Universidad de Cambridge

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Saltar a navegación , búsqueda
Universidad de Cambridge

Escudo de armas de la Universidad de Cambridge
América : cantabrigiensis Universitas
Lema Hinc lucem et pocula sacra ( América )
Motto en Inglés Borradores Desde aquí, la luz y sagrado: Literal
No literal: Desde este lugar, alcanzar la iluminación y el conocimiento precioso
Establecido c. 1209
Tipo Público
Dotación £ 4,3 mil millones (2011, incl. Universidades) [1]
Canciller El Señor Sainsbury of Turville
Vice-Canciller Sir Leszek Borysiewicz
El personal académico 5.999 [2]
Admin. personal 3.142 [2]
Los estudiantes 18.448 [2]
Estudiantes universitarios 12.077 [2]
Postgraduados 6.371 [2]
Ubicación Cambridge , Inglaterra, Reino Unido
Colores      Cambridge Blue [3]
Atletismo El azul del Sporting
Afiliaciones Russell Grupo
Grupo Coimbra
EUA
G5
LERU
IARU
Sitio web www.cam.ac.uk
Universidad de Cambridge logo.svg

La Universidad de Cambridge (informalmente conocida como la Universidad de Cambridge o simplemente como Cambridge) es un público universitario de investigación ubicado en Cambridge , Inglaterra , Reino Unido . Es la segunda universidad más antigua en el mundo de habla Inglés (después de la Universidad de Oxford ), y la tercera universidad más antigua del mundo. En post-nominales nombre de la universidad es abreviado como Cantab, una forma abreviada de cantabrigiensis (un adjetivo derivado de Cantabrigia, el Latinised forma de Cambridge).

La Universidad surgió de una asociación de estudiosos que se formó en 1209, los primeros registros indican, por los estudiosos dejando Oxford después de una disputa con gente del pueblo. [4] Las dos universidades "antiguas" tienen muchas características comunes y son a menudo denominados conjuntamente Oxbridge . Además de las asociaciones culturales y prácticas como una parte histórica de la sociedad británica, tienen una larga historia de rivalidad entre ellos. Hoy en día, Cambridge es una universidad colegiada , con una población estudiantil de más de 18.000. Sus facultades, departamentos e institutos 31 ocupan diferentes lugares de la ciudad, incluidos los lugares a propósito-construido y la vida estudiantil prospera con numerosas oportunidades en las artes, clubes deportivos y sociedades.

Cambridge ha actuado constantemente en las tablas de clasificación diferentes en los últimos años, logrando el primer lugar en el mundo, según el QS World University Rankings tanto en 2010 y 2011, [5] . en 2012, los mismos editores Cambridge clasificados en segundo [6] Otros resultados incluir un sexto lugar en el mundo en el 2011 Times Higher World University Rankings Educación , y una quinta posición en el mundo (y el primero en Europa) en el 2011 Ranking Académico de Universidades del Mundo . Por otra parte, Cambridge regularmente sostiene con Oxford para el primer lugar en el Reino Unido las tablas de clasificación . [7] [8] En 2011, Cambridge ocupó el tercer lugar, después de Harvard y el MIT, en el Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings. [9] Los graduados de la universidad tienen ganó un total de 65 Premios Nobel , la mayor parte de cualquier universidad del mundo .

Cambridge es un miembro del Grupo de Coimbra , el G5 , la Alianza Internacional de Universidades de Investigación , la Liga de Universidades de Investigación Europeas y el Grupo Russell de investigación dirigidos por universidades británicas . Forma parte del "triángulo de oro" de las universidades británicas. [10]

Contenido

[ editar ] Historia

La fundación oficial de la Universidad de Cambridge se remontan a la mejora, en una carta en 1231 por el rey Enrique III de Inglaterra , que recibió el ius no trahi adicional (un derecho de disciplinar a sus propios miembros), además de la exención de algunos impuestos, y un toro en 1233 del Papa Gregorio IX que dio a los graduados de Cambridge el derecho a enseñar "en todas partes de la cristiandad". [11]

Después de Cambridge fue descrito como un studium generale en una carta dirigida por el Papa Nicolás IV en 1290, [12] y confirmado como tal en un toro por el Papa Juan XXII en 1318, [13] llegó a ser común para los investigadores de otros países europeos universidades medievales venir y visitar Cambridge a estudiar oa dar conferencias cursos. [12]

[ editar ] Fundación de los colegios

Clare College (izquierda) y parte del Colegio del Rey , incluyendo Kings College Chapel (centro), construido entre 1441 y 1515

Los colegios de la Universidad de Cambridge eran originalmente una característica incidental del sistema. Ninguna universidad es tan antigua como la propia universidad. Los colegios fueron dotados de becas escolares. También hubo instituciones sin dotaciones, llamado albergues. Los albergues fueron absorbidos gradualmente por los colegios a través de los siglos, pero han dejado a algunos indicadores de su tiempo, tales como el nombre de Lane Hostel Garret. [14]

Hugh Balsham , Obispo de Ely , fundada Peterhouse en 1284, la primera universidad de Cambridge. Muchas universidades fueron fundadas en los siglos XIV y XV, pero las universidades siguieron estableciendo a lo largo de los siglos hasta nuestros días, a pesar de que había una brecha de 204 años entre la fundación de Sidney Sussex en 1596 y Downing en 1800. La universidad más reciente creación es Robinson , construido a finales de 1970. Sin embargo, Homerton College sólo alcanzó la categoría de universidad plena universidad en marzo de 2010, por lo que es la nueva universidad completa (lo que antes era una "Sociedad Aprobado" afiliado a la universidad).

En medievales veces, muchas universidades fueron fundadas para que sus miembros serían orar por las almas de los fundadores, y se asocia a menudo con capillas o abadías . Un cambio en el enfoque de los colegios universitarios se produjo en 1536 con la disolución de los monasterios . El rey Enrique VIII ordenó la universidad de disolver su Facultad de Derecho Canónico [15] y que dejar de enseñar " la filosofía escolástica ". En respuesta, los colegios cambiado sus planes de estudio fuera de la ley canónica, y hacia los clásicos , la Biblia, y matemáticas .

En Cambridge se alejó de Derecho Canónico, sino que también se alejó del catolicismo. Ya en la década de 1520, el luteranismo y lo que iba a ser más ampliamente conocido como la Reforma Protestante estaban haciendo sentir su presencia en el discurso intelectual de la universidad. Entre los involucrados era Thomas Cranmer , quien luego sería arzobispo de Canterbury . Como se hizo conveniente para Enrique VIII en la década de 1530, el rey miró a Cranmer y otros (dentro y fuera de Cambridge) para elaborar un nuevo camino que era diferente del catolicismo pero también diferente de lo que Martín Lutero tenía en mente.

Casi un siglo más tarde, la universidad estaba en el centro de un cisma protestante. Muchos nobles, intelectuales e incluso gente común vio el camino de la Iglesia de Inglaterra por ser demasiado similar a la de la Iglesia católica y que fue utilizado por la corona para usurpar los poderes legítimos de los condados. East Anglia era el centro de lo que se convirtió en el Puritan movimiento y en Cambridge, fue particularmente fuerte en el Emmanuel, Hall St Catharine, Sussex Sidney y el Colegio de Cristo. [16] Ellos produjeron muchos "no conformistas" graduados que en gran medida influenciadas por la posición social o púlpito, los cerca de 20.000 puritanos que se fue a Nueva Inglaterra y en especial la Bahía de Massachusetts durante la Gran Migración década de los años 1630. Oliver Cromwell , comandante parlamentario durante la Guerra Civil Inglés y jefe de la Commonwealth Inglés (1649-1660), al que asistieron Sidney Sussex .

