Religión Reformada Holandesa
Firma Cursive firma en tinta
Servicio militar
Servicio / rama Ejército de Estados Unidos
Los años de servicio 1898
Posición US-O6 insignia.svg Coronel
Comandos Primero Estados Unidos de Voluntarios de Caballería
Batallas / guerras Guerra Española-Americana
Batalla de las Guásimas
Batalla de San Juan Hill
Awards Premio Nobel de la Paz (1906)
Medal of Honor (póstumo, 2001)
El escudo de armas de Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt bookplate.jpg
Una placa de libro contemporáneo utilizado por Roosevelt para su biblioteca personal [1]
Información
Fecha de origen Siglo 17
Escudo Argent sobre un montículo herboso un rosal que lleva tres rosas de gules púas y cabeza de serie correcto adecuada.
Crest y manto Érase una argent torse y gules, tres plumas de avestruz por cada gules pálido y plata, los gules desmantelamiento duplicado argent.
Lema Qui plantavit curabit, en latín significa "el que ha plantado preservar". [1]

Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt (pronunciado: / r z ə v ɛ l t / ROH-zə velt- ; [2] octubre 27, 1858 hasta enero 6, 1919) fue el 26to Presidente de los Estados Unidos (1901 - 1909). Él es conocido por su personalidad exuberante, la amplitud de intereses y logros, y su liderazgo en el Movimiento Progresista , así como su " vaquero "persona robusta y masculinidad . [3] Él era un líder del Partido Republicano y fundador de la primera encarnación de la efímera progresiva ("Bull Moose") del Partido de 1912 . Antes de convertirse en presidente, ocupó las oficinas en los niveles municipales, estatales y federales. Roosevelt logros como un naturalista, explorador, cazador, escritor y soldado son tanto una parte de su fama como cualquier otro cargo que desempeñó como político. Roosevelt tenía 42 años cuando juró como presidente de los Estados Unidos en 1901, convirtiéndose en el presidente más joven, él venció a la más joven elegido presidente, John F. Kennedy , en sólo un año. Roosevelt también fue el primero de los tres presidentes en ejercicio que ha ganado el Premio Nobel de la Paz . [4]

Nacido en una familia acomodada de Nueva York, Roosevelt fue un niño enfermizo que padecía de asma y se quedó en casa estudiando la historia natural . Para compensar su debilidad física, abrazó una vida extenuante. Educado en casa, se convirtió en un estudiante entusiasta de la naturaleza. Asistió a la Universidad de Harvard , donde estudió biología, en caja y desarrolló un interés en los asuntos navales. En 1881, un año en Harvard, fue elegido miembro de la Asamblea de Nueva York , donde se convirtió en un líder de la facción reformista de su Partido Republicano (el "Partido Republicano"). Su La Guerra Naval de 1812 (1882) estableció su reputación profesional como historiador serio, escribió numerosos libros sobre caza, al aire libre, y los temas políticos actuales, así como la historia de la frontera. En 1884, su esposa y su madre murió en el mismo día. Él dejó la política y se fue a la frontera, llegando a ser un ranchero en los "Badlands" en las Dakotas. Al regresar a Nueva York, fue candidato a alcalde en 1886, acabando tercero con 60.000 votos. Más tarde se hizo famoso por hacerse cargo vigoroso de la policía de la ciudad. A nivel nacional, era un líder en la reforma del servicio civil. La Guerra Española-Americana estalló en 1898, mientras que Roosevelt era, efectivamente, la ejecución del Departamento de la Marina . Inmediatamente dimitió y formó los Rough Riders - un regimiento de caballería de voluntarios que lucharon en Cuba . El héroe de la guerra fue elegido gobernador en 1898 y en 1900 fue nominado a la vicepresidencia. Logró energía a la base republicana como un activista muy visible para reelegir presidente William McKinley en una plataforma de altos aranceles, el patrón oro, el imperialismo, la prosperidad en el país y en el extranjero victoria.

En 1901, el presidente William McKinley fue asesinado y el presidente Roosevelt se convirtió a la edad de 42, él sigue siendo el presidente más joven. [5] Roosevelt trató de mover el Partido Republicano (GOP) hacia el progresismo , incluyendo lucha contra los monopolios y una mayor regulación de las empresas. En 1904 Roosevelt fue elegido para un período completo de sí mismo, convirtiéndose en la primera persona elevada de la Vice-Presidencia de hacerlo, [6] así como ganar el mayor porcentaje del voto popular desde el indiscutible elecciones de 1820 . Roosevelt acuñó la frase " Square Deal "para describir su agenda nacional, haciendo hincapié en que el ciudadano promedio tendría una participación equitativa bajo sus políticas. Como un amante de la naturaleza y naturalista, promovió el movimiento conservacionista . En el escenario mundial, las políticas de Roosevelt se caracterizaron por su lema, " Habla suavemente y lleva un gran garrote ". Roosevelt fue la fuerza detrás de la finalización del Canal de Panamá , envió a la Gran Flota Blanca en una gira mundial para demostrar el poder estadounidense, y negoció el fin de la guerra ruso-japonesa , por la que ganó el Premio Nobel de la Paz . [7]

Al final de su segundo mandato, Roosevelt promovió a su amigo William Howard Taft para la nominación republicana 1908 . Realiza una gira por África y Europa. A su regreso en 1910 rompió con el presidente Taft amargamente sobre las cuestiones del progresismo y personalidades. En la elección de 1912 Roosevelt intentó sin éxito bloquear la reelección de Taft. Se puso en marcha el Partido Bull Moose que pedía reformas de gran alcance progresistas. Él perdió ante el demócrata Woodrow Wilson , como los conservadores Taft obtuvo el control del partido republicano en las próximas décadas. Roosevelt condujo una gran expedición a las selvas del Amazonas, pero contrajeron enfermedades que arruinaron su salud. Murió relativamente joven a la edad de sesenta años. Roosevelt ha sido clasificado por los estudiosos como uno de los más grandes presidentes de Estados Unidos , después de haber revivido una presidencia en declive. [8] [9]

Familia

Los padres

Roosevelt a menudo descrito como su ascendencia "la mitad irlandés y mitad holandesa". [10] Su familia patrilineal Roosevelt, colonos de origen holandés, había estado en Nueva York desde el siglo de mid-17th. Roosevelt nació en la riqueza considerable, para la familia en el siglo 19 había crecido en riqueza e influencia de las ganancias de varios negocios, incluyendo el hardware y la placa de cristal de la importación. La familia estaba fuertemente demócrata en su afiliación política hasta mediados de 1850, y luego se unió al nuevo Partido Republicano . Padre de Teodoro, conocido en la familia como "ti", fue un filántropo de Nueva York, comerciante, y socio de la firma de la familia Roosevelt vidrio importador y del Hijo. "Padre", como los niños lo llamaban, era un ardiente patriota y un destacado partidario de Abraham Lincoln y la Unión esfuerzo durante la Guerra Civil. Su madre Martha "Mittie" Bulloch fue una belleza sureña de una familia esclavista en Roswell, Georgia , y se mantiene la Confederación simpatías. Hermano Mittie, tío de Teodoro, James Dunwoody Bulloch , era una marina de Estados Unidos oficial que se convirtió en la Confederación comandante de la Armada y agente secreto en Gran Bretaña, que fue el mayor responsable de la destrucción de la flota mercante de los Estados Unidos y la adquisición de embarcaciones y suministros para funcionar a través de la Unión bloqueo. [11] Otro tío, Irvine Bulloch , era un guardiamarina en la Confederación raider CSS Alabama ,. ambos permanecieron en Inglaterra después de la guerra [12]

Theodore Roosevelt era pariente lejano de nacimiento del presidente número 32 de los Estados Unidos, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (eran primos quinto), y él era el tío y tutor de la esposa de Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt .

Infancia

Theodore Roosevelt a los 11 años

Theodore Roosevelt nació el 27 de octubre de 1858, en una casa de piedra rojiza de cuatro pisos en la calle 20 Oriente 28 , en el moderno-día Gramercy sección de New York City , el segundo de cuatro hijos de Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831-1878) y Martha "Mittie" Bulloch (1835-1884). Tenía una hermana mayor, Anna , y dos hermanos menores: su hermano Elliott (el padre de la futura primera dama Eleanor Roosevelt ) y su hermana Corinne .

