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Estados Unidos de América
Bandera Gran Sello
Lema : In God We Trust    (Oficial)
E Pluribus Unum    (Tradicional)
( América : De muchos, uno)
Himno : " La Estrella-Spangled Banner "
Capital Washington, DC
38 ° 53'N 77 ° 01'W / 38.883 N ° 77.017 ° W / 38.883, -77.017
La ciudad más grande Ciudad de Nueva York
El idioma oficial (s) Ninguno en el ámbito federal [a]
El idioma nacional Inglés ( de facto ) [b]
Gentilicio América
Gobierno Federal presidenciales constitucionales república
- Presidente Barack Obama ( D )
- Vicepresidente Joe Biden ( D )
- Presidente de la Cámara John Boehner ( R )
- Presidente del Tribunal Supremo John Roberts
Legislatura Congreso
- Cámara Alta Senado
- Cámara Baja Cámara de Representantes
Independencia del Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña
- Declaró 04 de julio 1776
- Reconocido 03 de septiembre 1783
- Constitución actual 21 de junio 1788
Espacio
- Total 9.826.675 kilometro 2 [1] [c] ( 3rd/4th )
3.794.101 km ²
- De agua (%) 6.76
Población
- Censo del 2010 308 745 538 [2]
- Densidad 33.7/km 2
mi 87.4/sq
PIB ( PPA ) 2010 estiman
- Total 14658000 millones dólares [3] ( primera )
- per cápita 47.123 dólares [3] ( sexta )
PIB (nominal) 2010 estiman
- Total 14658000 millones dólares [3] ( primera )
- per cápita 47.132 dólares [3] ( noveno )
Gini (2007) 45.0 [1] ( 44a )
IDH (2010) aumento 0.902 [4] (muy alto) ( cuarto )
Moneda Dólar estadounidense ($) ( USD )
Huso horario ( UTC -5 a -10)
- Verano ( DST ) ( UTC -4 a -10)
Formatos de fecha m / d / aa ( AD )
Se conduce por la derecho
Dominio Internet . Nosotros . gov . mil . edu
Prefijo telefónico +1
^ a. Inglés es el idioma oficial de al menos 28 estados, algunas fuentes dan una cifra superior, en base a definiciones diferentes de "funcionario". [5] Inglés y Hawai son los dos idiomas oficiales en el estado de Hawai.

^ b. Inglés es el idioma de facto del gobierno estadounidense y el único idioma hablado en el hogar en un 80% de los estadounidenses de cinco años o más. El español es el que más se habla una segunda lengua .

^ c. Si los Estados Unidos o la República Popular de China es más grande es controvertido . La cifra indicada es de los EE.UU. Agencia Central de Inteligencia 's World Factbook . Otras fuentes dan cifras más pequeñas. Todos los cálculos de la autoridad del país del tamaño de incluir sólo los 50 estados y el Distrito de Columbia, no los territorios.

^ d. La estimación de la población incluye a personas cuya residencia habitual se encuentra en los cincuenta estados y el Distrito de Columbia, incluidos los no ciudadanos. No se incluyen ni los que viven en los territorios, que ascienden a más de 4 millones de ciudadanos de los EE.UU. (la mayoría en Puerto Rico ), o ciudadanos de los EE.UU. que viven fuera de los Estados Unidos.

Los Estados Unidos de América (también conocida como los Estados Unidos, los EE.UU., los EE.UU., o de los Estados Unidos ) es un federal república constitucional que abarca los cincuenta estados y un distrito federal . El país está situado sobre todo en el centro de América del Norte , donde sus cuarenta y ocho estados contiguos y en Washington DC , el distrito capital , se encuentran entre el Pacífico y el Atlántico , bordeado por el Canadá al norte y México al sur. El estado de Alaska está en el noroeste del continente, con Canadá, al este y Rusia al oeste a través del estrecho de Bering . El estado de Hawai es un archipiélago en el Pacífico central. El país también posee varios territorios en el Caribe y el Pacífico.

En 3790 mil milla cuadrada (9.83 millones de km 2) y con más de 308 millones de personas, los Estados Unidos es el tercer o cuarto país más grande por superficie total, y el tercer tanto por superficie y población . Es uno de mundo, la mayoría de la diversidad étnica y multicultural de las naciones, producto de gran escala la inmigración procedente de muchos países . [6] La economía de EE.UU. es la más grande del mundo la economía nacional, con un estimado de 2010 el PIB de $ 14799000000000 (23% del nominal PIB mundial y el 20% del PIB mundial en paridad de poder adquisitivo ). [3] [7]

Los pueblos indígenas de origen asiático han habitado lo que hoy es el continente de los Estados Unidos desde hace miles de años. Este nativo de la población estadounidense se redujo en gran medida por la enfermedad y la guerra después del contacto con los europeos . Los Estados Unidos fue fundada por trece colonias británicas situadas a lo largo de la costa atlántica . El 4 de julio de 1776, se emitió la Declaración de la Independencia , que proclamó su derecho a la libre determinación y su creación de una unión de cooperativas. Los estados rebeldes derrotaron al Imperio Británico en la Guerra de Independencia , el éxito de la primera guerra colonial de la independencia . [8] La actual Constitución de Estados Unidos fue adoptada el 17 de septiembre de 1787; su ratificación al año siguiente hizo la parte de los estados de una sola república con un fuerte gobierno federal . La Declaración de Derechos , que comprende diez enmiendas a la Constitución que garantiza muchos derechos civiles y libertades fundamentales , ratificado en 1791.

A través del siglo 19, los Estados Unidos desplazados tribus nativas, adquirió las tierras de Francia , España , el Reino Unido , México y Rusia , y el anexo de la República de Texas y la República de Hawaii . Las controversias entre las agraria del Sur y del Norte industrial sobre la expansión de la institución de la esclavitud y los derechos de los estados provocó la guerra civil americana de la década de 1860. La victoria de los del Norte de evitar una división permanente del país y llevó a la final de la esclavitud legal en los Estados Unidos. En la década de 1870, la economía nacional fue el más grande del mundo. [9] La Guerra Española-Americana y la Primera Guerra Mundial confirmó el estatus del país como una potencia militar. Salió de la Segunda Guerra Mundial como el primer país con armas nucleares y miembro permanente del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas . El fin de la Guerra Fría y la disolución de la Unión Soviética dejó a Estados Unidos como la única superpotencia. El país representa el 43% del gasto militar mundial y es un económicos, políticos y culturales fuerza líder en el mundo. [10]

Contenido

Etimología

En 1507, el alemán cartógrafo Martin Waldseemüller elaboró ??un mapa del mundo en el que nombró a las tierras del hemisferio occidental "América" ??después de explorador y cartógrafo italiano Américo Vespucio . [11] El ex colonias británicas utilizó por primera vez el nombre moderno país en la Declaración de la Independencia , la "Declaración unánime de los trece Estados unidos de América", adoptada por los "Representantes de los Estados Unidos de América" ??el 4 de julio de 1776. [12] El 15 de noviembre de 1777, el Segundo Congreso Continental aprobó la Artículos de la Confederación , que dice: "El nombre de esta Confederación será" Los Estados Unidos de América. '"Los tratados franco-estadounidense de 1778 usado" los Estados Unidos de América del Norte ", pero del 11 de julio de 1778," Estados Unidos de América " utilizado en el país de las letras de cambio , y ha sido el nombre oficial desde entonces. [13]

La forma abreviada "Estados Unidos" también es estándar. Otras formas comunes incluyen el "EE.UU.", el "EE.UU.", y "América". nombres coloquiales incluir el "EE.UU. de A." y, a nivel internacional, los "Estados". " Columbia ", un nombre popular de una vez por los Estados Unidos, se deriva de Cristóbal Colón , sino que aparece en el nombre de " Distrito de Columbia ".