[ editar ] Matemáticas y Física Matemática

Sir Isaac Newton era un estudiante de la Universidad de Cambridge

Desde los tiempos de Isaac Newton a finales del siglo 17 hasta mediados del siglo 19, la universidad mantiene un fuerte énfasis en las matemáticas aplicadas , en particular la física matemática . El estudio de este tema era obligatorio para la graduación, y los estudiantes están obligados a tomar un examen para la licenciatura, el grado principal por primera vez en Cambridge en ambas artes y las ciencias. Este examen se conoce como un examen final . [17] Estudiantes otorgó honores de primera clase después de completar el examen final de matemáticas fueron nombrados wranglers . El examen final de Matemáticas de Cambridge era competitivo y ayudó a producir algunos de los nombres más famosos de la ciencia británica, entre ellos James Clerk Maxwell , Lord Kelvin y Rayleigh Señor . [18] Sin embargo, algunos alumnos famosos, como GH Hardy , no le gustaba el sistema, sintiendo que la gente estaba demasiado interesado en acumular calificaciones en los exámenes y no le interesa el tema en sí.

Las matemáticas puras en Cambridge en el siglo 19 tuvo grandes logros, pero también se perdió en una evolución importante en matemáticas, francés y alemán. La investigación pura matemática en Cambridge finalmente alcanzó el más alto nivel internacional en el siglo 20, gracias sobre todo a GH Hardy y su colaborador, JE Littlewood . En geometría, Hodge WVD trajo Cambridge en la corriente internacional en la década de 1930.

Si bien diversificada en sus actividades de investigación e intereses docentes, Cambridge hoy mantiene su fuerza en las matemáticas. Alumnos de Cambridge han ganado seis medallas Fields y un Premio Abel de matemáticas, mientras que las personas que representan a Cambridge ha ganado cuatro medallas Fields. [19] La universidad también tiene un Master en Estudios Avanzados curso de matemáticas.

[ editar ] Edad Moderna

Trinity Lane en la nieve, con el Kings College Chapel (centro), Clare College Chapel (derecha), y las antiguas escuelas (a la izquierda)

Después de la Universidad de Cambridge Ley formalizó la estructura organizativa de la Universidad, el estudio de muchos temas nuevos se introdujo, como la teología , historia y lenguas modernas . [20] Los recursos necesarios para nuevos cursos en el arte , la arquitectura y la arqueología fueron donados generosamente por Richard Fitzwilliam de Trinity College . [21] Entre 1896 y 1902, Downing College vendió parte de sus tierras para construir el sitio Downing , que incluye nuevos laboratorios científicos de anatomía , genética y ciencias de la Tierra . [22] En el mismo período, los nuevos museos Sitio fue erigido, incluyendo el Laboratorio Cavendish , que se ha movido desde entonces al sitio West Cambridge , y otros departamentos de química y medicina . [23]

La enseñanza fue interrumpido en gran medida durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, en la que más de 14.000 miembros de la Universidad participaron y murieron 2.470. Como consecuencia de ello, la financiación del nuevo Estado comenzó a fluir a la entidad. [24] Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial , la Universidad visto una rápida expansión del número de estudiantes y plazas disponibles, lo que se debió en parte al éxito y la popularidad adquirida por muchos científicos de Cambridge . [25]

[ editar ] Las contribuciones al avance de la ciencia

Muchos de los descubrimientos más importantes de la historia científica fueron realizadas por alumnos de Cambridge. Estos incluyen:

[ edit educación] Mujeres

Inicialmente, sólo los estudiantes varones se matricularon en la universidad. Las primeras universidades para las mujeres fueron Girton College (fundado por Emily Davies ) en 1869 y Newnham College en 1872 (fundada por Anne Clough y Henry Sidgwick ), seguido de Hughes Hall en 1885 (fundada por Elizabeth Phillips Hughes como el Colegio Enseñanza Cambridge para la Mujer ), New Hall (más tarde llamado Murray Edwards College) en 1954, y Lucy Cavendish College en 1965. Los estudiantes de las primeras mujeres fueron examinadas en 1882, pero los intentos de hacer las mujeres miembros de pleno derecho de la universidad no tuvo éxito hasta 1948. [26] Las mujeres podían estudiar los cursos, los exámenes, y que sus resultados registrados desde 1881, por un breve período después de la vuelta del siglo XX, esto permitió que las " damas barco de vapor "para recibir anuncios eundem grados de la Universidad de Dublín . [27]

El puente matemático sobre el río Cam (en Queens 'College )

Desde 1921 las mujeres recibieron diplomas que "confirió el título de la Licenciatura de Bachillerato en Artes". Como no se "reconoció el grado de Bachelor of Arts" fueron excluidos de los órganos de gobierno de la universidad. Dado que los estudiantes deben pertenecer a una universidad, y desde colegios establecidos permaneció cerrado a las mujeres, las mujeres encontraron admisión restringida a colegios establecidos sólo para las mujeres. A partir de Churchill, Clare y Colegios del Rey, todos los colegios de los hombres comenzó a admitir a las mujeres entre 1972 y 1988. Una universidad de las mujeres, Girton, también comenzó a admitir estudiantes varones a partir de 1979, pero las universidades de las otras mujeres no siguieron su ejemplo. Como consecuencia de la universidad del St Hilda, Oxford , poniendo fin a su prohibición a los varones en el año 2008, Cambridge es ahora el único que queda Reino Unido Universidad con los colegios que se niegan a admitir que los varones, con tres instituciones de este tipo (Newnham, Edwards Murray y Cavendish Lucy). [28] [29] En el año académico 2004-5, relación de estudiante de la universidad de género, incluyendo post-graduados, era varón de 52%:. femenino del 48% [30]

[ editar ] Mitos, leyendas y tradiciones

Como una institución con una historia tan larga, la Universidad ha desarrollado un gran número de mitos y leyendas. La gran mayoría de ellas son falsas, pero no obstante se han propagado por generaciones de estudiantes y guías turísticos.

Una tradición interrumpida es la de la cuchara de madera , el "premio" otorgado al estudiante con la calificación mínima para aprobar en los exámenes finales de los examen final de Matemáticas. La última de estas cucharas se adjudicó en 1909 a Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, un remero del club del barco Lady Margaret de la universidad de San Juan . Fue más de un metro de largo y tenía una lámina del remo para un mango. Ahora se puede ver fuera de la Sala Superior Combinación de San Juan. Desde 1909, los resultados fueron publicados en orden alfabético en clase en lugar de orden de calificación. Esto hizo que fuera más difícil determinar quién es el ganador de la cuchara era (a menos que hubiera una sola persona en la tercera clase), por lo que la práctica fue abandonada.

Cada Nochebuena, radio y televisión BBC El Festival de Nueve Lecciones y Villancicos por el Coro del Kings College, Cambridge . El programa de radio ha sido una tradición navideña nacional desde que fue transmitido por primera vez en 1928 (aunque el festival ha existido desde 1918). La emisión de radio se realiza en todo el mundo por el Servicio Mundial de la BBC y también está sindicado a cientos de emisoras de radio en los EE.UU.. La primera transmisión televisiva del festival fue en 1954. [31] [32]

Gran Patio del Colegio del Rey

[ editar ] Ubicación

La universidad ocupa un lugar central en la ciudad de Cambridge , con los estudiantes ocupando un porcentaje importante (casi el 20%) de la población de la ciudad y distorsionar en gran medida la estructura de edad. [33] La mayoría de los colegios mayores están situados cerca del centro de la ciudad y el río Cam , por donde es tradicional batea para apreciar los edificios y su entorno. [34]

Hospital de Addenbrooke
Siendo uno de los nueve centros universitarios principales, el Hospital de Addenbrooke tiene una fuerte relación con la Universidad

[ editar ] Sitios

La universidad se divide en varios sitios donde los diferentes departamentos se colocan. Los principales son: [35]

La Escuela Universitaria de Medicina Clínica se basa en el Hospital de Addenbrooke donde los estudiantes de medicina experimentan sus tres años de período de prácticas clínicas después de obtener su licenciatura, [36] mientras que el sitio West Cambridge está experimentando una importante expansión y será la sede de un acontecimiento deportivo. [37] Además, la Judge Business School , situada en Trumpington Street, ofrece cursos de gestión de la educación desde 1990 y está considerado dentro de los 30 mejores escuelas de negocios a nivel mundial por el Financial Times . [38]