Enfermizo y asmático desde niño, Roosevelt tuvo que dormir sentado en la cama o encorvado en una silla durante gran parte de sus primeros años, y tenía frecuentes enfermedades. A pesar de su enfermedad, era hiperactivo y travieso a menudo. [13] Su interés permanente en zoología se formó a los siete años al ver a un callejón sin sello en un mercado local. Después de obtener la cabeza de la foca, el joven Roosevelt y dos de sus primos formaron lo que llamaron el "Roosevelt Museo de Historia Natural". Aprender los rudimentos de la taxidermia , llenó su museo improvisado con los animales que había matado o capturado, estudiado y preparado para su visualización. A la edad de nueve años, codificó su observación de los insectos con un artículo titulado "La historia natural de los insectos". [14]

Alentado por su padre, el muchacho empezó a hacer ejercicio y boxeo para luchar contra su mala condición física. [15] Dos viajes al exterior tuvieron un impacto duradero: visitas familiares de Europa en 1869 y 1870, y Egipto desde 1872 hasta 1873.

Theodore, Sr., tuvo una enorme influencia en su hijo, quien escribió de él: "Mi padre, Theodore Roosevelt, fue el mejor hombre que he conocido. Él combinó la fuerza y ​​la valentía con suavidad, ternura y generosidad grande. Él no lo haría tolerar en nosotros el egoísmo niños o la crueldad, la pereza, la cobardía o falsedad ". [16]

Educación

Kit de taxidermia de Roosevelt. [17]

Young "Teedie", como se le apodó como un niño, estaba en su mayoría educados en casa por tutores y sus padres. Un biógrafo líder dice: ". La desventaja más obvia de la educación en el hogar Roosevelt recibió fue desigual cobertura de las diversas áreas del conocimiento humano" [18] Él era sólido en geografía (gracias a sus observaciones cuidadosas en todos sus viajes) y bien leído en la historia, fuerte en la biología, francés y alemán , pero deficiente en matemáticas, latín y griego.

Se matriculó en la Universidad de Harvard en 1876. La muerte de su padre en 1878 fue un golpe tremendo, pero Roosevelt redobló sus actividades. Le fue bien en los cursos de la ciencia, la filosofía y la retórica, pero les fue mal en latín y en griego. Estudió biología con mucho interés y ya era un consumado naturalista y publicado ornitólogo . Tenía una memoria fotográfica y ha desarrollado un hábito de toda la vida devorando libros, memorizando cada detalle. [19] Era un conversador elocuente que, a lo largo de su vida, buscó la compañía de las personas más inteligentes. Podía realizar múltiples tareas de manera impresionante, dictando cartas a una secretaria y memorandos a otro durante la navegación a través de un nuevo libro. Durante su estancia en Harvard, Roosevelt estaba activo en el remo, el boxeo, el Alpha Delta Phi sociedad literaria, la Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternidad, y fue miembro del Club de Porcellian . También editó The Advocate Harvard . Fue subcampeón en el campeonato de boxeo de Harvard.

Al graduarse, Roosevelt realizó un examen físico, y su médico le aconsejó que, debido a problemas cardiacos graves, se debe encontrar un trabajo de escritorio y evitar la actividad extenuante. Eligió a abrazar la vida extenuante en su lugar. [20] Se graduó Phi Beta Kappa (22 de 177) de la Universidad de Harvard con un AB magna cum laude en 1880. Entró en Columbia Law School , donde fue un estudiante diligente, pero mostró poco interés en una carrera legal, pasó gran parte de su tiempo a escribir un libro sobre la guerra de 1812. Cuando se le ofreció la oportunidad de correr por la Asamblea de Nueva York como republicano en 1881, dejó la escuela de derecho para dedicarse a su nueva meta: "Tenía la intención de ser uno de los gobernantes." Fue elegido durante la noche y se convirtió en un jugador importante en la política del estado, y una estrella en ascenso en el Partido Republicano (el "Partido Republicano"). [21]

Primer matrimonio

Diario de entrada 14 de febrero 1884

En 1880, Roosevelt se casó con Alice Hathaway Lee (29 julio 1861 hasta 14 febrero 1884) de Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Murió joven de un caso no diagnosticado de insuficiencia renal (en esos días llamado la enfermedad de Bright ) dos días después de que su bebé Alice nació. Su embarazo había enmascarado la enfermedad. Mittie Theodore Roosevelt madre murió de fiebre tifoidea en el mismo día, a las 3 de la mañana, unos once horas antes, en la misma casa. Después de las muertes casi simultáneas de su madre y su esposa, Roosevelt dejó a su hija al cuidado de su hermana, Anna "Bamie / Bye" en New York City. En su diario, escribió una gran 'X' en la página y, a continuación, "La luz se ha ido de mi vida."

Para el resto de su vida, nunca Roosevelt habló de su esposa Alice pública o privada y no escribió sobre ella en su autobiografía. Todavía en 1919, cuando Roosevelt estaba trabajando con Joseph Bucklin Bishop en una biografía que incluía una colección de sus cartas, Roosevelt no menciona ni su primer matrimonio o la segunda, que tuvo lugar en Londres. [22]

La Guerra Naval de 1812

Durante su estancia en Harvard, Roosevelt comenzó un estudio sistemático del papel desempeñado por la naciente Marina de los EE.UU. en la guerra de 1812 , en gran parte de completar dos capítulos de un libro que se publicará después de la graduación. [23] [24] ayudado en parte por sus dos tíos , hizo su propia investigación con materiales originales de fuentes y registros oficiales de la US Navy. Roosevelt ha investigado cuidadosamente libro era comparable a las modernas tesis doctorales , con dibujos de maniobras de buques individuales y combinados, cuadros que muestran las diferencias de hierro lanzar pesos de cañón disparado entre las fuerzas estadounidenses y británicas, y el análisis de las diferencias entre el liderazgo británico y americano hasta el nivel de buque a buque. Publicado después de graduarse de la universidad de Roosevelt, La Guerra Naval de 1812 fue elogiado por su erudición y estilo. . Este libro estableció la reputación de Roosevelt como un historiador serio [25] Un historiador naval moderna, escribió: "Estudio de Roosevelt de la guerra de 1812 influyó en toda la erudición posterior sobre los aspectos navales de la guerra de 1812 y continúa siendo reproducido más de un clásico. , sigue siendo, después de 120 años, según un estudio estándar de la guerra ". [25]

Roosevelt como asambleísta del estado de Nueva York de 1883 foto

Carrera política temprana

Asambleísta del Estado

Roosevelt era un miembro de la Asamblea del Estado de Nueva York (New York Co., 21 D.) en 1882 , 1883 y 1884 . En 1883, él era el candidato de la minoría republicana para presidente . En 1884, perdió la nominación para presidente a Tito Sheard por un voto de 41 a 29 en el caucus republicano de la Asamblea. [26] Él era un republicano militante durante sus años en la Asamblea, escribir más proyectos de ley que cualquier otro legislador del estado de Nueva York hice. ¿Eres uno de los líderes en la política estatal, asistió a la Convención Nacional Republicana en 1884 y luchó junto a los Mugwump reformistas, sino que perdió ante el Stalwart facción que nominó James G. Blaine . Al negarse a unirse en el apoyo a otros Mugwumps Grover Cleveland , el demócrata nominado, debatió con su amigo Henry Cabot Lodge los pros y los contras de permanecer leal. Cuando un periodista le preguntó si apoyaría Blaine, respondió: "Esa pregunta me niego a contestar. Es un tema que no me interesa hablar". [27] Al salir de la convención, se quejó de " extraoficialmente " a un periodista acerca de la nominación de Blaine. En un momento crucial de su carrera política en ciernes, se resistió el instinto para los pernos de la Parte que superaría su sentido político en 1912. En una cuenta de la convención, otro periodista citó a Roosevelt como diciendo que iba a dar "apoyo sincero a cualquier demócrata decente". Más tarde tomaría gran (y para algunos críticos históricos como Henry Pringle, falso) Dolores a distanciarse de su comentario anterior, lo que indica que, si bien lo hizo, que no se había hecho "para su publicación". [28] Saliendo de la convención con su idealismo desilusionado por la política partidaria, Roosevelt dijo que no tenía ninguna aspiración más que retirarse a su rancho en los Badlands de Dakota del Territorio , que él había comprado el año anterior, mientras que en una expedición de caza de búfalos.