La forma habitual de referirse a un ciudadano de los Estados Unidos es como un " estadounidense ". Aunque "Estados Unidos" es el término oficial aposicional, "América" ??y "EE.UU." son más comúnmente utilizado para referirse al país como adjetivo ("valores americanos", "las fuerzas de EE.UU."). "Americano" se utiliza muy poco en Inglés para referirse a la gente no relacionada con los Estados Unidos. [14]

La frase "Estados Unidos" fue tratado inicialmente como plural, por ejemplo, "los Estados Unidos", incluyendo en la Decimotercera Enmienda a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos , ratificado en 1865. Se hizo común para el tratamiento de tan singular-por ejemplo, "los Estados Unidos"-después de la final de la Guerra Civil. La forma singular es ahora estándar, la forma plural se conserva en el idioma "estos Estados Unidos". [15]

Geografía, clima y medio ambiente

El área de tierra de los estados contiguos de Estados Unidos es aproximadamente 1.9 mil millones de acres (770 millones de hectáreas). Alaska, separada de los estados contiguos de Estados Unidos por Canadá, es el estado más grande de 365 millones de acres (150 millones de hectáreas). Hawai, que ocupa un archipiélago en el Pacífico central, al suroeste de América del Norte, tiene poco más de 4 millones de acres (1,6 millones de hectáreas). [16] Los Estados Unidos es el mundo el tercer o cuarto país más grande por superficie total (tierra y agua), clasificación por detrás de Rusia y Canadá, y justo por encima o por debajo de China . La clasificación varía en función de cómo dos territorios en disputa por parte de China y la India se cuentan y cómo el tamaño total de los Estados Unidos se calcula: el CIA World Factbook da 3.794.101 millas cuadradas (9826675 kilometro 2), [1] de la División de Estadística da 3.717.813 millas cuadradas (9,629,091 kilometros 2), [17] y la Enciclopedia Británica da 3.676.486 millas cuadradas (9.522.055 kilometro 2). [18] Por ejemplo la superficie terrestre sólo los Estados Unidos es el tercero en tamaño después de Rusia y China, por delante de Canadá . [19]

Imagen satelital que muestra la topografía de los estados contiguos de Estados Unidos

La llanura costera de la costa atlántica deja paso más hacia el interior de hojas caducas bosques y las colinas del Piamonte . Las Montañas Apalaches dividen la costa este de los Grandes Lagos y las praderas del Medio Oeste . La Mississippi - Río Missouri , el mundo de sistema fluvial más largo de cuarto , se ejecuta principalmente de norte a sur a través del corazón del país. El piso, fértiles praderas de la Grandes Llanuras se extiende hacia el oeste, interrumpido por una región montañosa en el sureste. Las Montañas Rocosas , en el borde occidental de las Grandes Llanuras, se extienden de norte a sur todo el país, alcanzando alturas superiores a los 14.000 pies (4.300 m) en Colorado . Más al oeste se encuentran las rocas de la Gran Cuenca y los desiertos como el de Mojave . La Sierra Nevada y en cascada cordilleras se extienden cerca de la costa del Pacífico . A 20.320 pies (6.194 m), de Alaska Monte McKinley es el pico más alto en el país y en América del Norte. Activos volcanes son comunes en toda Alaska Alexander y las Islas Aleutianas y Hawaii se compone de islas volcánicas. El supervolcán subyacentes Parque Nacional de Yellowstone en las Montañas Rocosas es el continente más grande del fenómeno volcánico. [20]

Los Estados Unidos, con su gran tamaño y variedad geográfica, incluye la mayoría de tipos de clima. Al este del meridiano 100 , el clima varía desde continental húmedo en el norte a subtropical húmedo en el sur. El extremo sur de la Florida es tropical, como Hawai. El oeste de los Grandes Llanos del meridiano 100 son semi-áridas. Gran parte de las montañas occidentales son alpino . El clima es árido en la Gran Cuenca, el desierto del suroeste, del Mediterráneo en la costa de California , y oceánicas en la costa de Oregon y Washington y el sur de Alaska. La mayor parte de Alaska es subártico o polares. El clima extremo no es poco común-los Estados ribereños del Golfo de México son propensas a los huracanes , y la mayor parte del mundo de los tornados se producen en el país, principalmente en el Medio Oeste de Tornado Alley . [21]

La ecología de EE.UU. es considerado " megadiverso ": cerca de 17.000 especies de plantas vasculares se producen en los estados contiguos de Estados Unidos y Alaska, y más de 1.800 especies de plantas con flores se encuentran en Hawai, son pocos los que se producen en el continente. son [22] Los Estados Unidos es el hogar de más de 400 mamíferos, aves 750 y 500 de reptiles y anfibios. [23] cerca de 91.000 especies de insectos han sido descritas. [24] La Ley de Especies Amenazadas de 1973 protege a las especies amenazadas y en peligro y sus hábitats, que son supervisados por los Estados Unidos de peces y de fauna . Hay cincuenta y ocho parques nacionales y cientos de otros gestionados parques gobierno federal, los bosques y desierto áreas. [25] En total, el gobierno posee 28.8% de la superficie terrestre del país. [26] La mayoría de esto es protegida , aunque algunos se alquila para la perforación de petróleo y gas, minería, tala o la ganadería; 2,4% se utiliza para fines militares. [26]

Historia

Nativos americanos y los colonizadores europeos

Los pueblos indígenas de la parte continental de EE.UU., incluyendo los nativos de Alaska , se cree que emigraron de Asia , que comienza entre el y 40.000 años atrás, 12.000. [27] Algunos, como el pre-colombinas cultura Mississippi , desarrollaron la agricultura avanzada, gran arquitectura, y a nivel estatal las sociedades. Después de los europeos comenzaron a establecerse las Américas, muchos millones de indígenas americanos murieron de epidemias de enfermedades importadas, tales como la viruela . [28]

El Mayflower transportados peregrinos al Nuevo Mundo en 1620, según lo representado en William Halsall 's The Mayflower en Plymouth Harbor, 1882

En 1492, genoveses explorador Cristóbal Colón , bajo contrato con la corona española, llegó a varias islas del Caribe, lo que hace el primer contacto con los indígenas. El 2 de abril de 1513, español conquistador Juan Ponce de León desembarcó en lo que llamó " La Florida ", el documentado Europea llegada por primera vez en lo que se convertiría en los EE.UU. continental. asentamientos españoles en la región fueron seguidos por los del actual suroeste de Estados Unidos que atrajo a miles a través de México. los comerciantes de pieles franceses establecieron puestos de avanzada de la Nueva Francia en torno a la de los Grandes Lagos , Francia finalmente se exige la mayor parte del interior de América del Norte, hasta el Golfo de México. Los primeros asentamientos Inglés éxito fueron la colonia de Virginia en Jamestown en 1607 y los peregrinos " Colonia de Plymouth en 1620. El fletamento de 1628 de la colonia de Massachusetts Bay dio lugar a una ola de migración; de 1634, Nueva Inglaterra había sido resuelta por unos 10.000 puritanos . Entre el 1610 y finales de la Revolución Americana, cerca de 50.000 presos fueron enviados a las colonias de América de Gran Bretaña. [29] A partir de 1614, los holandeses se establecieron en la parte baja del río Hudson , incluyendo Nueva Amsterdam en la isla de Manhattan .