Dado que los sitios están muy cerca entre sí y el área alrededor de Cambridge es razonablemente plana, uno de los modos de transporte preferido para los estudiantes es la bicicleta : una quinta parte de los desplazamientos en la ciudad se realiza en bicicleta, una figura mejorada por el hecho de que los alumnos no se les permite mantener los permisos de aparcamiento. [39]

[ editar ] Población y vestido

La relación entre la Universidad y la ciudad no siempre ha sido positiva. La Ciudad frase y vestido se emplea para diferenciar los habitantes de Cambridge de los estudiantes de la Universidad, que a menudo llevan sus vestidos académicos . Hay muchas historias de rivalidad feroz entre las dos categorías: en 1381, los enfrentamientos fuertes provocó ataques y saqueos de propiedades universitarios mientras que los locales impugnaron los privilegios otorgados por el gobierno para el personal académico. A raíz de estos acontecimientos, el Canciller recibió poderes especiales que le permitan perseguir a los delincuentes y restablecer el orden en la ciudad. Tratar de conciliar los dos grupos siguieron con el tiempo, y en los acuerdos del siglo 16 se firmaron con el fin de mejorar la calidad de las calles y alojamiento estudiantil en la ciudad. Sin embargo, esto fue seguido por nuevos enfrentamientos cuando la plaga golpeó Cambridge en 1630 y los colegios se negó a ayudar a los afectados por la enfermedad mediante el bloqueo de sus sitios. [40]

Hoy en día, estos conflictos han aplacado un poco y la Universidad se ha convertido en una oportunidad para el empleo entre la población, proporcionando un mayor nivel de riqueza de la zona. [41] El enorme crecimiento en el número de alta tecnología , biotecnología , proveedores de servicios y empresas relacionadas situados cerca de la ciudad que se ha denominado el Fenómeno Cambridge:. la incorporación de 1.500 nuevas empresas, registrados y hasta 40.000 puestos de trabajo entre 1960 y 2010 ha estado directamente relacionada con la presencia y la importancia de la institución educativa [42]

[ editar ] Organización

Visión sobre Trinity College , Gonville y Caius , Trinity Hall y Clare College hacia Kings College Chapel, visto desde la universidad de San Juan capilla. A la izquierda, justo enfrente de la capilla de King College, es la Universidad Senate House

Cambridge es una universidad colegiada , es decir, que está formado por autónomos y universidades independientes, cada uno con sus propios bienes e ingresos. La mayoría de los colegios reunir a académicos y estudiantes de una amplia gama de disciplinas, y dentro de cada facultad, escuela o departamento dentro de la universidad, los académicos de muchas universidades diferentes se encontrará.

Las facultades son responsables de garantizar que se dan conferencias, la organización de seminarios, la realización de la investigación y la determinación de los planes de estudio para la enseñanza, supervisado por la Junta General. Junto con la administración central encabezada por el Vice-Canciller , constituyen la totalidad de la Universidad de Cambridge. Las instalaciones tales como las bibliotecas son provistos en todos estos niveles: por la Universidad (la Cambridge University Library ), por las facultades (Facultad bibliotecas como la Biblioteca de Derecho Squire), y por los colegios particulares (todos los cuales mantienen una biblioteca multi-disciplina , por lo general dirigido principalmente a los estudiantes de pregrado).

[ editar ] Colegios

Las universidades son instituciones autónomas con sus propios dones y bienes, fundada como parte integral de la universidad. Todos los estudiantes y la mayoría de los académicos están unidos a una universidad. Su importancia radica en la vivienda, el bienestar, las funciones sociales, y la enseñanza de pregrado que ofrecen. Todas las facultades, departamentos, centros de investigación y laboratorios pertenecen a la universidad, que organiza conferencias y grados premios, pero los estudiantes reciben sus sesiones de grupo supervisiones pequeñas de enseñanza, a menudo con un solo alumno en los colegios. Cada universidad designa a su propio personal docente y compañeros , que también son miembros de un departamento universitario. Las universidades también decidir qué estudiantes admitir a la universidad, de acuerdo con la normativa universitaria.

Cronología de las universidades frente a algunos acontecimientos de la historia británica

Cambridge cuenta con 31 universidades, de las cuales tres, Murray Edwards , Newnham y Lucy Cavendish , admitir a las mujeres solamente. Los otros colegios son mixtos , aunque la mayoría eran originalmente sólo por hombres. Darwin fue el primer colegio a admitir a hombres y mujeres, en tanto Churchill , Clare, y King fueron los primeros anteriormente sólo para hombres universidades para admitir a estudiantes universitarias, en 1972. En 1988 Magdalena se convirtió en el último de todos los hombres la universidad para aceptar a las mujeres. [43] Clare Hall y Darwin admitir postgraduados solamente, y Hughes Hall , Cavendish Lucy , de St. Edmund y Wolfson admitir sólo madura (es decir, 21 años o más en la fecha de matriculación ) estudiantes, que abarca tanto estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado. Todas las otras universidades admiten a estudiantes de pregrado y postgrado, sin restricciones de edad.

Las universidades no están obligados a admitir a los estudiantes en todas las materias, con algunos colegios que opten por no ofrecer temas como la arquitectura, la historia del arte o de la teología, pero la mayor oferta cerca de la gama completa. Algunas universidades mantienen un sesgo hacia ciertos temas, por ejemplo, con Churchill inclinación hacia las ciencias y la ingeniería, [44] mientras que otros, tales como St Catharine objetivo para un consumo equilibrado. [45] Los costos para los estudiantes (los precios de alojamiento y comida) varían considerablemente de universidad a otra. [46] [47] Otros sostienen reputación mucho más informales, como para los estudiantes de College de rey para celebrar izquierdas opiniones políticas, [48] o el Robinson College y la Universidad de Churchill intentos 's para minimizar su impacto ambiental . [49]

También hay varias escuelas teológicas en Cambridge, separado de la Universidad de Cambridge, incluyendo Westcott House , Westminster College y Ridley Hall Theological College , que son, en menor grado, afiliado a la universidad y son miembros de la Federación de Cambridge teológica . [50]

Facultad de Teología de la Universidad de Cambridge

[ edit ] Enseñanza

La enseñanza implica una mezcla de conferencias, organizado por los departamentos universitarios, y supervisiones, organizadas por los colegios. Las materias de ciencias también incluir sesiones de laboratorio, organizadas por los departamentos. La importancia relativa de estos métodos de enseñanza varía en función de las necesidades del sujeto. Supervisiones suelen ser semanales de una hora de largas sesiones en las que grupos pequeños de estudiantes (por lo general entre uno y tres) cumplen con un miembro del personal docente o con un estudiante de doctorado. Los estudiantes son normalmente requeridos para completar una tarea antes de la supervisión, que se va a discutir con el supervisor durante el período de sesiones, junto con las preocupaciones o dificultades que hayan tenido con el material presentado en las conferencias de la semana. La asignación es a menudo un ensayo sobre un sujeto establecida por el supervisor, o una hoja de problema planteado por el profesor. Dependiendo del tema y de la universidad, los estudiantes pueden recibir entre uno y cuatro supervisiones semanales. [51] Este sistema pedagógico se cita a menudo como única a Cambridge y Oxford (donde "supervisiones" se conocen como " tutoriales "). [52]

Un tutor nombrado William Farish desarrolló el concepto de clasificación de trabajo de los estudiantes cuantitativamente en la Universidad de Cambridge en 1792. [53]

[ editar ] Las escuelas, facultades y departamentos

Además de los 31 colegios, la universidad se compone de más de 150 departamentos, facultades, escuelas, sindicatos y otras instituciones. Los miembros de estos suelen ser también miembros de una de las universidades y de la responsabilidad para la ejecución de todo el programa académico de la universidad se divide entre ellos.