Vaquero en Dakota

Theodore Roosevelt como Badlands cazador en 1885. Nueva York estudio fotográfico.

Roosevelt construyó un rancho en segundo lugar, a la que llamó Elk Horn, treinta y cinco millas (56 km) al norte de la próspera ciudad de Medora, Dakota del Norte . En las orillas del Little Missouri , Roosevelt aprendió a montar al estilo occidental, cuerda, y cazar. Él reconstruyó su vida y comenzó a escribir acerca de la vida de frontera para las revistas del Este, así como la publicación de tres libros:

Como diputado sheriff , Roosevelt cazado tres delincuentes que le robaron el barco y se escapa con ella hasta el norte de Little Missouri. La captura de ellos, decidió colgar contra ellos (aparentemente cediendo a los procedimientos establecidos en la ley del lugar vigilante justicia), y el envío de su capataz de nuevo en barco, tomó los ladrones de vuelta por tierra para ser juzgado en Dickinson , guardando durante cuarenta horas sin dormir y la lectura de Tolstoi para mantenerse despierto. Cuando se quedó sin sus propios libros, leyó una tienda moneda de diez centavos occidental que uno de los ladrones llevaba. [29] Si bien la búsqueda de un grupo de implacables ladrones de caballos, Roosevelt se reunió Seth Bullock , el famoso sheriff de Deadwood, Dakota del Sur . Los dos podrían seguir siendo amigos de por vida. [30]

Volver a Nueva York

Después de los EE.UU. únicamente severo invierno de 1886-1887 acabó con su rebaño de ganado (junto con los de sus competidores) y la mayor parte de su inversión de $ 80.000, [31] Roosevelt regresó a Oriente. En 1885, había construido Sagamore Hill , en Oyster Bay , Nueva York , en Long Island, que era su casa y bienes hasta su muerte.

En 1886, Roosevelt se presentó como candidato republicano a la alcaldía de Nueva York, retrata a sí mismo como "el vaquero de las Dakotas." Debido a la información sobre las elecciones en curso, iniciados advirtió a los votantes republicanos que George estaba conduciendo y que Roosevelt era probable golpe, lo que provoca una deserción de última hora de los votantes republicanos al candidato demócrata Hewitt. Theodore Roosevelt ocupó el tercer lugar. Los resultados electorales mostraron Hewitt (D), con 90.552 votos, George (Reino Trabajo) con 68.110, y Roosevelt (R), con 60.435. [32]

Segundo matrimonio

Después de la elección, se fue a Londres en 1886 y se casó con su novia de la infancia, Edith Kermit Carow . [33] Ellos luna de miel en Europa, y Roosevelt llevó a un grupo a la cima del Mont Blanc , un logro que dio lugar a su inducción en el Británico Real Sociedad . [34] Tuvieron cinco hijos: Theodore Jr. , Kermit , Carow Ethel , Archibald Bulloch "Archie", y Quentin . [35]

Volver a entrar la vida pública

Comisión de Administración Pública

En la elección presidencial de 1888 , Roosevelt hizo campaña en el medio oeste de Benjamin Harrison . El presidente Roosevelt nombró a Harrison a la Estados Unidos Comisión de Administración Pública , cargo que ocupó hasta 1895. [36] En su mandato, Roosevelt luchó vigorosamente los spoilsmen y exigió la aplicación de las leyes de servicio civil. Su compañero cercano amigo y biógrafo, Joseph Bucklin Bishop , describió asalto de Roosevelt en el sistema de botín:

El mismo baluarte de la política botín, la fortaleza inexpugnable hasta ahora inquebrantable que había existido desde que fue erigida sobre los cimientos puestos por Andrew Jackson, fue tambaleándose hasta su caída bajo los asaltos de este joven audaz e irresistible .... Cualesquiera que hayan sido los sentimientos de la (correligionario republicano) presidente (Harrison) - duda y hay poco que no tenía idea cuando nombró a Roosevelt que iba a llegar a ser tan verdadero un elefante en una cacharrería, se negó a quitar él y estaban junto a él firme hasta el fin de su mandato. [37]

Durante este tiempo, el New York Sun Roosevelt describió como "beligerante incontenible, y entusiasta" [37]

A pesar del apoyo de Roosevelt para la reelección de Harrison en la elección presidencial de 1892 , el ganador eventual, Grover Cleveland (un demócrata de Borbón ), le volvió a nombrar para el mismo cargo. [38]

Roosevelt como comisionado del NYPD 1895

Policía de Nueva York Comisionado

Roosevelt se convirtió en presidente de la junta de Comisionados de Policía de Nueva York en 1895. Durante sus dos años en este puesto, Roosevelt profunda reforma en el departamento de policía. La policía tenía la reputación como uno de los más corruptos en América. Los registros de la policía de Nueva York de la historia de la división que Roosevelt era "una voluntad de hierro líder de la honradez intachable, (que) trajo un celo reformador de la Policía de Nueva York Comisión en 1895". [39] Roosevelt y sus colegas comisionados estableció nuevas reglas disciplinarias, creado un pelotón de bicicletas para hacer cumplir las leyes de Nueva York, el tráfico y estandarizado el uso de pistolas por los agentes. [40] Él seleccionó el revólver Colt New Police en calibre .32 Colt como el primer número pistola estándar para la policía de Nueva York . Roosevelt cabo inspecciones regulares de las armas de fuego y exámenes físicos anuales, designado 1.600 reclutas en base a sus aptitudes físicas y mentales, y no en la afiliación política, medallas establecido servicios meritorios, y cerró hospederías de policía corruptos. Durante su mandato, un Lodging House Municipal fue creado por la Junta de Beneficencia y Roosevelt exigió que los oficiales a registrarse con la Junta. Él también tenía teléfonos instalados en las casas de la estación.

NYC comisionado de Policía Roosevelt camina al ritmo con el periodista Jacob Riis en 1894 - Ilustración de la autobiografía de Riis

En 1894, Roosevelt se reunió Jacob Riis , el sensacionalista Evening Sun periodista periódico que estaba abriendo los ojos de los ricos de Nueva York a las terribles condiciones de millones de la ciudad de los inmigrantes pobres con libros tales como, cómo vive la otra mitad . En la autobiografía de Riis, describió el efecto de su libro sobre el nuevo comisionado de policía:

Cuando Roosevelt lectura [mi] libro, él vino .... Nadie ayudó a como lo hizo. Durante dos años fuimos hermanos (Nueva York criminalidad) Mulberry Street. Cuando se fue yo había visto a su edad de oro .... Hay muy poca facilidad donde Theodore Roosevelt conduce, como todos nosotros se enteró. El delincuente se enteró de que predijo con desprecio que iba a "ponerse a la política la forma en que todos lo hicimos", y vivió a respetarlo, aunque juró a él, como la de todos ellos, pues era más fuerte que tirar .... eso fue lo que hizo que la edad de oro, que por primera vez un propósito moral llegó a la calle. A la luz de todo lo que se transformó. [41]

Roosevelt hizo un hábito de caminar latidos oficiales a altas horas de la noche y temprano en la mañana para asegurarse de que estaban de guardia. [42] Como gobernador del estado de Nueva York antes de convertirse en vicepresidente en marzo de 1901, Roosevelt firmó una ley sustitución de los Comisarios de Policía con un Comisionado de Policía único. [43]

Cuando pasa a ser una figura nacional

El subsecretario de la Marina

Roosevelt había estado siempre fascinado por la historia naval. Impulsado por un amigo cercano de Roosevelt, el congresista Henry Cabot Lodge , el presidente William McKinley nombró a Roosevelt para el cargo de Subsecretario de la Marina en 1897. Debido a la inactividad de la Secretaria de la Marina John D. Long , esto dio Roosevelt control sobre el departamento. Diez días después de que el acorazado Maine explotó [44] en el puerto de La Habana , Cuba , el Secretario dejado para un masaje, y Roosevelt se convirtió en secretario en funciones durante cuatro horas. Roosevelt le dijo a la marina de guerra en todo el mundo a prepararse para la guerra, ordenó municiones y suministros, reunió a expertos, y se fue al Congreso pidiendo autoridad para reclutar a muchos marineros como él quería, pasando así a la nación hacia la guerra. [45] Roosevelt fue fundamental en la preparación de la marina de guerra para la Guerra Española-Americana [46] y fue un entusiasta partidario de poner a prueba los militares de EE.UU. en el combate, en un momento diciendo: "dar la bienvenida a casi cualquier guerra, pues creo que este país necesita una". [47] [ 48]

Coronel Theodore Roosevelt

Guerra en Cuba

Al 1898 Declaración de Guerra lanzamiento de la Guerra Española-Americana, Roosevelt renunció a la Secretaría de Marina. Con la ayuda del Ejército de los EE.UU. El coronel Leonard Wood , Roosevelt encontró voluntarios de los vaqueros de los territorios occidentales de la Ivy League amigos de Nueva York, formando el primer Regimiento de Caballería de EE.UU. Voluntarios . Los periódicos los llamaron los "Rough Riders".