En 1674, los holandeses cedieron su territorio norteamericano a Inglaterra, la provincia de Nueva Holanda pasó a llamarse Nueva York. Muchos nuevos inmigrantes, especialmente a los del Sur , fueron contratados los funcionarios -unos dos tercios de todos los inmigrantes de Virginia entre 1630 y 1680. [30] A finales del siglo 18, los esclavos africanos se estaban convirtiendo en la principal fuente de trabajo en servidumbre. Con la división de 1729 de las Carolinas y la colonización 1732 de Georgia , las trece colonias inglesas que se convertirían en los Estados Unidos de América se establecieron. Todos tenían los gobiernos locales con elecciones abiertas para liberar a los hombres, la mayoría con una dedicación cada vez mayor para los antiguos derechos de los ingleses y un sentido de auto-gobierno de estimular el apoyo de republicanismo . Todos los legalizó la trata de esclavos africanos . Con altas tasas de natalidad, bajas tasas de muerte, y la inmigración constante, la población colonial creció rápidamente. El evangelista cristiano movimiento de la década de 1730 y la década de 1740 conocido como el Gran Despertar interés alimentada en la religión y la libertad religiosa. En la Guerra Francesa e India , las fuerzas británicas tomaron el Canadá de los franceses, pero los francófonos de la población permaneció aislado políticamente de las colonias del sur. Excluyendo los nativos americanos (conocido popularmente como "los indios americanos"), que estaban siendo desplazados, las trece colonias tenía una población de 2,6 millones en 1770, alrededor de un tercio de la de Gran Bretaña, casi uno de cada cinco estadounidenses eran esclavos negro. [31 ] Aunque sujeto a impuestos británicos , los colonos americanos no tenían representación en el Parlamento de Gran Bretaña .

Independencia y expansión

Las tensiones entre los colonos americanos y los británicos durante el período revolucionario de la década de 1770 y comienzos de 1760 condujo a la Guerra Revolucionaria Americana , luchó desde 1775 a través de 1781. El 14 de junio de 1775, el Congreso Continental , reunidos en Filadelfia , creó un ejército continental bajo el mando de George Washington . Proclamando que " todos los hombres son creados iguales "y dotado de" ciertos derechos inalienables ", el Congreso aprobó la Declaración de Independencia , redactada principalmente por Thomas Jefferson , el 4 de julio de 1776. Esta fecha se celebra anualmente en Estados Unidos Día de la Independencia . En 1777, los Artículos de la Confederación estableció un débil confederal gobierno que funcionó hasta 1789.

Después de la derrota británica por las fuerzas estadounidenses con la asistencia de los franceses y los españoles , Gran Bretaña reconoció la independencia de los Estados Unidos y los estados " la soberanía sobre territorio al oeste de América del río Mississippi . Una asamblea constituyente fue organizado en 1787 por los que desean establecer un gobierno nacional fuerte, con poder de imposición. La Constitución de Estados Unidos fue ratificada en 1788, y la nueva república de primera del Senado, la Cámara de Representantes , y el presidente , George Washington asumió el cargo en 1789. La Declaración de Derechos , que prohíbe la restricción federal de las libertades personales y garantizan una serie de protecciones legales , fue aprobado en 1791.

Las actitudes hacia la esclavitud fueron cambiando, una cláusula en la Constitución protege la trata de esclavos africanos sólo hasta 1808. Los estados del Norte abolieron la esclavitud entre 1780 y 1804, dejando a los estados esclavistas del Sur como defensores de la " peculiar institución ". El Segundo Gran Despertar , comenzando alrededor de 1800, hizo evangelicalismo una fuerza social detrás de varios movimientos de reforma , incluyendo el abolicionismo .

adquisiciones territoriales por fecha

"Afán de los estadounidenses a expandir hacia el oeste, provocó una larga serie de guerras contra los indios . La compra de la Luisiana de Francia, territorio reclamado bajo la presidencia de Thomas Jefferson en 1803 casi se duplicó el tamaño de la nación. [32] La guerra de 1812 , declaró contra Gran Bretaña por diversos motivos de queja y luchó por un empate, el fortalecimiento de EE.UU. nacionalismo . Una serie de incursiones militares de EE.UU. en la Florida llevó a España a ceder su territorio y otras Costa del Golfo en 1819. El Sendero de Lágrimas en la década de 1830 ejemplifica la expulsión de los indios política que priva a los pueblos nativos de sus tierras. Los Estados Unidos se anexó la República de Texas en 1845. El concepto de Destino Manifiesto se popularizó durante este tiempo. [33] El 1846 de Oregon Tratado con Gran Bretaña llevó a EE.UU. el control de la actual América del Noroeste . La victoria de EE.UU. en la guerra mexicano-americana de 1848 dio lugar a la cesión de California y gran parte del actual suroeste de Estados Unidos . La fiebre del oro de California de 1848-1849 más estimulado la migración occidental. ferrocarriles Nueva hecho más fácil la reubicación de los colonos y el aumento de los conflictos con los nativos americanos. Más de medio siglo, hasta 40 millones de bisontes americanos , o de búfalo, fueron sacrificados para pieles y carne y para facilitar los ferrocarriles "difundir el. La pérdida de los búfalos, un recurso primordial de la llanura indios , fue un golpe existencial para muchas culturas indígenas.

Guerra Civil y la industrialización

Batalla de Gettysburg , litografía de Currier & Ives , ca. 1863

Las tensiones entre el esclavo y estados libres montado con argumentos sobre la relación entre los gobiernos estatales y federales , así como los conflictos violentos en la expansión de la esclavitud en los nuevos estados. Abraham Lincoln , candidato del gran medida contra la esclavitud del Partido Republicano , fue elegido presidente en 1860. Antes de asumir el cargo, los siete estados esclavistas declararon su secesión -que el gobierno federal se mantuvo ilegales-y formó el Estados Confederados de América . Con la Confederación ataque a Fort Sumter , la Guerra Civil Americana empezó y cuatro más estados esclavistas se unió a la Confederación. Lincoln Proclamación de Emancipación en 1863 declararon esclavos de la Confederación de ser libres. Después de la Unión la victoria en 1865, tres enmiendas a los EE.UU. Constitución garantiza la libertad de los casi cuatro millones los afroamericanos que habían sido esclavos, [34] los hizo ciudadanos , y les dio derecho a voto . La guerra y su resolución dio lugar a un aumento sustancial en el poder federal . [35] La guerra sigue siendo el conflicto más letal en la historia estadounidense, lo que resulta en la muerte de 620.000 soldados. [36]