Las antiguas escuelas
La entrada al centro administrativo de la universidad, las antiguas escuelas

Una "escuela" en la Universidad de Cambridge es un grupo amplio de facultades administrativas relacionadas y otras unidades. Cada uno tiene un cuerpo electo de supervisión-el "Consejo" de la escuela, integrado por representantes de los órganos integrantes. Hay seis escuelas: [54]

  • Artes y Humanidades
  • Ciencias Biológicas
  • Medicina Clínica
  • Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales
  • Ciencias físicas
  • Tecnología

Docencia e investigación en Cambridge es organizado por las facultades. Las facultades de organización tienen diferentes subestructuras que en parte reflejan su historia y en parte sus necesidades de funcionamiento, que puede incluir una serie de departamentos y otras instituciones. Además, un pequeño número de órganos que tienen derecho "sindicatos" tienen responsabilidades en materia de enseñanza y de investigación, por ejemplo, Cambridge Assessment , el University Press , y la Biblioteca de la Universidad .

[ editar ] Curso

El año académico se divide en tres trimestres académicos, determinados por los Estatutos de la Universidad. [55] Término Michaelmas dura de octubre a diciembre; Cuaresma Plazo de enero a marzo, y curso de Pascua de abril a junio.

En estos términos la docencia de pregrado se lleva a cabo en períodos de ocho semanas llamados períodos completos . De acuerdo con los Estatutos de la Universidad, es un requisito que, durante este período, todos los estudiantes deben vivir a 10 millas de la Iglesia de Santa María la Mayor , lo que se define como el mantenimiento a largo plazo. Los alumnos pueden graduarse sólo si cumplen estas condiciones durante un periodo de nueve (tres años) en la obtención de una licenciatura o doce términos (cuatro años) al estudiar un Máster en Ciencias, Ingeniería o Matemáticas. [56]

Estos términos son más cortos que los de muchas otras universidades británicas. [57] Estudiantes universitarios también se espera que prepararse fuertemente en los tres días de fiesta (conocida como la Navidad, la Pascua y vacaciones largas).

[ editar ] La administración central

[ edit ] Canciller y Vicecanciller

La oficina del Canciller de la Universidad, para el que no hay límites a los mandatos, es principalmente ceremonial y está en manos de David Sainsbury, el barón Sainsbury of Turville , tras la jubilación del Duque de Edimburgo en su 90 cumpleaños, en junio de 2011. Lord Sainsbury fue nombrado por la Junta de Nombramientos oficial para sucederle, [58] y Abdul Arain, propietario de una tienda de comestibles, Brian Blessed y Michael Mansfield también fueron nominados. [59] [60] [61] La elección tuvo lugar el 14 y 15 de octubre de 2011. [61] David Sainsbury ganó las elecciones de 2893 tomando el elenco 5.888 votos, ganando en el primer conteo.

El actual rector es Leszek Borysiewicz . Mientras que la oficina del Canciller es ceremonial, el Vice-Canciller de facto es el principal funcionario administrativo de la Universidad. Gobierno interno de la universidad se llevó a cabo casi en su totalidad por sus propios miembros, [62] a la representación externa muy poco en su órgano rector, el Regent House (aunque hay representación exterior en el Comité de Auditoría, y hay cuatro miembros externos en el de la Universidad Consejo , que son los únicos miembros externos del Regent House). [63]

[ editar ] Senado y la Cámara de Regent

Espectáculo de luz en la Cámara del Senado, por el 800 aniversario de la fundación de la universidad

The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. Prior to 1926, it was the University's governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent House fulfils today. [ 64 ] The Regent House is the University's governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward , the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary. [ 65 ] The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors , elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges.

[ edit ] Council and the General Board

Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the University, therefore, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the University, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the University. It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter , the official journal of the University. Since January 2005, the membership of the Council has included two external members, [ 66 ] and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008, [ 67 ] [ 68 ] and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008. [ 69 ]

Senate House Passage in the snow with Senate House on the right and Gonville and Caius College on the left.

The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the University, [ 70 ] and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs.

Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the University are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House.

[ editar ] Finanzas

Cambridge is by far the wealthiest university in the UK and in the whole of Europe , with an endowment of £4.3 billion in 2011. [ 71 ] This is made up of around £1.6 billion tied directly to the university and £2.7 billion to the colleges. [ 71 ] As of 2011, Oxford had an endowment valued at around £3.3 billion. [ 71 ] The university's operating budget is well over £1 billion per year. [ 72 ] Each college is an independent charitable institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment. If ranked on a US university endowment table on most recent figures, Cambridge would rank fifth compared with the eight Ivy League institutions (subject to market fluctuations) and eleventh with all US universities . [ 71 ]

Comparisons between Cambridge's endowment and those of other top US universities are, however, inaccurate because being a state-funded public university (although the status of Cambridge as a public university cannot be compared with US or European public universities as, for example, the state does not "own" the university), Cambridge receives a major portion of its income through education and research grants from the British Government. In 2006–7, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge's income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around £130 million. The University also receives a significant income in annual transfers from the Cambridge University Press . [ 73 ] Comparing the operating budgets, which include all sources of revenue, gives a more accurate account of relative financial strength. Several universities in the US, including Harvard, Stanford, UCLA, and others, have operating budgets larger than £1.25 billion, which was Cambridge's reported income in 2011. [ 74 ]

[ edit ] Benefactions and fundraising

In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge. [ 75 ]

In 2005 the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Campaign was launched, aimed at raising £1 billion by 2012—the first US-style university fund-raising campaign in Europe. This aim was reached in the financial year 2009–2010, with raising £1.037 billion. [ 76 ]

[ edit ] Collections

[ edit ] Libraries and museums

Cambridge University Library

The university has 114 libraries. [ 77 ] The Cambridge University Library is the central research library, which holds over 8 million volumes. It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland. [ 78 ] In addition to the University Library and its dependents, every faculty has a specialised library; for example, the History Faculty's Seeley Historical Library possesses more than 100,000 books. Furthermore, every college has a library as well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teaching, and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. For example Trinity College's Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College's Parker Library possesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts.

Cambridge University operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, and a botanic garden: [ 79 ]

[ edit ] Academics

The Fitzwilliam Museum , the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge
Great Court of Trinity College , dating back to the 17th Century
Peterhouse Old Court
Peterhouse Old Court

[ editar ] Investigación

Cambridge University has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines, and spends around £650 million in a year for research. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several University sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites. [ 80 ]

Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group , a network of research-led British universities; the Coimbra Group , an association of leading European universities; the League of European Research Universities ; and the International Alliance of Research Universities . It is also considered part of the "Golden Triangle" , a geographical concentration of UK university research.

Cambridge has a research partnership with MIT in the United States: the Cambridge–MIT Institute .

[ edit ] Admissions

[ editar ] Procedimiento

The application system to Cambridge and Oxford involves additional requirements, with candidates typically called to face-to-face interviews.

How applicants perform in the interview process is an important factor in determining which students are accepted. [ 81 ] Most applicants are expected to be predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or equivalent overseas qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. The A* A-level grade (introduced in 2010) now plays a part in the acceptance of applications, with the university's standard offer for all courses being set at A*AA. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is crucial for distinguishing between the most able candidates. [ 81 ] In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected. [ 84 ] The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity. [ 81 ] For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer is sometimes offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above.

Strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool , where they can be offered places by other colleges. This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others.

Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject. This effectively guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice. [ 85 ]

[ edit ] Access

Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. In 2007–08, 57% of all successful applicants were from state schools [ 86 ] (roughly 93 percent of all students in the UK attend state schools). Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge 's reputation for many years, and the University has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance. [ 87 ] Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering . [ 88 ] [ 89 ] The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a (very large) minority (43%) [ 86 ] [ 90 ] of the intake. In 2005, 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools. [ 91 ] In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools. [ 92 ] Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham , is among those universities that have adopted formulae that gives a rating to the GCSE performance of every school in the country to "weight" the scores of university applicants. [ 93 ]

Both the University's central Student Union, and individual college student unions (JCRs) run student led Access schemes aimed at encouraging applications to the University from students at schools with little or no history of Oxbridge applications, and from students from families with little or no history of participation in university education.