Aterrizaje en Cuba

Los Rough Riders eran parte de la caballería de la división comandada por el ex oficial de caballería confederada apuesto convertido representante de EE.UU., Joseph Wheeler . Wheeler se le dio el mando de la división de la caballería, que era una de las 3 divisiones que formaban parte del V Cuerpo bajo teniente general William Rufus Shafter . Después de aterrizar en Daiquiri , el 23 de junio de 1898, los Rough Riders desfilaron rápidamente la 1ra división de infantería al mando de Lawton y llegó a Siboney, Cuba en la tarde del 24 de junio. Con Shafter todavía en el mar, Wheeler como mayor general, estaba al mando de las fuerzas terrestres. No estoy dispuesto a ser puesto en marcha hacia Santiago de Cuba detrás de la infantería y el oído de los españoles atrincheraron en Las Guásimas , Cuba, sin esperar a un cambio de órdenes de Schafter que dijeron que la división de la caballería iba a la zaga de la infantería y que no había nadie para seguir adelante hasta que todos los soldados habían desembarcado, después de una conferencia con el general cubano, Calixto García . Escuchar a García, que cubanos insurrectos se habían enfrentado con los españoles flancos derecho e izquierdo que se extendía el Camino Real que iba de camino Siboney de Santiago de Cuba, Wheeler se le dijo que había dos caminos paralelos en gran parte de las playas de Siboney a Las Guásimas. Wheeler decidió en una reunión secreta con sus comandantes de brigada finales el 24 de junio que a la mañana siguiente, 25 de junio de 1898, que iba a enviar elementos de la primera y Caballería Regular 10 º en la carretera inferior al noroeste y la 1 ª Voluntarios, "Rough Riders" comandado por Wood y Roosevelt y el futuro de Arizona territorial gobernador, Alexander Brodie como sus dos comandantes de escuadrón en el camino paralelo a lo largo de una cresta desde la playa. Para deshacerse de su rival infantería, Wheeler dejaría a un regimiento de la división de la caballería, el día 9, a Siboney para poder afirmar que su movimiento hacia el norte era sólo un reconocimiento limitado si las cosas salían mal.

Las Guásimas

Los Rough Riders cumplido con los españoles en el sendero de la izquierda (apenas algo más que un camino de herradura), justo después de los Regulares se quedó a distancia de cañón de fuego de los españoles en el paralelo Camino Real a su este. La consiguiente lucha iba a ser conocido como la batalla de Las Guásimas . Si bien vista por algunos como una pequeña escaramuza fue la primera prueba del regimiento de voluntarios de caballería nuevo bajo el fuego. Los Rough Riders se manejaron bastante bien y, aunque las líneas de los españoles funcionó inicialmente en casi un upside-down "U" alrededor de ellos, se abrieron paso a través de la resistencia española y junto con los Regulares obligó a los españoles a abandonar sus posiciones antes de lo que planeado. [49]

San Juan Hill

Originalmente, Roosevelt tenía el grado de Teniente Coronel y sirvió bajo el coronel Wood. En el relato propio Roosevelt, The Rough Riders ", después de que General joven fue abatido por la fiebre, Wood se hizo cargo de la brigada. Esto me dejó al mando del regimiento, de la que yo estaba muy contento, porque la experiencia como la que había tenido es un profesor de rápido ". [49] En consecuencia, Wood fue ascendido a general de brigada de las fuerzas voluntarias, y Roosevelt fue ascendido a coronel y le dio el mando del Regimiento. [49]

El coronel Roosevelt y los Rough Riders después de la captura de San Juan Hill

Bajo su liderazgo, los Rough Riders se hizo famoso por dos cargos de hasta Caldera colina y colina de San Juan el 1 de julio de 1898 (la batalla fue nombrado después de que éste "colina", que era el hombro de un cerro conocido como San Juan Heights). De todos los Rough Riders, Roosevelt fue el único con un caballo, como los caballos de los soldados de caballería "había quedado atrás porque los barcos de transporte eran escasos. Cabalgó hacia atrás y adelante entre los pozos de fusil en la vanguardia del avance hasta Caldera Hill, un avance que instó en ausencia de órdenes de sus superiores. He was forced to walk up the last part of Kettle Hill on foot, because of barbed wire entanglement and after his horse, Little Texas, tired.

For his actions, Roosevelt was nominated for the Medal of Honor , which was later disapproved. As historian John Gable wrote, "In later years Roosevelt would describe the Battle of San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898, as 'the great day of my life' and 'my crowded hour.'.... (but) Malaria and other diseases now killed more troops than had died in battle. In August, Roosevelt and other officers demanded that the soldiers be returned home."

In 2001, Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. He was the first and, to date, is the only President of the United States to be awarded America's highest military honor, and the only person in history to receive both his nation's highest honor for military valor and the world's foremost prize for peace. [ 50 ] His son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. , also earned a posthumous Medal of Honor during World War II , for rallying and leading troops in the midst of heavy German resistance during the invasion of Normandy in June 1944; he died a month later and was awarded the Medal of Honor in September. They are the second of only two fathers and sons to earn the Medal of Honor, the first being Arthur MacArthur, Jr. and his son Douglas . [ citation needed ]

After return to civilian life, Roosevelt preferred to be known as "Colonel Roosevelt" or "The Colonel." As a moniker, "Teddy" remained much more popular with the public, despite the fact he found it vulgar and called it "an outrageous impertinence." [ 51 ] Political friends and others working closely with Roosevelt customarily addressed him by his rank.

Original title: "Colonel Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at the top of the hill which they captured, Battle of San Juan Hill." US Army victors on Kettle Hill about July 3, 1898 after the battle of "San Juan Hill(s)." Left to right is 3rd US Cavalry, 1st Volunteer Cavalry (Col. Theodore Roosevelt center) and 10th US Cavalry. A second similar picture is often shown cropping out all but the 1st Vol Cav and TR. (pictured above to the left)
Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR campaigning for governor
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent Click on painting for the story behind the portrait.

Governor and Vice-President

On leaving the Army, Roosevelt was elected governor of New York in 1898 as a Republican. He made such an effort to root out corruption and " machine politics " that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election , against the wishes of McKinley's manager, Senator Mark Hanna . Roosevelt was a powerful campaign asset for the Republican ticket, which defeated William Jennings Bryan in a landslide based on restoration of prosperity at home and a successful war and new prestige abroad. Bryan stumped for Free Silver again, but McKinley's promise of prosperity through the gold standard , high tariffs, and the restoration of business confidence enlarged his margin of victory. Bryan had strongly supported the war against Spain, but denounced the annexation of the Philippines as imperialism that would spoil America's innocence. Roosevelt countered with many speeches that argued it was best for the Filipinos to have stability, and the Americans to have a proud place in the world. Roosevelt's six months as Vice President (March to September 1901) were uneventful. [ 52 ] On September 2, 1901, at the Minnesota State Fair , Roosevelt first used in a public speech a saying that would later be universally associated with him: " Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far."

Presidency 1901–1909

Roosevelt and Fairbanks.

On September 6, President McKinley was shot while at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York . Initial reports in the succeeding days suggested his condition was improving, so Roosevelt embarked on a vacation at Mount Marcy in northeastern New York. He was returning from a climb to the summit on September 13 when a park ranger brought him a telegram informing him that McKinley's condition had deteriorated, and he was near death. [ 53 ]

Roosevelt and his family immediately departed for Buffalo. When they reached the nearest train station at North Creek , at 5:22 am on September 14, he received another telegram informing him that McKinley had died a few hours earlier. Roosevelt arrived in Buffalo that afternoon, and was sworn in there as President at 3:30 pm by US District Judge John R. Hazel at the Ansley Wilcox House .