Los inmigrantes en Ellis Island , el puerto de Nueva York de 1902

Después de la guerra, el asesinato de Lincoln radicalizados republicano Reconstrucción políticas encaminadas a la reintegración y la reconstrucción de los estados sureños garantizando al mismo tiempo los derechos de los esclavos recién liberados. La resolución de la disputada elección presidencial de 1876 por la transacción de 1877 terminó la Reconstrucción; leyes de Jim Crow pronto privados de sus derechos muchos afro-americanos . En el Norte, la urbanización sin precedentes y una afluencia de inmigrantes desde el sur y este de Europa aceleró la industrialización del país . La ola de la inmigración, que duró hasta 1929, siempre y cuando el trabajo y la cultura de América transformado. nacionales de desarrollo de infraestructura impulsado el crecimiento económico. El 1867 compra de Alaska a Rusia completó la expansión continental del país. La Masacre de Wounded Knee en 1890 fue el último gran conflicto armado de las guerras indias. En 1893, la monarquía indígena del Pacífico Reino de Hawái fue derrocado en un golpe de estado liderado por los residentes de América; los Estados Unidos se anexó el archipiélago en 1898. La victoria en la Guerra Española-Americana del mismo año demuestra que los Estados Unidos era una potencia mundial y dio lugar a la anexión de Puerto Rico, Guam y las Filipinas . [37] Filipinas obtuvo la independencia de medio siglo después, Puerto Rico y Guam siendo territorios de los EE.UU..

Primera Guerra Mundial, Gran Depresión, y Segunda Guerra Mundial

Una granja abandonada en Dakota del Sur durante el Dust Bowl de 1936

Al estallar la Primera Guerra Mundial en 1914, los Estados Unidos se mantuvo neutral. La mayoría de los estadounidenses simpatizaban con los británicos y franceses, aunque la intervención se opuso a muchas. [38] En 1917, los Estados Unidos se unió a la aliados , ayudando a cambiar la marea contra las potencias centrales . Después de la guerra, el Senado no ratificó el Tratado de Versalles , que estableció la Liga de Naciones . El país siguió una política de unilateralismo , que raya en el aislacionismo . [39] En 1920, los derechos de la mujer movimiento ganó la aprobación de una enmienda constitucional la concesión del sufragio de las mujeres . La prosperidad de los años veinte terminó con la calle crack de Wall de 1929 que desencadenó la Gran Depresión . Después de su elección como presidente en 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt respondió con el New Deal , una serie de políticas cada vez mayor intervención del gobierno en la economía. La gran sequía de mediados de la década de 1930 muchas comunidades agrícolas pobres y estimulado una nueva ola de migración occidental.

Los Estados Unidos, efectivamente neutral durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial 's primeras etapas después de la Alemania nazi 's invasión de Polonia en septiembre de 1939, comenzó a suministrar material a los aliados marzo 1941 a través del Préstamo y Arriendo programa. El 7 de diciembre de 1941, el Imperio de Japón lanzó una sorpresa ataque a Pearl Harbor , lo que llevó a Estados Unidos a unirse a los aliados contra los poderes del Eje , así como el internamiento de japoneses-americanos de a miles. [40] La participación en la guerra estimuló capital de inversión y la capacidad industrial. Entre los principales combatientes, los Estados Unidos fue la única nación que se hacen más ricos-de hecho, mucho más rico, en lugar de los más pobres debido a la guerra. [41] conferencias de los aliados en Bretton Woods y Yalta esbozado un nuevo sistema de organizaciones internacionales que realizó el Reino Estados y la Unión Soviética en el centro de los asuntos mundiales. Como la victoria fue ganada en Europa , un 1,945 conferencia internacional celebrada en San Francisco produjo la Carta de Naciones Unidas , que se convirtió en activo después de la guerra. [42] Los Estados Unidos, después de haber desarrollado las primeras armas nucleares , los utilizó en las ciudades japonesas de Hiroshima y Nagasaki en agosto. Japón se rindió el 2 de septiembre, poniendo fin a la guerra. [43]

La Guerra Fría y la política de protesta

Martin Luther King, Jr. de la entrega de su " I Have a Dream "del habla, 1963

Los Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética competían por el poder después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial durante la Guerra Fría , que domina los asuntos militares de Europa a través de la OTAN y el Pacto de Varsovia , y la participación en guerras de poder en muchos lugares. Resistirse a la tierra de izquierda y los proyectos de redistribución del ingreso en todo el mundo, los Estados Unidos a menudo apoyado a gobiernos autoritarios. las tropas estadounidenses lucharon comunista chino fuerzas en la guerra de Corea de 1950-53. La Casa de Actividades Antiamericanas Comité llevado a cabo una serie de investigaciones sobre la subversión de izquierda sospechosos, mientras que el senador Joseph McCarthy se convirtió en el mascarón de proa del sentimiento anticomunista.

El Soviet de lanzamiento 1961 del primer vuelo espacial tripulado provocó que el presidente John F. Kennedy s llaman "de los Estados Unidos para ser el primero a la tierra "a un hombre en la luna" , lograda en 1969. Kennedy también se enfrentó a un tenso enfrentamiento nuclear con las fuerzas soviéticas en Cuba. Mientras tanto, Estados Unidos experimentó una expansión económica sostenida. Un creciente movimiento de derechos civiles , simbolizada y dirigido por los afro-americanos, como Rosa Parks , Martin Luther King, Jr. y James Bevel , que se utiliza la no-violencia para hacer frente a la segregación y la discriminación. Tras el asesinato de Kennedy en 1963, la Ley de Derechos Civiles de 1964 y la Ley de Derechos Electorales de 1965 se aprobaron durante la presidencia de Lyndon B. Johnson . Johnson y su sucesor, Richard Nixon , la ampliación de una guerra de poder en el sudeste asiático en la fracasada guerra de Vietnam . Un amplio movimiento contracultural creció, impulsada por la oposición a la guerra , el nacionalismo negro , y la revolución sexual . Betty Friedan , Gloria Steinem , y otros encabezó una nueva ola de feminismo que buscó, sociales, económicos y la igualdad política para las mujeres.

Como resultado del escándalo de Watergate , en 1974, Nixon se convirtió en el primer presidente de EE.UU. a renunciar, para evitar ser enjuiciado por cargos de obstrucción de la justicia y abuso de poder, fue logrado por el vicepresidente Gerald Ford . El Jimmy Carter, la administración de la década de 1970 estuvo marcado por la estanflación y la crisis de los rehenes de Irán . La elección de Ronald Reagan como presidente en 1980 anunció un giro a la derecha en la política estadounidense , que se refleja en cambios importantes en las prioridades de gasto y los impuestos . Su segundo mandato presentada tanto en el escándalo Irán-Contras y significativo progreso diplomático con la Unión Soviética . El colapso soviético posterior puso fin a la Guerra Fría.