[ edit ] Reputation

Results for the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos are read out inside Senate House and then tossed from the balcony

In the last two British Government Research Assessment Exercise in 2001 and 2008 respectively, [ 94 ] Cambridge was ranked first in the country. In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other British university (over 30% more than second placed Oxford). [ 95 ] In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any British university, and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major British research fields analysed. [ 96 ] Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total British research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields). [ 97 ]

The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the "Cambridge Phenomenon". In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capital market in the world, after Silicon Valley . Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companies directly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion. [ 98 ]

[ edit ] University rankings

Rankings
ARWU [ 128 ]
(2012, national)
1
ARWU [ 128 ]
(2012, world)
5
QS [ 129 ]
(2012/13, national)
1
QS [ 129 ]
(2012/13, world)
1
THE [ 130 ]
(2012/13, national)
= 1
THE [ 130 ]
(2011/12, world)
=6
Complete [ 131 ]
(2013, national)
1
The Guardian [ 132 ]
(2013, national)
1
The Sunday Times [ 133 ]
(2013, national)
1
The Times [ 134 ]
(2013, national)
2

In 2011, University of Cambridge topped the world university rankings: first in both the QS World University Rankings and the annual World's Best Universities by US News & World Report for a second consecutive year. [ 135 ] [ 136 ] It came in first in the international academic reputation peer review, first in the natural sciences , second in biomedicine , second in chemical engineering , third in the arts & humanities , fourth in the social sciences , and fourth in technology. University of Cambridge ranked 3rd worldwide among 300 Best World Universities in 2011 compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance . [ 137 ] In 2011, Cambridge was ranked sixth in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings . [ 138 ] In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), [ 139 ] it is the 2nd university in UK and 11th university in the world. In the 2009 Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings [ 140 ] (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings), Cambridge was ranked 2nd amongst world universities, behind Harvard . The Independent Complete University Guide ranked Cambridge 2nd to Oxford in the United Kingdom. [ 141 ] In the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Cambridge was placed 5th amongst world universities and was ranked 1st in Europe. [ 142 ] A 2006 Newsweek ranking which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an institution's global "openness and diversity" suggested that Cambridge was ranked 6th in the world overall. [ 143 ]

In the 2008 Sunday Times University Guide, Cambridge was ranked first for the 11th straight year since the guide's first publication in 1998. In the 2008 Times Good University Guide, Cambridge topped 37 of the guide's 61 subject tables, including Law, Medicine, Economics, Mathematics , Engineering, Physics , and Chemistry and has the best record on research, entry standards and graduate destinations amongst UK universities. Cambridge was also awarded the University of the Year award.

In the 2009 The Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, Cambridge was ranked top (or joint top) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers. [ 144 ] The overall ranking placed Cambridge in 2nd behind Oxford. The 2009 Guardian University Guide Rankings also placed Cambridge 2nd in the UK behind Oxford.

In the Guardian newspaper's 2012 rankings, Cambridge pulled ahead of Oxford to secure 1st place in the league table; Cambridge had overtaken Oxford in philosophy, law, politics, theology, maths, classics, anthropology and modern languages. [ 104 ]

[ edit ] College rankings

Internal rankings also exist to classify the various colleges in order of their undergraduate student's performance in the Tripos examinations. One such list is the Tompkins Table , which is published annually by The Independent newspaper.

[ edit ] Publishing

The University's publishing arm, the Cambridge University Press , is the oldest printer and publisher in the world, and it is the second largest university press in the world. [ 145 ]

[ edit ] Public examinations

The university set up its Local Examination Syndicate in 1858. Today, the syndicate, which is known as Cambridge Assessment , is Europe's largest assessment agency and it plays a leading role in researching, developing and delivering assessments across the globe. [ 146 ]

[ edit ] Graduation

Graduands enter the Senate House at a graduation ceremony

At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university's governing body, the Regent House , and must be voted on as with any other act. A formal meeting of the Regent House, known as a Congregation , is held for this purpose. [ 147 ]

Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academical dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. Graduates receiving a postgraduate degree (eg PhD or Master's) wear the academical dress that they were entitled to before graduating, only if their first degree was also from the University of Cambridge; if their first degree is from another university, they wear the academical dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of age, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over. [ 148 ]

Graduands are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of foundation or recognition by the university (except for the royal colleges), as follows. [ 149 ]

1. King's College 8. Trinity Hall 16. Sidney Sussex College 24. Darwin College
2. Trinity College 9. Corpus Christi College 17. Downing College 25. Wolfson College
3. St John's College 10. Queens' College 18. Girton College 26. Clare Hall
11. St Catharine's College 19. Newnham College 27. Robinson College
4. Peterhouse 12. Jesus College 20. Selwyn College 28. Lucy Cavendish College
5. Clare College 13. Christ's College 21. Fitzwilliam College 29. St Edmund's College
6. Pembroke College 14. Magdalene College 22. Churchill College 30. Hughes Hall
7. Gonville & Caius College 15. Emmanuel College 23. New Hall 31. Homerton College
University officials leading the graduands into the Senate House

During the congregation, graduands are brought forth by the Praelector of their college, who takes them by the right hand, and presents them to the vice-chancellor for the degree they are about to take. The Praelector presents graduands with the following Latin statement, substituting "____" with the name of the degree:

" Dignissima domina, Domina Procancellaria et tota Academia praesento vobis hunc virum quem scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneum ad gradum assequendum _____; idque tibi fide mea praesto totique Academiae.
(Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this man whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University.)"

and female graduands with the following:

" Dignissima domina, Domina Procancellaria et tota Academia praesento vobis hanc mulierem quam scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneam ad gradum assequendum ____; idque tibi fide mea praesto totique Academiae.
(Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this woman whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University.)"

After presentation, the graduand is called by name and kneels before the vice-chancellor and proffers their hands to the vice-chancellor, who clasps them and then confers the degree through the following Latin statement—the Trinitarian formula (in italics) may be omitted at the request of the graduand:

" Auctoritate mihi commissa admitto te ad gradum ____ , in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti .
(By the authority committed to me, I admit you to the degree of ____ , in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit .)"

The now-graduate then rises, bows and leaves the Senate House through the Doctor's door, where he or she receives his or her certificate, into Senate House passage. [ 147 ]

[ editar ] La vida del estudiante

[ edit ] Students' Union

The Cambridge University Students' Union (CUSU) serves to represent all the students within the University which automatically become members upon arrival. [ 150 ] It was founded in 1964 as the Students' Representative Council (SRC); the six most important positions in the Union are occupied by Sabbatical officers . [ 151 ]

[ edit ] Sport

Cambridge maintains a long tradition of student participation in sport and recreation. Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races , and against Oxford, the Boat Race . There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby , to chess and tiddlywinks . Athletes representing the university in certain sports entitle them to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee , consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described "unashamedly elite" Hawks' Club , which is for men only, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues. [ 152 ]

Sporting facilities are mainly provided by the single colleges but a new University-wide sports complex is in the process of being constructed. [ 153 ]

[ edit ] Societies

Numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss. As of 2010, there were 751 registered societies. [ 154 ] In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams.

The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights , which are known for producing well-known show-business personalities. The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from popular symphonies to lesser known works; membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university.

[ edit ] Newspapers and radio

Student newspapers include the long-established Varsity and its younger rival, The Cambridge Student . Recently, both have been challenged by the emergence of The Tab , Cambridge's first student tabloid . Together with colleagues from Anglia Ruskin University , students run a radio station, Cam FM , which provides members with an opportunity to produce and host weekly radio shows and promotes broadcast journalism, sports coverage, comedy and drama.