Roosevelt kept McKinley's Cabinet and promised to continue McKinley's policies. One of his first notable acts as president was to deliver a 20,000-word address to Congress [ 54 ] asking it to curb the power of large corporations (called "trusts"). For his aggressive attacks on trusts over his two terms, he has been called a "trust-buster."

In the 1904 presidential election , Roosevelt won the presidency in his own right in a landslide victory. His vice president was Charles Fairbanks .

Roosevelt also dealt with union workers. In May 1902, United Mine Workers went on strike to get higher pay wages and shorter workdays. He set up a fact-finding commission that stopped the strike, and resulted in the workers getting more pay for fewer hours.

In August 1902, Roosevelt was the first president to be seen riding in an automobile in public. [ 55 ] This took place in Hartford, CT. The car was a Columbia Electric Victoria Phaeton, manufactured in Hartford. The police squad rode bicycles alongside the car. (The reference includes a photo of the event.)

In 1905, he issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine , which allows the United States to "exercise international policy power" so they can intervene and keep smaller countries on their feet.

The 1st Roosevelt stamp
Issue of 1925

Roosevelt helped the wellbeing of people by passing laws such as The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 and The Pure Food and Drug Act . The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 banned misleading labels and preservatives that contained harmful chemicals. The Pure Food and Drug Act banned food and drugs that are impure or falsely labeled from being made, sold, and shipped. Roosevelt was also served as honorary president of the school health organization American School Hygiene Association from 1907 to 1908, and in 1909 he convened the first White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children. [ 56 ]

The Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan came into play in 1907, banning all school segregation of Japanese, yet controlling Japanese immigration in California. That year, Roosevelt signed the proclamation establishing Oklahoma as the 46th state of the Union.

Building on McKinley's effective use of the press, Roosevelt made the White House the center of news every day, providing interviews and photo opportunities. After noticing the White House reporters huddled outside in the rain one day, he gave them their own room inside, effectively inventing the presidential press briefing. [ 57 ] The grateful press, with unprecedented access to the White House, rewarded Roosevelt with ample coverage. [ 57 ]

He chose not to run for another term in 1908 , and supported William Taft for the presidency, instead of Fairbanks. Fairbanks withdrew from the race, and would later support Taft for re-election against Roosevelt in the 1912 election .

Roosevelt appointed a record 75 federal judges. Roosevelt appointed three Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States : Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1902), William Rufus Day (1903), William Henry Moody (1906). In addition to these three, Roosevelt appointed 19 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals , and 53 judges to the United States district courts .

Post-presidencia

Roosevelt standing next to a dead elephant during a safari

African safari

In March 1909, shortly after the end of his presidency, Roosevelt left New York for a safari in east and central Africa . Roosevelt's party landed in Mombasa , British East Africa (now Kenya ), traveled to the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo ) before following the Nile to Khartoum in modern Sudan . Financed by Andrew Carnegie and by his own proposed writings, Roosevelt's party hunted for specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. [ 58 ] The group, led by the legendary hunter-tracker RJ Cunninghame , included scientists from the Smithsonian and was joined from time to time by Frederick Selous , the famous big game hunter and explorer. Among other items, Roosevelt brought with him four tons of salt for preserving animal hides, a lucky rabbit's foot given to him by boxer John L. Sullivan , a Holland and Holland double rifle in .500/450 donated by a group of 56 admiring Britons, a Winchester 1895 rifle in .405 Winchester , an Army ( M1903 ) Springfield in .30-06 caliber stocked and sighted for him, a Fox No. 12 shotgun, and the famous Pigskin Library, a collection of classics bound in pig leather and transported in a single reinforced trunk.

Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped approximately 11,400 [ 58 ] animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants . These included 512 big game animals, including six rare white rhinos . The expedition consumed 262 of the animals. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped to Washington ; the quantity was so large that it took years to mount them all, and the Smithsonian shared many duplicate animals with other museums . Regarding the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum , the American Museum of Natural History , and all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned." [ 59 ]

Although the safari was ostensibly conducted in the name of science , it was as much a political and social event as it was a hunting excursion; Roosevelt interacted with renowned professional hunters and land-owning families, and met many native peoples and local leaders. Roosevelt became a Life Member of the National Rifle Association , while President, in 1907 after paying a $25 fee. [ 60 ] He later wrote a detailed account in the book African Game Trails , where he describes the excitement of the chase, the people he met, and the flora and fauna he collected in the name of science.

Republican Party schism

Roosevelt certified William Howard Taft to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908 , when Roosevelt pushed through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency. Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan . Taft promoted a different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and preferred that judges rather than administrators or politicians make the basic decisions about fairness. Taft usually proved a less adroit politician than Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made Roosevelt so formidable. When Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk severe tensions inside the Republican Party—pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against merchants and consumers—he stopped talking about the issue. Taft ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, and then cutting deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The resulting Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming this on Senator Nelson Aldrich and big business, Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever. He again had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was building inside the Party, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe, to allow Taft to be his own man. [ 61 ]

1909 cartoon: TR hands his policies to the care of Taft while William Loeb, Jr. carries the "Big Stick"
The battle between Taft and Roosevelt bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft's people dominated the party until 1936.

Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in his rhetoric. However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched 90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation, US Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally approved. Consequently, Taft lost the support of antitrust reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric), of big business (which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated by his protégé. The left wing of the Republican Party began agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive Republican League (precursor to the Progressive Party (United States, 1924) ) to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level and to replace Taft at the national level. More trouble came when Taft fired Gifford Pinchot , a leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot alleged that Taft's Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger was in league with big timber interests. Conservationists sided with Pinchot, and Taft alienated yet another vocal constituency.

Theodore Roosevelt (center) and his son at a military parade near Berlin with German Emperor Wilhelm II (May, 1910)

Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the courts. His famous speech at Osawatomie, Kansas, in August 1910 was the most radical of his career and openly marked his break with the Taft administration and the conservative Republicans. Osawatomie was well known as the base used by John Brown when he launched his bloody attacks on slavery. Taft was deeply upset. Roosevelt was attacking both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or Taft). In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to power, and Taft's reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In 1911, Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt announced.

Election of 1912

Republican primaries

Despite his new doubts about Taft's leadership abilities, Roosevelt still was friendly towards him [ 62 ] and was in favor of his re-election. On October 27, 1911, however, Roosevelt and Taft's deteriorating friendship officially came to an end when Taft's administration filed an antitrust suit against US Steel, [ 62 ] [ 63 ] which Roosevelt labeled as a "good trust". After he finally broke with Taft, Roosevelt saw himself as the only person who could save the Republican party from defeat in the upcoming Presidential election and announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination. [ 62 ] Roosevelt, however, had delayed too long, and Taft had already won the support of most party leaders in the country. Because of LaFollette's nervous breakdown on the campaign trail before Roosevelt's entry, most of LaFollette's supporters went over to Roosevelt, the new progressive Republican candidate.

Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried nine of the states that held preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft only one. The 1912 primaries represented the first extensive use of the presidential primary , a reform achievement of the progressive movement. However, these primary elections, while demonstrating Roosevelt's continuing popularity with the electorate, were not nearly as pivotal as primaries became later in the century. There were fewer states where a common voter had an opportunity to express a recorded preference. Many more states selected convention delegates at state party conventions, or in caucuses, which were not as open as they later became. While Roosevelt was popular with the public, most Republican politicians and party leaders supported Taft, and their support proved difficult to counter in states without primaries.

Formation of the Bull Moose Party

At the Republican Convention in Chicago , despite being the incumbent, Taft's victory was not immediately assured. After two weeks, Roosevelt, realizing he would not win the nomination outright, asked his followers to leave the convention hall. They moved to the Auditorium Theatre , and then Roosevelt, along with key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party , structuring it as a permanent organization that would field complete tickets at the presidential and state level. It was popularly known as the " Bull Moose Party ", which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I'm as fit as a bull moose." [ 64 ] At the convention Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord." Roosevelt's platform echoed his 1907–08 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the selfish interests. [ 65 ]

To destroy this invisible Government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day." – 1912 Progressive Party Platform, attributed to him [ 66 ] and quoted again in his autobiography [ 67 ] where he continues "'This country belongs to the people. Its resources, its business, its laws, its institutions, should be utilized, maintained, or altered in whatever manner will best promote the general interest.' This assertion is explicit. ... Mr. Wilson must know that every monopoly in the United States opposes the Progressive party. ... I challenge him ... to name the monopoly that did support the Progressive party, whether ... the Sugar Trust , the Steel Trust, the Harvester Trust, the Standard Oil Trust, the Tobacco Trust, or any other. ... Ours was the only programme to which they objected, and they supported either Mr. Wilson or Mr. Taft ...