Época contemporánea

Bajo la presidencia de George HW Bush , Estados Unidos tuvo un papel de liderazgo en las Naciones Unidas-sancionada Guerra del Golfo . La mayor expansión económica en la moderna historia de EE.UU., desde marzo 1991 a marzo 2001-que abarca la de Bill Clinton la administración y la com burbuja de las punto . [44] Una demanda civil y escándalo sexual llevó a la destitución de Clinton en 1998, pero permaneció en el cargo. Las elecciones presidenciales de 2000 , uno de los más cercanos en la historia estadounidense, fue resuelto por una Corte Suprema de decisión de los EE.UU. - George W. Bush , hijo de George HW Bush, se convirtió en presidente.

El 11 de septiembre 2001 , al-Qaeda, terroristas atacaron el World Trade Center en Nueva York y el Pentágono , cerca de Washington, DC, matando a casi tres mil personas. In response, the Bush administration launched the global War on Terror . In October 2001, US forces led an invasion of Afghanistan , removing the Taliban government and al-Qaeda training camps. Taliban insurgents continue to fight a guerrilla war. In 2002, the Bush administration began to press for regime change in Iraq on controversial grounds . [ 45 ] Lacking the support of NATO or an explicit UN mandate for military intervention, Bush organized a Coalition of the Willing ; coalition forces preemptively invaded Iraq in 2003, removing dictator Saddam Hussein . In 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused severe destruction along much of the Gulf Coast , devastating New Orleans . On November 4, 2008, amid a global economic recession the first African American president, Barack Obama , was elected. In 2010, major health care and financial system reforms were enacted. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that year became the largest peacetime oil disaster in history. [ 46 ]

Government and elections

The west front of the United States Capitol , which houses the United States Congress .

The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation . It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ." [ 47 ] The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the US Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government , federal, state, and local; the local government 's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is very rare at lower levels.

The south façade of the White House , home and workplace of the US president .

The federal government is composed of three branches:

The west front of the United States Supreme Court Building .

The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. As of the 2000 census , seven states have the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, has fifty-three. The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice . The president is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned by state. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States , has nine members, who serve for life.

The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. The governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.

All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review, and any law ruled in violation of the Constitution is voided. The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus , and Article Three guarantees the right to a jury trial in all criminal cases. Amendments to the Constitution require the approval of three-fourths of the states. The Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times; the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights , and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights.

Parties, ideology, and politics

Barack Obama taking the presidential oath of office from US Chief Justice John Roberts , January 20, 2009

The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections . Since the general election of 1856 , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in 1824 , and the Republican Party , founded in 1854 . Since the Civil War, only one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt , running as a Progressive in 1912 —has won as much as 20% of the popular vote.

Within American political culture , the Republican Party is considered center-right or " conservative " and the Democratic Party is considered center-left or " liberal ". The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as " blue states ", are relatively liberal. The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.

The winner of the 2008 presidential election , Democrat Barack Obama , is the 44th US president . All previous presidents were men of solely European descent. The 2010 midterm elections saw the Republican Party take control of the House and make gains in the Senate , where the Democrats retain the majority. In the 112th United States Congress , the Senate comprises 51 Democrats, two independents who caucus with the Democrats, and 47 Republicans; the House comprises 242 Republicans and 193 Democrats. There are 29 Republican and 20 Democratic state governors , as well as one independent.

Political divisions

The United States is a federal union of fifty states. The original thirteen states were the successors of the thirteen colonies that rebelled against British rule. Early in the country's history, three new states were organized on territory separated from the claims of the existing states: Kentucky from Virginia ; Tennessee from North Carolina ; and Maine from Massachusetts . Most of the other states have been carved from territories obtained through war or purchase by the US government. One set of exceptions comprises Vermont , Texas , and Hawaii : each was an independent republic before joining the union. During the American Civil War , West Virginia broke away from Virginia. The most recent state—Hawaii—achieved statehood on August 21, 1959. The states do not have the right to secede from the union.

The states compose the vast bulk of the US land mass; the two other areas considered integral parts of the country are the District of Columbia, the federal district where the capital, Washington, is located; and Palmyra Atoll , an uninhabited but incorporated territory in the Pacific Ocean. The United States also possesses five major overseas territories: Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; and American Samoa , Guam , and the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific. [ 48 ] Those born in the major territories (except for American Samoa) possess US citizenship . [ 49 ] American citizens residing in the territories have many of the same rights and responsibilities as citizens residing in the states; however, they are generally exempt from federal income tax, may not vote for president, and have only nonvoting representation in the US Congress . [ 50 ]

AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDelawareMarylandNew HampshireNew JerseyMassachusettsConnecticutWest VirginiaVermontRhode IslandMap of USA with state names 2.svg
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Relaciones exteriores y militares

British Foreign Secretary William Hague and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton , May 2010

The United States exercises global economic, political, and military influence. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and New York City hosts the United Nations Headquarters . It is a member of the G8 , G20 , and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development . Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, DC, and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions . However, Cuba , Iran , North Korea , Bhutan , Libya , and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States.

The United States has a " special relationship " with the United Kingdom [ 51 ] and strong ties with Canada , Australia , New Zealand , Japan , South Korea , and Israel . It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico . In 2008, the United States spent a net $25.4 billion on official development assistance , the most in the world. As a share of gross national income (GNI), however, the US contribution of 0.18% ranked last among twenty-two donor states. In contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous. [ 52 ]

The president holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff . The United States Department of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Army , Navy , Marine Corps , and Air Force . The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and the Department of the Navy in time of war. In 2008, the armed forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors. [ 53 ]

Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System . American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's eleven active aircraft carriers, and Marine Expeditionary Units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets . The military operates 865 bases and facilities abroad, [ 54 ] and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries. [ 55 ] The extent of this global military presence has prompted some scholars to describe the United States as maintaining an "empire of bases." [ 56 ]

Total US military spending in 2008, more than $600 billion, was over 41% of global military spending and greater than the next fourteen largest national military expenditures combined. The per capita spending of $1,967 was about nine times the world average; at 4% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top fifteen military spenders, after Saudi Arabia . [ 57 ] The proposed base Department of Defense budget for 2011, $549 billion, is a 3.4% increase over 2010 and 85% higher than in 2001; an additional $159 billion is proposed for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. [ 58 ] As of September 2010, the United States is scheduled to have 96,000 troops deployed to Afghanistan, and 50,000 to Iraq. [ 59 ] As of January 5, 2011, the United States had suffered 4,432 military fatalities during the Iraq War , [ 60 ] and 1,448 during the War in Afghanistan . [ 61 ]

Economía

Economic indicators
Desempleo 9.1% (May 2011) [ 62 ]
GDP growth 1.8% (1Q 2011), 2.9% (2009 – 2010) [ 63 ]
CPI inflation 3.2% (April 2010 – April 2011) [ 64 ]
Poverty 14.3% (2009) [ 65 ]
Public debt $14.34 trillion (June 9, 2011) [ 66 ]
Household net worth $54.2 trillion (4Q 2009) [ 67 ]

The United States has a capitalist mixed economy , which is fueled by abundant natural resources , a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity. [ 68 ] According to the International Monetary Fund , the US GDP of $14.799 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and almost 21% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP). [ 3 ] It has the largest national GDP in the world, though it is about 5% less than the GDP of the European Union at PPP in 2008. The country ranks ninth in the world in nominal GDP per capita and sixth in GDP per capita at PPP . [ 3 ]