Survivors' photo after the 2005 Jesus College May Ball

[ edit ] JCR and MCR

In addition to university-wide representation, students can benefit from their own college student unions, which are known as JCR ( Junior Combination Room ) for undergraduates and MCR ( Middle Combination Room ) for postgraduates. These serve as a link between college staff and members and consists of officers elected annually between the fellow students; individual JCR and MCRs also report to CUSU, which offers training courses for some of the most delicate positions within the body. [ 155 ]

[ edit ] Formal Halls and May Balls

One of the most distinguishing aspects of student life at Cambridge is the possibility to take part in formal dinners at college. These are called Formal Hall and occur regularly during term time. Students sit down for a meal in their gowns , while Fellows eat separately on High Table : the beginning and end of the function is usually celebrated with a prayer . Special formals are organized for events such as Christmas or the Commemoration of Benefactors. [ 156 ]

After the exam period, May Week is held and it is customary to celebrate by attending May Balls . These are all-night long parties held in the colleges where food and drinks are served and entertainment is provided. Suicide Sunday , the first day of May Week, is a popular date for organizing garden parties . [ 157 ]

Centre for Mathematical Sciences .
Centre for Mathematical Sciences .

[ edit ] Notable alumni and academics

Over the course of its history, a sizeable number of Cambridge alumni have become notable in their fields, both academic, and in the wider world. Depending on criteria, affiliates of the University of Cambridge have won between 85 and 88 Nobel prizes , more than any other institution according to some counts . Former undergraduates of the university have won a grand total of 61 Nobel prizes, 13 more than the undergraduates of any other university. Cambridge academics have also won 8 Fields Medals and 2 Abel Prizes (since the award was first distributed in 2003).

[ edit ] Mathematics and sciences

Perhaps most of all, the university is renowned for a long and distinguished tradition in mathematics and the sciences.

Among the most famous of Cambridge natural philosophers is Sir Isaac Newton , who spent the majority of his life at the university and conducted many of his now famous experiments within the grounds of Trinity College. Sir Francis Bacon , responsible for the development of the Scientific Method , entered the university when he was just twelve, and pioneering mathematicians John Dee and Brook Taylor soon followed.

Other ground-breaking mathematicians to have studied at the university include Hardy , Littlewood and De Morgan , three of the most renowned pure mathematicians in modern history; Sir Michael Atiyah , one of the most important mathematicians of the last half-century; William Oughtred , the inventor of the logarithmic scale ; John Wallis , the inventor of modern calculus ; Srinivasa Ramanujan , the self-taught genius who made incomparable contributions to mathematical analysis , number theory , infinite series and continued fractions ; and, perhaps most importantly of all, James Clerk Maxwell , who is considered to have brought about the second great unification of Physics (the first being accredited to Newton) with his classical electromagnetic theory .

In biology, Charles Darwin , famous for developing the theory of natural selection , was a Cambridge man. Subsequent Cambridge biologists include Francis Crick and James Watson , who worked out a model for the three-dimensional structure of DNA whilst working at the university's Cavendish Laboratory along with leading X-ray crystallographer Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin . More recently, Sir Ian Wilmut , the man who was responsible for the first cloning of a mammal with Dolly the Sheep in 1996, was a graduate student at Darwin College. Famous naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough graduated from the university, while the ethologist Jane Goodall , the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees did a Ph.D. in Ethology at Darwin College.

The university can be considered the birthplace of the computer, with mathematician Charles Babbage having designed the world's first computing system as early as the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to devise what is essentially the basis for modern computing and Maurice Wilkes later created the first programmable computer. The webcam was also invented at Cambridge University, as a means for scientists to avoid interrupting their research and going all the way down to the laboratory dining room only to be disappointed by an empty coffee pot.

Ernest Rutherford , generally regarded as the father of nuclear physics , spent much of his life at the university, where he worked closely with the likes of Niels Bohr , a major contributor to the understanding of the structure and function of the atom , JJ Thompson , discoverer of the electron , Sir James Chadwick , discoverer of the neutron , and Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton , the partnership responsible for first splitting the atom. J. Robert Oppenheimer , leader of the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb , also studied at Cambridge under Rutherford and Thompson.

Astronomers Sir John Herschel and Sir Arthur Eddington both spent much of their careers at Cambridge, as did Paul Dirac , the discoverer of antimatter and one of the pioneers of Quantum Mechanics ; Stephen Hawking , the founding father of the study of singularities and the university's long-serving Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until 2009; and Lord Martin Rees , the current Astronomer Royal and Master of Trinity College.

Other significant Cambridge scientists include Henry Cavendish , the discoverer of hydrogen ; Frank Whittle , co-inventor of the jet engine; Lord Kelvin , who formulated the original Laws of Thermodynamics ; William Fox Talbot , who invented the camera, Alfred North Whitehead , Einstein's major opponent; Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose , the man dubbed "the father of radio science"; Lord Rayleigh , one of the most pre-eminent physicists of the 20th century; Georges Lemaître , who first proposed the Big Bang Theory; and Frederick Sanger , the last man to win two Nobel prizes.

[ edit ] Humanities, music and art

In the humanities, Greek studies were inaugurated at Cambridge in the early sixteenth century by Desiderius Erasmus during the few years he held a professorship there; seminal contributions to the field were made by Richard Bentley and Richard Porson . John Chadwick was associated with Michael Ventris in the decipherment of Linear B . The eminent Latinist AE Housman taught at Cambridge but is more widely known as a poet. Simon Ockley made a significant contribution to Arabic Studies .

Distinguished Cambridge academics in other fields include economists such as John Maynard Keynes , Thomas Malthus , Alfred Marshall , Milton Friedman , Joan Robinson , Piero Sraffa , and Amartya Sen , another former Master of Trinity College. Philosophers Sir Francis Bacon , Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , Leo Strauss , George Santayana , GEM Anscombe , Sir Karl Popper , Sir Bernard Williams , Allama Iqbal and GE Moore were all Cambridge scholars, as were historians such as Thomas Babington Macaulay , Frederic William Maitland , Lord Acton , Joseph Needham , EH Carr , Hugh Trevor-Roper , EP Thompson , Eric Hobsbawm , Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr , and famous lawyers such as Glanville Williams , Sir James Fitzjames Stephen , and Sir Edward Coke .

Religious figures at the university have included Rowan Williams , the current Archbishop of Canterbury and many of his predecessors; William Tyndale , the pioneer biblical translator; Thomas Cranmer , Hugh Latimer , and Nicholas Ridley , all Cambridge men, known as the "Oxford martyrs" from the place of their execution; Benjamin Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists ; William Paley , the Christian philosopher known primarily for formulating the teleological argument for the existence of God; William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson , largely responsible for the abolition of the slave trade ; leading Evangelical churchman Charles Simeon ; John William Colenso , the bishop of Natal who developed views on the interpretation of Scripture and relations with native peoples that seemed dangerously radical at the time; John Bainbridge Webster and David F. Ford , theologians of significant repute; and six winners of the Templeton Prize , the highest accolade for the study of religion since its foundation in 1972.

Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams , Sir Charles Villiers Stanford , William Sterndale Bennett , Orlando Gibbons and, more recently, Alexander Goehr , Thomas Adès and John Rutter were all at Cambridge. Although known primarily for its choral music , the university has also produced members of contemporary bands such as Radiohead , Hot Chip , Procol Harum , Henry Cow , and the singer-songwriter Nick Drake .

Artists Quentin Blake , Roger Fry and Julian Trevelyan also attended as undergraduates, as did sculptors Antony Gormley , Marc Quinn and Sir Anthony Caro , and photographers Antony Armstrong-Jones , Sir Cecil Beaton and Mick Rock .