Intento de asesinato

The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace
X-Ray of Roosevelt's ribcage showing the bullet at lower left

While Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee , Wisconsin , on October 14, 1912, a saloonkeeper named John Schrank shot him, but the bullet lodged in his chest only after penetrating his steel eyeglass case and passing through a thick (50 pages) single-folded copy of the speech he was carrying in his jacket. [ 68 ] Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, correctly concluded that since he was not coughing blood, the bullet had not completely penetrated the chest wall to his lung, and so declined suggestions he go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt. [ 69 ] He spoke for 90 minutes. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot ; but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose." [ 70 ] Afterwards, probes and x-ray showed that the bullet had traversed three inches (76 mm) of tissue and lodged in Roosevelt's chest muscle but did not penetrate the pleura , and it would be more dangerous to attempt to remove the bullet than to leave it in place. Roosevelt carried it with him for the rest of his life. [ 71 ]

Because of the bullet wound, Roosevelt was taken off the campaign trail in the final weeks of the race (which ended election day, November 5). Though the other two campaigners stopped their own campaigns in the week Roosevelt was in the hospital, they resumed it once he was released. The bullet lodged in his chest caused his chronic rheumatoid arthritis – which he had suffered from for years [ 72 ] – to get worse and it soon prevented him from doing his daily stint of exercises; [ 72 ] Roosevelt would soon become obese as well. [ 72 ] Roosevelt, for many reasons, failed to move enough Republicans in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had 88 electoral votes to Taft's 8 electoral votes. This meant that Taft became the only incumbent president to place third in a re-election bid. But Pennsylvania was Roosevelt's only eastern state; in the Midwest , he carried Michigan , Minnesota and South Dakota ; in the West , California and Washington ; he did not win any southern states.

1913–1914 South American Expedition

Roosevelt's popular book Through the Brazilian Wilderness [ 73 ] describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition , co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon . The book describes the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas, and exotic flora and fauna experienced during the adventure. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm , had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he persuaded Roosevelt to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the expedition Roosevelt received support from the American Museum of Natural History , promising to bring back many new animal specimens.

The initial party. From left to right (seated): Father Zahm , Rondon , Kermit , Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.

Once in South America, a new far more ambitious goal was added: to find the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the River of Doubt , and trace it north to the Madeira and thence to the Amazon River . It was later renamed Roosevelt River in honor of the former President. Roosevelt's crew consisted of his 24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Rondon, a naturalist, George K. Cherrie, sent by the American Museum of Natural History , Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and 16 skilled paddlers and porters (called camaradas in Portuguese ). The initial expedition started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of the rainy season. The trip down the River of Doubt started on February 27, 1914.

During the trip down the river, Roosevelt suffered a minor leg wound after he jumped into the river to try to prevent two of his crew's canoes from smashing against the rocks. [ 72 ] [ 74 ] The flesh wound he received, however, soon gave him tropical fever that resembled the malaria he contracted while in Cuba fifteen years before. [ 72 ] [ 74 ] Because the bullet lodged in his chest from the failed assassination attempt in 1912 was never removed, his health worsened from the infection. [ 74 ] This weakened Roosevelt so greatly that six weeks into the adventure he had to be attended day and night by the expedition's physician and his son, Kermit. By then he could not walk because of both the infection in his injured leg and an infirmity in his other from a traffic accident a decade earlier. Roosevelt was riddled with chest pains, fighting a fever that soared to 103 °F (39 °C), and at times so delirious that he would repeat endlessly the opening line from Coleridge's poem Kubla Khan . [ 75 ] Regarding his condition as a threat to the survival of the others, Roosevelt insisted he be left behind to allow the by then poorly provisioned expedition to proceed as rapidly as it could. Only an appeal by his son persuaded him to continue.

Despite Roosevelt's continued decline and loss of over 50 pounds (20 kg) of his original 220, Commander Rondon had been repeatedly slowing down the pace of the expedition in dedication to his commission's mapmaking and other geographical goals that demanded regular stops to fix the expedition's position by sun-based survey.

Upon Roosevelt's return to New York, friends and family were startled by his physical appearance and fatigue. Roosevelt wrote to a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might not have known just how accurate that analysis would prove. For the rest of his few remaining years he would be plagued by flare-ups of malaria and leg inflammations so severe that they would require surgery. [ 76 ] [ 77 ]

Before Roosevelt had even completed his sea voyage home, doubts were raised over his claims of exploring and navigating a completely uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long. When he had recovered sufficiently he addressed a standing-room-only convention organized in Washington, DC by the National Geographic Society and satisfactorily defended his claims. The River of Doubt later was named the Rio Roosevelt .

La Primera Guerra Mundial

When World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly supported the Allies and demanded a harsher policy against Germany , especially regarding submarine warfare. Roosevelt angrily denounced the foreign policy of President Wilson , calling it a failure regarding the atrocities in Belgium and the violations of American rights. [ 78 ] In 1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes and repeatedly denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans who Roosevelt said were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America's by supporting neutrality. He insisted one had to be 100% American, not a " hyphenated American " who juggled multiple loyalties. When the US entered the war in 1917, Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Wilson refused. [ 79 ]

Roosevelt's attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the off-year elections of 1918. Roosevelt was popular enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his health was broken by 1918, because of the lingering malaria . His family and supporters threw their support to Roosevelt's old military companion, General Leonard Wood , who was ultimately defeated by Taft supporter Warren G. Harding . [ 80 ]

His son Quentin , a daring pilot with the American forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918. Quentin was his youngest son and probably his favorite. It is said the death of his son distressed him so much that Roosevelt never recovered from his loss. [ 81 ]

Muerte

Despite his rapidly declining health, Roosevelt remained active to the end of his life. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen , the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt's jingoism ." [ 82 ]

On January 6, 1919, Roosevelt died in his sleep at Oyster Bay of a coronary thrombosis (heart attack), preceded by a 2½-month illness described as inflammatory rheumatism , [ 83 ] and was buried in nearby Youngs Memorial Cemetery. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] Upon receiving word of his death, his son Archie telegraphed his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead." [ 81 ] The US vice president, Thomas R. Marshall , said that "Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight." [ 86 ]

Political positions and speeches

Theodore Roosevelt introduced the phrase " Square Deal " to describe his progressive views in a speech delivered after leaving the office of the Presidency in August 1910. In his broad outline, he stressed equality of opportunity for all citizens and emphasized the importance of fair government regulations of corporate 'special interests'.

Roosevelt was one of the first Presidents to make conservation a national issue. In a speech that Roosevelt gave at Osawatomie, Kansas, on August 31, 1910, he outlined his views on conservation of the lands of the United States. He favored using America's natural resources, but opposed wasteful consumption. [ 87 ] One of his most lasting legacies was his significant role in the creation of 5 national parks, 18 national monuments, and 150 National Forests, among other works of conservation. Roosevelt was instrumental in conserving about 230 million acres (930,000 km 2 ) of American soil among various parks and other federal projects. [ 88 ]

In the Eighth Annual Message to Congress (1908), Roosevelt mentioned the need for federal government to regulate interstate corporations using the Interstate Commerce Clause, also mentioning how these corporations fought federal control by appealing to states' rights.

Positions on immigration, minorities, and civil rights

In an 1894 article on immigration, Roosevelt said, "We must Americanize in every way, in speech, in political ideas and principles, and in their way of looking at relations between church and state. We welcome the German and the Irishman who becomes an American. We have no use for the German or Irishman who remains such... He must revere only our flag, not only must it come first, but no other flag should even come second." [ 89 ]

Roosevelt was the first president to appoint a representative of the Jewish minority to a cabinet position – Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Oscar S. Straus , 1906–09.