The United States is the largest importer of goods and third largest exporter , though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2008, the total US trade deficit was $696 billion. [ 69 ] Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its top trading partners. [ 70 ] In 2007, vehicles constituted both the leading import and leading export commodity. [ 71 ] Japan is the largest foreign holder of US public debt, having surpassed China in early 2010. [ 72 ] The United States ranks second in the Global Competitiveness Report . [ 73 ]

In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 55.3% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 24.1% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 20.6%. [ 74 ] The economy is postindustrial , with the service sector contributing 67.8% of GDP, though the United States remains an industrial power. [ 75 ] The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing. [ 76 ] Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field. [ 77 ] The United States is the third largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its largest importer. [ 78 ] It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. While agriculture accounts for just under 1% of GDP, [ 75 ] the United States is the world's top producer of corn [ 79 ] and soybeans. [ 80 ] The New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest by dollar volume. [ 81 ] Coca-Cola and McDonald's are the two most recognized brands in the world. [ 82 ]

In August 2010, the American labor force comprised 154.1 million people. With 21.2 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. [ 62 ] About 12% of workers are unionized , compared to 30% in Western Europe. [ 83 ] The World Bank ranks the United States first in the ease of hiring and firing workers. [ 84 ] In 2009, the United States had the third highest labor productivity per person in the world, behind Luxembourg and Norway. It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands. [ 85 ] Compared to Europe, US property and corporate income tax rates are generally higher, while labor and, particularly, consumption tax rates are lower. [ 86 ]

Income and human development

According to the United States Census Bureau , the pretax median household income in 2007 was $49,777. The median ranged from $65,469 among Asian American households to $32,584 among African American households. [ 65 ] Using purchasing power parity exchange rates, the overall median is similar to the most affluent cluster of developed nations . After declining sharply during the middle of the 20th century, poverty rates have plateaued since the early 1970s, with 11–15% of Americans below the poverty line every year, and 58.5% spending at least one year in poverty between the ages of 25 and 75. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] In 2009, 43.6 million Americans lived in poverty. [ 65 ]

The US welfare state is one of the least extensive in the developed world, reducing both relative poverty and absolute poverty by considerably less than the mean for rich nations, [ 89 ] [ 90 ] though combined private and public social expenditures per capita are higher than in any of the Nordic countries . [ 91 ] While the American welfare state does well in reducing poverty among the elderly, [ 92 ] the young receive relatively little assistance. [ 93 ] A 2007 UNICEF study of children's well-being in twenty-one industrialized nations ranked the United States next to last. [ 94 ]

Despite strong increases in productivity, low unemployment, and low inflation, income gains since 1980 have been slower than in previous decades, less widely shared, and accompanied by increased economic insecurity. Between 1947 and 1979, real median income rose by over 80% for all classes, with the incomes of poor Americans rising faster than those of the rich. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] Median household income has increased for all classes since 1980, [ 97 ] largely owing to more dual-earner households, the closing of the gender gap , and longer work hours, but growth has been slower and strongly tilted toward the very top (see graph). [ 89 ] [ 95 ] [ 98 ] Consequently, the share of income of the top 1%—21.8% of total reported income in 2005—has more than doubled since 1980, [ 99 ] leaving the United States with the greatest income inequality among developed nations. [ 89 ] [ 100 ] The top 1% pays 27.6% of all federal taxes; the top 10% pays 54.7%. [ 101 ] Wealth, like income, is highly concentrated: The richest 10% of the adult population possesses 69.8% of the country's household wealth, the second-highest share among developed nations. [ 102 ] The top 1% possesses 33.4% of net wealth. [ 103 ]

Science and technology

A photograph from Apollo 11 of Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the Moon

The United States has been a leader in scientific research and technological innovation since the late 19th century. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first US patent for the telephone . Thomas Edison 's laboratory developed the phonograph , the first long-lasting light bulb , and the first viable movie camera . Nikola Tesla pioneered alternating current , the AC motor , and radio. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford promoted the assembly line . The Wright brothers , in 1903, made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight . [ 104 ]

The rise of Nazism in the 1930s led many European scientists, including Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi , to immigrate to the United States. During World War II, the Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the Atomic Age . The Space Race produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science , and computers. The United States largely developed the ARPANET and its successor, the Internet . Today, the bulk of research and development funding, 64%, comes from the private sector. [ 105 ] The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor . [ 106 ] Americans possess high levels of technological consumer goods, [ 107 ] and almost half of US households have broadband Internet access . [ 108 ] The country is the primary developer and grower of genetically modified food , representing half of the world's biotech crops. [ 109 ]

The Interstate Highway System , which extends 46,876 miles (75,440 km) [ 110 ]
A coal mine in Wyoming . The United States has 27% of global coal reserves. [ 111 ]

Transporte

Everyday personal transportation in the United States is dominated by the automobile driving on one of 13 million roads. [ 112 ] As of 2003, there were 759 automobiles per 1,000 Americans, compared to 472 per 1,000 inhabitants of the European Union the following year. [ 113 ] About 40% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs , or light trucks. [ 114 ] The average American adult (accounting for all drivers and nondrivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km). [ 115 ]

The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned, while most major airports are publicly owned. The four largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are American; Southwest Airlines is number one. [ 116 ] Of the world's thirty busiest passenger airports, sixteen are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport . [ 117 ] While transport of goods by rail is extensive, relatively few people use rail to travel, within or between cities. [ 118 ] Mass transit accounts for 9% of total US work trips, compared to 38.8% in Europe. [ 119 ] Bicycle usage is minimal, well below European levels. [ 120 ]

Energía

The United States energy market is 29,000 terawatt hours per year. Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons of oil equivalent per year, compared to Germany's 4.2 tons and Canada's 8.3 tons. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources. [ 121 ] The United States is the world's largest consumer of petroleum. [ 122 ] For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part due to public perception in the wake of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident . In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed. [ 123 ]

Demografía

Largest ancestry groups by county, 2000.
Race/Ethnicity (2010) [ 124 ]
Blanca 72.4%
Black/African American 12.6%
Asia 4.8%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0,9%
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 0,2%
Otros 6.2%
Two or more races 2.9%
Hispanic/Latino ( of any race ) 16.3%

The 2010 US Census reported 308,745,538 residents; the US Census Bureau's Population Clock projects the country's population now to be 311,536,000, [ 125 ] including an estimated 11.2 million illegal immigrants . [ 126 ] The third most populous nation in the world, after China and India , the United States is the only industrialized nation in which large population increases are projected. [ 127 ] With a birth rate of 13.82 per 1,000, 30% below the world average, its population growth rate is 0.98%, significantly higher than those of Western Europe, Japan, and South Korea. [ 128 ] In fiscal year 2010, over 1 million immigrants were granted legal residence , [ 129 ] most of them entered through family reunification . [ 129 ] Mexico has been the leading source of new residents for over two decades; since 1998, China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year. [ 130 ]