[ editar ] Literatura

Important writers to have studied at the university include the prominent Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe , his fellow University Wits Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene , arguably the first professional authors in England, and John Fletcher , who collaborated with Shakespeare on The Two Noble Kinsmen , Henry VIII and the lost Cardenio and succeeded him as house playwright of The King's Men . Samuel Pepys matriculated in 1650, ten years before he began his diary , the original manuscripts of which are now housed in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College. Lawrence Sterne , whose novel Tristram Shandy is judged to have inspired many modern narrative devices and styles, was admitted in 1733. In the following century, the novelists WM Thackeray , best known for Vanity Fair , Charles Kingsley , author of Westward Ho! and Water Babies , and Samuel Butler , remembered for The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon , were all at Cambridge. Ghost story writer MR James served as provost of King's College from 1905 to 1918. Modernist writers to have attended the university include EM Forster , Rosamond Lehmann , Vladmir Nabokov , Christopher Isherwood and Malcolm Lowry . Although not a student, Virginia Woolf wrote her essay A Room of One's Own while in residence at Newnham College. Playwright JB Priestley , medievalist and fantasy writer CS Lewis , physicist and novelist CP Snow and children's writer AA Milne were also among those who passed through the university in the early 20th century. They were followed by the postmodernists Patrick White , Iris Murdoch , Eudora Welty , JG Ballard , Sir Kingsley Amis and the early postcolonial writer ER Braithwaite . More recently, the university has educated the comedy writers Douglas Adams , Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson , the popular novelists AS Byatt , Sir Salman Rushdie , Nick Hornby , Zadie Smith , Robert Harris and Sebastian Faulks , the successful action writers Michael Crichton and Jin Yong , and contemporary playwrights and screenwriters such as Julian Fellowes , Stephen Poliakoff , Michael Frayn , Alan Bennett and Sir Peter Shaffer .

Cambridge poets include Edmund Spenser , author of The Faerie Queene , the Metaphysical poets John Donne , George Herbert and Andrew Marvell , John Milton , renowned for his late epic Paradise Lost , the leading Restoration poet and playwright John Dryden , the pre-romantic Thomas Gray , best known his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard , William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , whose joint work Lyrical Ballads is often seen to mark the beginning of the Romantic movement , later Romantics such as Lord Byron and the postromantic Alfred, Lord Tennyson , classical scholar and lyric poet AE Housman , war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke , modernist TE Hulme , confessional poets Ted Hughes , Sylvia Plath and John Berryman , and, more recently, Cecil Day-Lewis , Joseph Brodsky , Kathleen Raine and Geoffrey Hill . In all, at least nine of the Poet Laureates graduated from Cambridge. The university has also made a notable contribution to Literary Criticism, having produced, among others, FR Leavis , IA Richards , CK Ogden and William Empson , often collectively known as the Cambridge Critics , the important Marxists Raymond Williams , sometimes regarded as the founding father of Cultural Studies , and Terry Eagleton , author of Literary Theory: An Introduction , the most successful academic book ever published, the New Historicists Harold Bloom and Stephen Greenblatt , and an extensive group of distinguished biographical writers such as Lytton Strachey , a central figure in the largely Cantabridgian Bloomsbury Group , Peter Ackroyd and Claire Tomalin .

Actors and directors such as Sir Ian McKellen , Sir Derek Jacobi , Sir Michael Redgrave , James Mason , Emma Thompson , Stephen Fry , Hugh Laurie , John Cleese , Eric Idle , Graham Chapman , Simon Russell Beale , Tilda Swinton , Thandie Newton , Rachel Weisz , Sacha Baron Cohen , Tom Hiddleston , Eddie Redmayne , Jamie Bamber and David Mitchell all studied at the university, as did recently acclaimed directors such as Mike Newell , Sam Mendes , Stephen Frears , Paul Greengrass , Chris Weitz and John Madden .

[ editar ] Deportes

The University is also known for its prodigious sporting reputation and has produced many fine athletes, including more than 50 Olympic medalists ; [ 158 ] the legendary Chinese six-time world table tennis champion Deng Yaping ; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams ; the inventors of the modern game of Football, Winton and Thring ; and George Mallory , the famed mountaineer and possibly the first man ever to reach the summit of Mount Everest .

Notable educationalists to have attended the university include the founders and early professors of Harvard University , including John Harvard himself; Emily Davies , founder of Girton College, the first residential higher education institution for women, and John Haden Badley , founder of the first mixed-sex school in England.

[ editar ] Política

Cambridge also has a strong reputation in the fields of politics and governance, having educated: [ 159 ]

[ edit ] Literature and popular culture

The Great Gate of Trinity College
Clare College Old Court
Downing College East Range
Selwyn College Old Court
Jesus College Chapel
St John's College Great gate
The entrance of Trinity Hall
The Cavendish Building of Homerton College, Cambridge
The Chapel, Sidney Sussex College

Throughout its history, the University has featured heavily in literature and artistic works by various authors. Here below are some notable examples.