In 1886 he said: "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth." He later became much more favorable. [ 90 ] [ 91 ]

About African Americans, Roosevelt said, "I have not been able to think out any solution of the terrible problem offered by the presence of the Negro on this continent, but of one thing I am sure, and that is that inasmuch as he is here and can neither be killed nor driven away, the only wise and honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat each black man and each white man strictly on his merits as a man, giving him no more and no less than he shows himself worthy to have." [ 92 ]

Roosevelt appointed numerous African Americans to federal office, such as Walter L. Cohen of New Orleans , Louisiana , a leader of the Black and Tan Republican faction whom he named register of the federal land office. [ 93 ]

Contrasting the European conquest of North America with that of Australia, Roosevelt wrote: "The natives [of Australia] were so few in number and of such a low type, that they practically offered no resistance at all, being but little more hindrance than an equal number of ferocious beasts"; [ 94 ] however, the Native Americans were "the most formidable savage foes ever faced ever encountered by colonists of European stock." [ 95 ] He regarded slavery as "a crime whose shortsighted folly was worse than its guilt" because it "brought hordes of African slaves, whose descendants now form immense populations in certain portions of the land." [ 96 ] Contrasting the European conquest of North America with that of South Africa, Roosevelt felt that the fate of the latter's colonists would be different because, unlike the Native American, the African "neither dies out nor recedes before their advance", meaning the colonists would likely "be swallowed up in the overwhelming mass of black barbarism." [ 97 ]

Starting in 1907 eugenicists in many States started the forced sterilization of the sick, unemployed, poor, criminals, prostitutes, and the disabled. Roosevelt said in 1914: "I wish very much that the wrong people could be prevented entirely from breeding; and when the evil nature of these people is sufficiently flagrant, this should be done. Criminals should be sterilized and feeble-minded persons forbidden to leave offspring behind them." [ 98 ]

Writer

Roosevelt was a prolific author, writing with passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system. Roosevelt was also an avid reader of poetry . American poet, Robert Frost said of TR, "He was our kind. He quoted poetry to me. He knew poetry." [ 99 ]

As an editor of Outlook magazine, he had weekly access to a large, educated national audience. In all, Roosevelt wrote about 18 books (each in several editions), including his Autobiography , [ 100 ] The Rough Riders [ 101 ] History of the Naval War of 1812 , [ 102 ] and others on subjects such as ranching, explorations, and wildlife. His most ambitious book was the four volume narrative The Winning of the West , which connected the origin of a new "race" of Americans (ie what he considered the present population of the United States to be) to the frontier conditions their ancestors endured throughout the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries.

In 1907, Roosevelt became embroiled in a widely publicized literary debate known as the nature fakers controversy . A few years earlier, naturalist John Burroughs had published an article entitled "Real and Sham Natural History" in the Atlantic Monthly , attacking popular writers of the day such as Ernest Thompson Seton , Charles GD Roberts and William J. Long for their fantastical representations of wildlife. Roosevelt agreed with Burroughs' criticisms, and published several essays of his own denouncing the booming genre of "naturalistic" animal stories as "yellow journalism of the woods". It was the President himself who popularized the negative term "nature faker" to describe writers who depicted their animal characters with excessive anthropomorphism. [ 103 ]

Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Jr. , "Archie" , Alice , Kermit , Edith , and Ethel

Character and beliefs

Roosevelt intensely disliked being called "Teddy," and was quick to point out this fact to those who used the nickname, though it would become widely used by newspapers during his political career. He attended church regularly. Of including the motto "In God We Trust" on money, in 1907 he wrote, "It seems to me eminently unwise to cheapen such a motto by use on coins, just as it would be to cheapen it by use on postage stamps, or in advertisements." He was also a member of the Freemasons and Sons of the American Revolution . [ 104 ]

Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an 1899 speech, " the strenuous life ". To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing , tennis , hiking , rowing , polo , and horseback riding . As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina , leaving him blind in that eye (a fact not made public until many years later). Thereafter, he practiced judo attaining a third degree brown belt and continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter. [ 105 ] [ 106 ]

Sagamore Hill , Roosevelt's estate
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles from 1899 to 1910

He was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper's Weekly , in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood . [ 107 ] Roosevelt was also an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson , Roosevelt is often considered the most well read of any American politician . [ 108 ]

Legado

Historians credit Roosevelt for changing the nation's political system by permanently placing the presidency at center stage and making character as important as the issues. His notable accomplishments include trust busting and conservationism. However, he has been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". His friend, historian Henry Adams , proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter – the quality that mediaeval theology assigned to God – he was pure act." Historians typically rank Roosevelt among the top five presidents. [ 109 ] [ 110 ]

Memoriales

Roosevelt was included with George Washington , Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln at the Mount Rushmore Memorial , designed in 1927 with the approval of Republican President Calvin Coolidge .

For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt's commanders recommended him for the Medal of Honor . In the late 1990s, Roosevelt's supporters again took up the flag for him. On January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor posthumously for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish–American War. Roosevelt's eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. , received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the Battle of Normandy in 1944. The Roosevelts thus became one of only two father-son pairs to receive this honor (the other pair being Arthur and Douglas MacArthur ).

Roosevelt's face on Mount Rushmore

Roosevelt's legacy includes several other important commemorations. The United States Navy named two ships for Roosevelt: the USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600) , a submarine that was in commission from 1961 to 1982; and the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) , an aircraft carrier that has been on active duty in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986.

On November 18, 1956, the United States Postal Service released a 6¢ Liberty Issue postage stamp honoring Roosevelt.

The Roosevelt Memorial Association (now the Theodore Roosevelt Association ) or "TRA", was founded in 1920 to preserve Roosevelt's legacy. The Association preserved Roosevelt's birthplace , " Sagamore Hill " home, papers, and video film. In 1941, it published the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia , a compendium of Roosevelt's key writings, sayings and conversations, which is available online.

In 2008 Columbia Law School awarded a law degree to Roosevelt, posthumously making him a member of the class of 1882. [ 111 ] Among the hundreds of schools and streets named in Roosevelt's honor are Roosevelt High School in Seattle, Washington , the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood , the district's main arterial, Roosevelt Way NE, and Roosevelt Middle School in Eugene, Oregon .

The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles is named after him, as is the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City.

In Chicago, the city renamed 12th Street to Roosevelt Road four months after Roosevelt's death. [ 112 ] In Philadelphia , Roosevelt Boulevard , also known as US 1 , was named in his honor in 1918.

En la cultura popular

Theodore Roosevelt impersonator Joe Wiegand performs October 27, 2008 in the East Room of the White House , during a celebration of Roosevelt's 150th birthday.

Roosevelt's 1901 saying " Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick " is still quoted by politicians and columnists in different countries—not only in English but also in translation to various other languages.

A quote from Roosevelt's 1912 Progressive Party platform was cited as an epigram by Julian Assange , founder of WikiLeaks , in his 2006 manifesto: "Behind the ostensible government sits enthroned an invisible government, owing no allegiance and acknowledging no responsibility to the people. To destroy this invisible government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day." [ 113 ] [ 114 ]

Roosevelt's lasting popular legacy, however, is the stuffed toy bears— teddy bears —named after him following an incident on a hunting trip in Mississippi in 1902. Roosevelt famously ordered the mercy killing of a wounded black bear . After the cartoonist Clifford K. Berryman illustrated the President with a bear, a toy maker heard the story and asked Roosevelt if he could use his name on a toy bear. Roosevelt approved, and the teddy bear was born. Bears and later bear cubs became closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons thereafter. [ 115 ]

On June 26, 2006, Roosevelt, again, made the cover of TIME magazine with the lead story, "The Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The 20th Century Express": "At home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President, the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future." [ 116 ]

In 1905, Roosevelt, an admirer of various western figures, named Captain Bill McDonald of the Texas Rangers , as his bodyguard and entertained the legendary Texan in the White House . Ironically, in the 1912 campaign, McDonald was Woodrow Wilson's bodyguard. Wilson thereafter named the Democrat McDonald as US Marshal for the Northern district of Texas. [ 117 ]

Roosevelt has been portrayed many times in film and on television . The actor Karl Swenson played him in the 1967 western picture Brighty of the Grand Canyon , the story of a real-life burro who guided Roosevelt on a hunting trip to find mountain lions . [ 118 ]

Brian Keith portrayed Roosevelt in the 1975 film The Wind and the Lion , a dramatization of the Perdicaris incident of 1904.