The United States has a very diverse population —thirty-one ancestry groups have more than one million members. [ 131 ] White Americans are the largest racial group ; German Americans , Irish Americans , and English Americans constitute three of the country's four largest ancestry groups. [ 131 ] African Americans are the nation's largest racial minority and third largest ancestry group. [ 131 ] Asian Americans are the country's second largest racial minority; the two largest Asian American ethnic groups are Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans . [ 131 ] In 2010, the US population included an estimated 5.2 million people with some American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry (2.9 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.2 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.5 million exclusively). [ 132 ] The census now includes the category "Some Other Race" for "respondents unable to identify with any" of its five official race categories; more than 19 million people were placed in this category in 2010. [ 132 ]

The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans (the terms are officially interchangeable) is a major demographic trend . The 50.5 million Americans of Hispanic descent [ 132 ] are identified as sharing a distinct " ethnicity " by the Census Bureau; 64% of Hispanic Americans are of Mexican descent . [ 133 ] Between 2000 and 2010, the country's Hispanic population increased 43% while the non-Hispanic population rose just 4.9%. [ 124 ] Much of this growth is from immigration; as of 2007, 12.6% of the US population was foreign-born, with 54% of that figure born in Latin America . [ 134 ] Fertility is also a factor; the average Hispanic woman gives birth to 3.0 children in her lifetime, compared to 2.2 for non-Hispanic black women and 1.8 for non-Hispanic white women (below the replacement rate of 2.1). [ 127 ] Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau, all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constitute 34% of the population; they are projected to be the majority by 2042. [ 135 ]

About 82% of Americans live in urban areas (as defined by the Census Bureau, such areas include the suburbs ); [ 1 ] about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000. [ 136 ] In 2008, 273 incorporated places had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than 1 million residents, and four global cities had over 2 million ( New York City , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston ). [ 137 ] There are fifty-two metropolitan areas with populations greater than 1 million. [ 138 ] Of the fifty fastest-growing metro areas, forty-seven are in the West or South. [ 139 ] The metro areas of Dallas , Houston, Atlanta , and Phoenix all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and 2008. [ 138 ]

Leading population centers vista · Discusión · editar
Puesto Core City Metro area pop. [ 140 ] Metropolitan Statistical Area Region [ 141 ]
Ciudad de Nueva York
Ciudad de Nueva York

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1 New York City 18,897,109 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA MSA Nordeste
2 Los Angeles 12,828,837 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA Oeste
3 Chicago 9,461,105 Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI MSA Medio Oeste
4 Dallas 6,371,773 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MSA South
5 Filadelfia 5,965,343 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA Nordeste
6 Houston 5,946,800 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA South
7 Washington, DC 5,582,170 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA South
8 Miami 5,564,635 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL MSA South
9 Atlanta 5,268,860 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA South
10 Boston 4,552,402 Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH MSA Nordeste
based on the 2010 US Census

Idioma

Languages (2007) [ 142 ]
English ( only ) 225.5 million
Spanish , incl. Creole 34.5 million
Chino 2500000
French , incl. Creole 2.0 million
Tagalo 1.5 million
Vietnamese 1.2 million
Alemán 1.1 million
Corea 1.1 million

English is the de facto national language . Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as US naturalization requirements —standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish , spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states. [ 5 ] Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii by state law. [ 144 ]

While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French. [ 145 ] Other states, such as California , mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents including court forms. [ 146 ] Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.

Religión

A Presbyterian church; most Americans identify as Christian.

The United States is officially a secular nation ; the First Amendment of the US Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids the establishment of any religious governance . In a 2002 study, 59% of Americans said that religion played a "very important role in their lives," a far higher figure than that of any other wealthy nation. [ 147 ] According to a 2007 survey, 78.4% of adults identified themselves as Christian , [ 148 ] down from 86.4% in 1990. [ 149 ] Protestant denominations accounted for 51.3%, while Roman Catholicism , at 23.9%, was the largest individual denomination. The study categorizes white evangelicals , 26.3% of the population, as the country's largest religious cohort; [ 148 ] another study estimates evangelicals of all races at 30–35%. [ 150 ] The total reporting non-Christian religions in 2007 was 4.7%, up from 3.3% in 1990. [ 149 ] The leading non-Christian faiths were Judaism (1.7%), Buddhism (0.7%), Islam (0.6%), Hinduism (0.4%), and Unitarian Universalism (0.3%). [ 148 ] The survey also reported that 16.1% of Americans described themselves as agnostic , atheist , or simply having no religion , up from 8.2% in 1990. [ 148 ] [ 149 ]

Educación

Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire is an example of a liberal arts college in America.

American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. Children are required in most states to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade ) until they turn eighteen (generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ); some states allow students to leave school at sixteen or seventeen. [ 151 ] About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools . Just over 2% of children are homeschooled . [ 152 ]

The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education , as well as local community colleges with open admission policies. Of Americans twenty-five and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree , and 9.6% earned graduate degrees. [ 153 ] The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%. [ 1 ] [ 154 ] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world. [ 155 ]

Salud

The United States life expectancy of 77.8 years at birth [ 156 ] is a year shorter than the overall figure in Western Europe, and three to four years lower than that of Norway, Switzerland, and Canada. [ 157 ] Over the past two decades, the country's rank in life expectancy has dropped from 11th to 42nd in the world. [ 158 ] The infant mortality rate of 6.37 per thousand likewise places the United States 42nd out of 221 countries, behind all of Western Europe. [ 159 ] Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight; [ 160 ] the obesity rate, the highest in the industrialized world, has more than doubled in the last quarter-century. [ 161 ] Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals. [ 162 ]

The Texas Medical Center in Houston , the world's largest medical center [ 163 ]

The US adolescent pregnancy rate, 79.8 per 1,000 women, is nearly four times that of France and five times that of Germany. [ 164 ] Abortion, legal on demand , is highly controversial. Many states ban public funding of the procedure and restrict late-term abortions, require parental notification for minors, and mandate a waiting period. While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of 241 per 1,000 live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 remain higher than those of most Western nations. [ 165 ]

The US health care system far outspends any other nation's, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of GDP. [ 166 ] The World Health Organization ranked the US health care system in 2000 as first in responsiveness, but 37th in overall performance. The United States is a leader in medical innovation. In 2004, the nonindustrial sector spent three times as much as Europe per capita on biomedical research. [ 167 ]

Unlike in all other developed countries, health care coverage in the United States is not universal . In 2004, private insurance paid for 36% of personal health expenditures, private out-of-pocket payments covered 15%, and federal, state, and local governments paid for 44%. [ 168 ] In 2005, 46.6 million Americans, 15.9% of the population, were uninsured, 5.4 million more than in 2001. The main cause of this rise is the drop in the number of Americans with employer-sponsored health insurance. [ 169 ] The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue. [ 170 ] A 2009 study estimated that lack of insurance is associated with nearly 45,000 deaths a year. [ 171 ] In 2006, Massachusetts became the first state to mandate universal health insurance. [ 172 ] Federal legislation passed in early 2010 will create a near-universal health insurance system around the country by 2014.

Crime and law enforcement

Homicide rate2004.svg

Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff 's departments, with state police providing broader services. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the US Marshals Service have specialized duties. At the federal level and in almost every state, jurisprudence operates on a common law system. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state systems.

Among developed nations , the United States has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide . [ 173 ] In 2007, there were 5.6 murders per 100,000 persons, [ 174 ] three times the rate in neighboring Canada. [ 175 ] The US homicide rate, which decreased by 42% between 1991 and 1999, has been roughly steady since. [ 174 ] Gun ownership rights are the subject of contentious political debate .