In the play Arsenic and Old Lace , and the 1944 film of the same name , the character Teddy Brewster is convinced he's Roosevelt. He is enlisted in this role by his aunts to bury their victims' bodies in the cellar by asking him to dig "another lock for the Panama Canal ", then telling him someone has died of yellow fever and needs to be buried. When he runs up the stairs brandishing an imaginary sword and yelling "Charge!", his aunt Abby Brewster explains to Officer Brophy, "The stairs are always San Juan Hill". His bugle-blowing at all hours is the primary reason the aunts are being pressured to have him committed to a sanitarium .

He was also portrayed by actor Tom Berenger in 1997 for the TNT movie Rough Riders , a made-for-cable film about his exploits during the Spanish–American War in Cuba. [ 119 ]

Frank Albertson played Roosevelt in the episode "Rough and Ready" of the CBS series My Friend Flicka ." [ 120 ]

Peter Breck played Roosevelt in 1961 episode "Yankee Tornado" of the ABC series Bronco . [ 121 ]

Robin Williams portrayed Roosevelt in the form of a wax mannequin that comes to life in Night at the Museum and its sequel Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian .

The Theodore Roosevelt mascot during a Washington Nationals home game.

Roosevelt was portrayed in several episodes of the comic book story The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck : the young Scrooge McDuck first meets Roosevelt in his Badlands years, later in a fictional siege of Fort Duckburg and finally in Panama during the construction of the Panama Canal.

George Burroughs Torrey painted a portrait of him.

Famed fictional gunslinger Morgan Kane was Roosevelt's bodyguard when Roosevelt was a general, and Kane worked as a Pinkerton special agent.

Since 2000, Roosevelt has been portrayed by a number of reprisers including historian and Rhodes Scholar, Clay Jenkinson of North Dakota and Joe Wiegand of Tennessee . Wiegand has portrayed Roosevelt in all 50 US states. In 2008, Wiegand portrayed TR in the White House at TR's 150th Birthday.

Theodore Roosevelt is an important character in the Southern Victory Series (also known as Timeline-191), an alternate history series by Harry Turtledove . He was a New Yorker who moved to Montana to become a rancher after Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt rejects his marriage proposal. He raises and leads his own volunteer cavalry regiment (nicknamed the Unauthorized Regiment) in the Second Mexican War , fighting alongside George Armstrong Custer to repulse the Anglo-Canadian army led by Charles George Gordon . He later becomes the Democratic 28th president of the United States and leads the United States to victory in the Great War on the side of the Central Powers . He runs for a third term as President, but is defeated by Socialist candidate, Upton Sinclair and dies of a brain hemorrhage in 1924. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery as a final insult to the Confederate States of America and is regarded as one of the most esteemed Presidents in United States (alternate) history.

Medios de comunicación

Theodore Roosevelt was one of the first presidents whose voice was recorded for posterity. Several of his recorded speeches survive. [ 122 ] A 4.6-minute voice recording, [ 123 ] which preserves Roosevelt's lower timbre ranges particularly well for its time, is among those available from the Michigan State University libraries. (This is the 1912 recording of The Right of the People to Rule , recorded by Edison at Carnegie Hall). In what some consider the best example of Roosevelt's animated oratorical style, an audio clip [ 124 ] sponsored by the Authentic History Center includes his defense [ 125 ] of the Progressive Party in 1912 wherein he proclaims it the "party of the people" in contrast with the other major parties.

Parade for the school children of San Francisco, down Van Ness Avenue
Collection of film clips of Roosevelt

Ascendencia

[ citation needed ]

Véase también

Referencias

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  2. ^ His last name is, according to Roosevelt himself, "pronounced as if it was spelled 'Rosavelt.' That is in three syllables. The first syllable as if it was 'Rose.'" Hart, Albert B.; Herbert R. Ferleger (1989). "Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia" (CD-ROM). Theodore Roosevelt Association. pp. 534–535 . http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/TR%20Web%20Book/TR_CD_to_HTML571.html . Retrieved June 10, 2007 . ;
    An Audio recording [ dead link ] in which Roosevelt pronounces his own last name distinctly. To listen at the correct speed, slow the recording down by 20%. Retrieved on July 12, 2007.
    "How to Pronounce Theodore Roosevelt" . http://inogolo.com/pronunciation/d227/Theodore_Roosevelt . Retrieved June 10, 2007 .
  3. ^ Douglas Brinkley "TR's Wild Side," American Heritage , Fall 2009.
  4. ^ The other two presidents who won the Nobel Peace Prize while in office were Woodrow Wilson (1919) and Barack Obama ( 2009 ).
  5. ^ John F. Kennedy is the youngest person to be elected President. Roosevelt was not elected to the Presidency until 1904, when he was 46.
  6. ^ Ragone, Nick (February 23, 2011). "Vice President As Successor - American Government" . Consultado el October 31, 2012.
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Bibliography

Biographical

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  • Brands, Henry William . (1997). TR: The Last Romantic. New York: Basic Books. Reprinted 2001, full biography OCLC 36954615
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  • Keller, Morton, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: A Profile (1967) excerpts from TR and from historians.
  • Kohn, Edward. "Crossing the Rubicon: Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, and the 1884 Republican National Convention." Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2006 5(1): 18–45. Issn: 1537-7814 Fulltext: in History Cooperative
  • Millard, Candice . River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's Darkest Journey . (2005)
  • McCullough, David . Mornings on Horseback, The Story of an Extraordinary Family. a Vanished Way of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt. (2001) popular biography to 1884
  • Morris, Edmund The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt , to 1901 (1979); vol 2: Theodore Rex 1901–1909. (2001); vol 3: Colonel Roosevelt (2010); Pulitzer prize for Volume 1.
  • "Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900–1912. (1954) general survey of era; online" . http://serv.ul.cs.cmu.edu/zoom/record.html?id=15584 . Consultado el October 5, 2010.
  • Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement . (2001) focus on 1912
  • O'Toole, Patricia. When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt after the White House. (2005). 494 pp.
  • Powell, Jim . Bully Boy: The Truth About Theodore Roosevelt's Legacy (Crown Forum, 2006). Examines TR policies from conservative/libertarian perspective. ISBN 0-307-23722-2
  • Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt (1932; 2nd ed. 1956), full scholarly biography
  • Putnam, Carleton Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, Volume I: The Formative Years (1958), only volume published, to age 28.
  • Renehan, Edward J. The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War . (Oxford University Press, 1998), examines TR and his family during the World War I period
  • Testi, Arnaldo (1995). "The Gender of Reform Politics: Theodore Roosevelt and the Culture of Masculinity," Journal of American History , Vol. 81, No. 4, pp. 1509–1533. in JSTOR
  • Watts, Sarah. Rough Rider in the White House: Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Desire. 2003. 289 pp.
  • Yarbrough, Jean M. Theodore Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition (University Press of Kansas; 2012) 337 pages; TR's political thought and its significance for republican self-government.
  • Zacks, Richard. Island of Vice: Theodore Roosevelt's Doomed Quest to Clean Up Sin-Loving New York (2012)

Foreign policy

  • Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. (1956). standard history of his foreign policy
  • Holmes, James R. Theodore Roosevelt and World Order: Police Power in International Relations. 2006. 328 pp.
  • Jones, Gregg. Honor in the Dust: Theodore Roosevelt, War in the Philippines, and the Rise and Fall of America's Imperial Dream (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Marks III, Frederick W. Velvet on Iron: The Diplomacy of Theodore Roosevelt (1979)
  • McCullough, David. The Path between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914 (1977).
  • Ricard, Serge. "The Roosevelt Corollary." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(1): 17–26. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ingenta
  • Ricard, Serge. "Theodore Roosevelt: Imperialist or Global Strategist in the New Expansionist Age?" Diplomacy and Statecraft, Dec 2008, Vol. 19 Issue 4, pp 639–657
  • Rofe, J. Simon. "'Under the Influence of Mahan': Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and their Understanding of American National Interest," Diplomacy and Statecraft, Dec 2008, Vol. 19 Issue 4, pp 732–745
  • Tilchin, William N. and Neu, Charles E., ed. Artists of Power: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Their Enduring Impact on US Foreign Policy. (Praeger, 2006). 196 pp.
  • Tilchin, William N. Theodore Roosevelt and the British Empire: A Study in Presidential Statecraft (1997)

Primary sources

Enlaces externos