The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate [ 176 ] and total prison population [ 177 ] in the world. At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults. [ 178 ] The current rate is about seven times the 1980 figure. [ 179 ] African American males are jailed at about six times the rate of white males and three times the rate of Hispanic males. [ 176 ] In 2006, the US incarceration rate was over three times the figure in Poland, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country with the next highest rate. [ 180 ] The country's high rate of incarceration is largely due to sentencing and drug policies . [ 176 ] [ 181 ]

Though it has been abolished in most Western nations, capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and in thirty-four states. Since 1976, when the US Supreme Court reinstated the death penalty after a four-year moratorium, there have been more than 1,000 executions. [ 182 ] In 2006, the country had the sixth highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran , Pakistan , Iraq, and Sudan . [ 183 ] In 2007, New Jersey became the first state to legislatively abolish the death penalty since the 1976 Supreme Court decision, followed by New Mexico in 2009 and Illinois in 2011. [ 184 ]

Cultura

American cultural icons: apple pie, baseball, and the American flag

The United States is a multicultural nation, home to a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. [ 6 ] [ 185 ] Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries. [ 186 ] The culture held in common by most Americans—mainstream American culture—is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa . [ 6 ] [ 187 ] More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics. [ 6 ]

According to Geert Hofstede 's cultural dimensions analysis, the United States has the highest individualism score of any country studied. [ 188 ] While the mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society , [ 189 ] scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization , language, and values. [ 190 ] The American middle and professional class has initiated many contemporary social trends such as modern feminism , environmentalism , and multiculturalism. [ 191 ] Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree. [ 192 ] While Americans tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute. [ 193 ] Though the American Dream , or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility , plays a key role in attracting immigrants, various studies indicate that the United States has less social mobility than Canada and the Nordic countries. [ 194 ]

Women now mostly work outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees . [ 195 ] In 2007, 58% of Americans age 18 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been married. [ 196 ] Same-sex marriage is contentious. Some states permit civil unions in lieu of marriage. Since 2003, several states have permitted gay marriage as the result of judicial or legislative action, while voters in more than a dozen states have barred the practice via referendum .

Popular media

The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison 's Kinetoscope . The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of sound film 's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the US film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood , California. Director DW Griffith was central to the development of film grammar and Orson Welles 's Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time. [ 197 ] American screen actors like John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe have become iconic figures, while producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising . The major film studios of Hollywood have produced the most commercially successful movies in history, such as Star Wars (1977) and Titanic (1997), and the products of Hollywood today dominate the global film industry. [ 198 ]

Americans are the heaviest television viewers in the world, [ 199 ] and the average viewing time continues to rise, reaching five hours a day in 2006. [ 200 ] The four major broadcast networks are all commercial entities. Americans listen to radio programming, also largely commercialized, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day. [ 201 ] Aside from web portals and search engines , the most popular websites are Facebook , YouTube , Wikipedia , Blogger , eBay , and Craigslist . [ 202 ]

The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music have deeply influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s. Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and roll . In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk . More recent American creations include hip hop and house music . American pop stars such as Presley, Michael Jackson , and Madonna have become global celebrities. [ 203 ]

Literature, philosophy, and the arts

Jack Kerouac , one of the best-known figures of the Beat Generation , a group of writers that came to prominence in the 1950s

In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne , Edgar Allan Poe , and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson , virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet. [ 204 ] A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as Herman Melville 's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), and F. Scott Fitzgerald 's The Great Gatsby (1925)—may be dubbed the " Great American Novel ." [ 205 ]

Eleven US citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature , most recently Toni Morrison in 1993. William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century. [ 206 ] Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors such as John Barth , Thomas Pynchon , and Don DeLillo .

The transcendentalists , led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson , established the first major American philosophical movement . After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism . In the 20th century, the work of WV Quine and Richard Rorty , built upon by Noam Chomsky , brought analytic philosophy to the fore of US academics. John Rawls and Robert Nozick led a revival of political philosophy .

In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism . The realist paintings of Thomas Eakins are now widely celebrated. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art , shocked the public and transformed the US art scene. [ 207 ] Georgia O'Keeffe , Marsden Hartley , and others experimented with new styles, displaying a highly individualistic sensibility. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright , Philip Johnson , and Frank Gehry .

One of the first major promoters of American theater was impresario PT Barnum , who began operating a lower Manhattan entertainment complex in 1841. The team of Harrigan and Hart produced a series of popular musical comedies in New York starting in the late 1870s. In the 20th century, the modern musical form emerged on Broadway ; the songs of musical theater composers such as Irving Berlin , Cole Porter , and Stephen Sondheim have become pop standards . Playwright Eugene O'Neill won the Nobel literature prize in 1936; other acclaimed US dramatists include multiple Pulitzer Prize winners Tennessee Williams , Edward Albee , and August Wilson .

Though largely overlooked at the time, Charles Ives 's work of the 1910s established him as the first major US composer in the classical tradition; other experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music. Choreographers Isadora Duncan and Martha Graham helped create modern dance , while George Balanchine and Jerome Robbins were leaders in 20th century ballet. Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of photography , with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz , Edward Steichen , and Ansel Adams . The newspaper comic strip and the comic book are both US innovations. Superman , the quintessential comic book superhero , has become an American icon. [ 208 ]

Alimentos

Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain. Traditional American cuisine uses indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup, which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers. Slow-cooked pork and beef barbecue, crab cakes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies are distinctively American foods. Soul food , developed by African slaves, is popular around the South and among many African Americans elsewhere. Syncretic cuisines such as Louisiana creole , Cajun , and Tex-Mex are regionally important.

Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed. [ 209 ] Americans generally prefer coffee to tea. Marketing by US industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages. [ 210 ] During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%; [ 209 ] frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American " obesity epidemic ." [ 211 ] Highly sweetened soft drinks are widely popular; sugared beverages account for 9% of the average American's caloric intake. [ 212 ]

Deportes

A college football quarterback looking to pass the ball

Baseball has been regarded as the national sport since the late 19th century, even after being eclipsed in popularity by American football . Basketball and ice hockey are the country's next two leading professional team sports. College football and basketball attract large audiences. American football is now by several measures the most popular spectator sport. [ 213 ] Boxing and horse racing were once the most watched individual sports, but they have been eclipsed by golf and auto racing , particularly NASCAR . Soccer is played widely at the youth and amateur levels. Tennis and many outdoor sports are popular as well.

While most major US sports have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball , skateboarding , snowboarding , and cheerleading are American inventions. Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact. Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. The United States has won 2,301 medals at the Summer Olympic Games , more than any other country, [ 214 ] and 253 in the Winter Olympic Games , the second most. [ 215 ]

Measurement systems

The country retains United States customary units, constituted largely by British imperial units such as miles, yards , and degrees Fahrenheit . Distinct units include the US gallon and US pint volume measurements. Along with Burma and Liberia , the United States is one of the three countries that have not adopted the International System of Units . However, metric units are increasingly used in science, medicine, and many industrial fields. [ 216 ]

Véase también

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