  • In The Reeve's Tale from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer , the two main characters are students at Soler Halle. It is believed that this refers to King's Hall, which is now part of Trinity College .
  • In Gulliver's Travels (1726 novel) by Jonathan Swift , the hero and narrator, Lemuel Gulliver , is a graduate of Emmanuel College .
  • In Tristram Shandy (1767 novel) by Lawrence Sterne , the title character is, like Sterne himself, a graduate of Jesus College .
  • In The Prelude (1805 poem) by William Wordsworth , the entire third chapter is based on the poet's time at Cambridge.
  • In Pride and Prejudice (1813 novel) by Jane Austen , both Mr Darcy and Mr Wickham, the primary antagonist, are Cambridge graduates.
  • In Memoriam AHH (1849 poem) by Alfred, Lord Tennyson is a requiem written in memory of the poet's Cambridge friend Arthur Henry Hallam . The poem features numerous references to their time together at Trinity College, "the reverend walls in which of old I wore the gown".
  • In Doctor Thorne (1858 novel) by Anthony Trollope , Frank Gresham, heir to the near-bankrupt Gresham estate, is a Cambridge student. Despite his family's objections, he is determined to return to the University and study for a degree.
  • In A Tale of Two Cities (1859 novel) by Charles Dickens , Charles Darnay tutors Cambridge undergraduates in French language and literature.
  • In Middlemarch (1872 novel) by George Eliot , Mr Brooke, the heroine's uncle and guardian, is a Cambridge graduate. He claims to have been a student at the same time as Wordsworth.
  • John Caldigate (1879 novel) by Anthony Trollope is set partly at the University and in the nearby village of Chesterton .
  • In All Sorts and Conditions of Men (1882 Novel) by Sir Walter Besant , Cambridge is an important setting.
  • In Portraits of Places (1883 travel book), Henry James describes the college backs as "the loveliest confusion of gothic windows and ancient trees, of grassy banks and mossy balustrades, of sun‐chequered avenues and groves, of lawns and gardens and terraces, of single arched bridges spanning the little stream, which ... looks as if it had been 'turned on' for ornamental purposes."
  • She: A History of Adventure (1886 novel) by H. Rider Haggard is the story of Horace Holly, a Cambridge professor, on a journey amongst the indigenous tribes of Africa.
  • In the Sherlock Holmes series (1887–1927 collection of novels and short stories) by Arthur Conan Doyle , Holmes reveals that he first developed his methods of deduction while an undergraduate. The author Dorothy L. Sayers suggests that, given details in two of the Adventures, Holmes must have been at Cambridge rather than Oxford and that "of all the Cambridge colleges, Sidney Sussex College perhaps offered the greatest number of advantages to a man in Holmes' position and, in default of more exact information, we may tentatively place him there". [ 161 ]
  • In Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891 novel) by Thomas Hardy , Angel Clare rebels against his family's plans to have him sent to Cambridge and ordained as a minister of the Church of England . His older brothers are both Cambridge graduates and Cuthbert is the dean of a Cambridge college.
  • In Utopia, Limited (1892 opera) by Gilbert and Sullivan , the entrance of the character Princess Zara, who is returning from her studies at Girton College , is heralded by a song called "Oh, maiden rich in Girton lore". In the earlier Gilbert and Sullivan opera Princess Ida (1884), the princess founds a women's university and the subject of women's education in the Victorian era is broadly explored and parodied.
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession (1894 play) by George Bernard Shaw focuses on the relationship between Mrs Warren, described by the author as "on the whole, a genial and fairly presentable old blackguard of a woman" and her Cambridge-educated daughter, Vivie, who is horrified to discover that her mother's fortune was made managing high-class brothels.
  • In The Turn of the Screw (1898 novella) by Henry James , the story's narrator, Douglas, describes first meeting the protagonist after coming down from Trinity College for the second summer of his university career.
  • The Longest Journey (1907 novel) by EM Forster begins at Cambridge University.
  • In the Psmith series (1908–1923 collection of novels) by PG Wodehouse , both the title character and Mike , his closest friend, study at Cambridge University.
  • In Women in Love (1920 novel) by DH Lawrence , the character Joshua is introduced at the dinner table as a Cambridge don . Over the course of the meal he explains, in accordance with the idiosyncratic stereotype, how "education is like gymnastics".
  • In Jacob's Room (1922 novel) by Virginia Woolf , the protagonist Jacob Flanders attends Cambridge.
  • In A Passage to India (1924 novel) by EM Forster , the Indian Hamidullah refers to his time at Cambridge to support his argument that it is easier to befriend Englishmen in England than in India.
  • In The Case of the Missing Will (1924 short story) by Agatha Christie , the detective Hercule Poirot receives an unusual request for help from a Miss Violet Marsh, a graduate of Girton College.
  • In The Good Companions (1929 novel) by JB Priestley , the character Inigo Jollifant is introduced as a Cambridge graduate.
  • In The Waves (1931 novel) by Virginia Woolf , the characters Bernard and Neville are both graduates of Cambridge University.
  • Darkness at Pemberley (1932 novel) by TH White features St Bernard's College, a fictionalised version of Queens' College.
  • Glory (1932 novel) by Vladimir Nabokov is the story of an émigré student who escapes from Russia and is educated at Cambridge before returning to his native country.
  • In The Citadel (1937 novel) by AJ Cronin , the protagonist's initial rival and close friend, Philip Denny, is a Cambridge graduate. Dr Hope, another of the protagonist's main associates, spends much of his time at Cambridge where he is completing a medical degree.
  • Out of the Silent Planet (1938 novel) by CS Lewis begins at Cambridge University, where Elwin Ransom , the protagonist of The Space Trilogy , is Professor of Philology. The trilogy also features the University of Edgestow , a fictional institution which is essentially a third Oxbridge .
  • In Lions and Shadows (1938 autobiography), Christopher Isherwood writes extensively about his time at the university.
  • In The Facts of Life (1939 short story) by W. Somerset Maugham , the main character Nicky attends Peterhouse due to its reputation in Lawn Tennis.
  • The Caterpillar and the Men from Cambridge (1943 poem) by Weldon Kees is a satirical response to the teachings of Cambridge literary critics IA Richards and CK Ogden .
  • The Hills of Varna (1948 novel) by Geoffrey Trease begins with main character Alan Drayton being sent down from his Cambridge college after it emerges that he was involved in a tavern brawl. His Cambridge tutor, Erasmus, sends him to the continent to try to retrieve a manuscript of The Gadfly, a lost play by the ancient Greek writer Alexis from the time of Socrates.
  • The Masters (1951 novel) and The Affair (1960 Novel) by CP Snow , both feature an unnamed fictional college, partly based on the author's own, Christ's.
  • Facial Justice by LP Hartley (1960 novel) is set in a dystopian Cambridge sometime after the Third World War: "Cambridge - for so the settlement was named - was built on the supposed site of the famous University town, not a vestige of which remained."
  • At the start of Trouble with Lichen (1960 novel) by John Wyndham , the heroine, Diana Brackley, studies Biochemistry at Cambridge.
  • The Millstone (1965 novel) by Margaret Drabble is the story of a young female Cambridge academic who becomes pregnant and is forced into a completely alien life style.
  • The House on the Strand (1969 novel) by Daphne du Maurier is the story of two Cambridge graduates who have created a drug that enables time travel. They frequently refer to their college days.
  • In many novels and plays by Thomas Bernhard (written between 1970 and 2006), Cambridge ( Geistesnest ) is the refuge of a Geistesmensch escaping from Austria.
  • Maurice (1971 novel) by EM Forster is about the homosexual relationship of two Cambridge undergraduates.
  • Porterhouse Blue (1974 novel) and its sequel Grantchester Grind (1995 Novel) by Tom Sharpe both feature Porterhouse, a fictional Cambridge college.
  • In Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy (1974 novel) by John le Carré , two recurring characters in the Smiley series, Percy Alleline and Control, the anonymous head of The Circus, are described as having begun their rivalry at Cambridge.
  • The Glittering Prizes (1976 TV drama) and Oxbridge Blues (1984 TV Drama) by Frederic Raphael both feature Cambridge University.
  • In Professional Foul (1977 play) by Tom Stoppard , the main character, Anderson, is Professor of Philosophy at Cambridge University.
  • In Shada (abandoned 1979 Doctor Who serial released on video in 1992) by Douglas Adams , much of the action takes place at the fictional St. Cedd's College, Cambridge .
  • Timescape (1980 novel) by Gregory Benford is the story of a group of scientists at the University of Cambridge and their attempts to warn the past about a series of global disasters that have left the world in a state of disarray. Benford's short story, Anomalies , is also set at Cambridge, where the main character, an amateur astronomer from Ely , meets the Master of Jesus College.
  • Chariots of Fire (1981 film) by Hugh Hudson is partly set at Cambridge between 1919 and 1924, when protagonist Harold Abrahams (played by Ben Cross ) was a student there. [ 162 ]
  • On the Beach at Cambridge (1984 poem) by Adrian Mitchell is written from the point of view of someone sitting on a beach and looking out to sea, where the remnants of Cambridge University, as represented by the trademark spires and towers of the colleges, may just about be seen above the water. The poem was written to draw attention to the dangers of climate change and rising sea levels.
  • Floating Down to Camelot (1985 novel) by David Benedictus is set entirely at Cambridge University and was inspired by the author's time at Churchill College.
  • Still Life (1985 novel) by AS Byatt features Cambridge University.
  • In Redback (1986 novel), Howard Jacobson creates the fictional Malapert College, drawing on his experiences at Downing College and Selwyn College.
  • Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987 Novel) by Douglas Adams contains considerable material recycled from the aborted Shada , therefore much of the action likewise takes place at St. Cedd's College, Cambridge.
  • The Matthew Bartholomew Chronicles (1990s novels) by Susanna Gregory , is a series of murder mysteries set in and around the university in medieval Cambridge.
  • The Gate of Angels (1990 novel) by Penelope Fitzgerald is about a young Cambridge University physicist who falls in love with a nurse after a bicycle accident. The novel is set in 1912, at a time when Cambridge was at the heart of a revolution in Physics.
  • Avenging Angel (1990 novel) by Kwame Anthony Appiah is largely set at the University.
  • Civilization (1991 video game) by Sid Meier features ' Isaac Newton 's College' as a Wonder of the World. This could be a reference to Cambridge University as a whole or to Trinity College specifically. However, the video accompanying the wonder in Civilization II (1996) erroneously shows the University of Oxford.
  • Air and Angels (1991 novel) by Susan Hill is largely set at Cambridge, where the Revd Thomas Cavendish, a university don, falls in love with Kitty, a young Indian girl.
  • For the Sake of Elena (1992 novel) by Elizabeth George features a fictional Cambridge college called St Stephen's.
  • In A Philosophical Investigation (1992 novel) by Philip Kerr , the government call on Cambridge's Professor of Philosophy to talk 'Wittgenstein', a murderous virtual being, into committing suicide.
  • In Stephen Fry 's novels The Liar (1993) and Making History (1997), the main characters attend Cambridge University.
  • In A Suitable Boy (1993 novel) by Vikram Seth , one of Lata's would-be suitors, a fellow college student, dreams of attending Cambridge University.
  • Jill Paton Walsh is the author of four detective stories featuring Imogen Quy, the nurse at St. Agatha's, a fictional Cambridge college: The Wyndham Case (1993), A Piece of Justice (1995), Debts of Dishonour (2006) and The Bad Quarto (2007).
  • In the 1994 Star Trek: The Next Generation series finale, All Good Things... , Data is seen holding the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics in an alternate future timeline. [ 163 ]
  • Eskimo Day (1996 TV Drama), written by Jack Rosenthal , and starring Maureen Lipman , Tom Wilkinson , and Alec Guinness , is about the relationship between parents and teenagers during an admissions interview day at Queens' College. There was also a sequel, Cold Enough for Snow (1997).
  • In When We Were Orphans (2000 novel) by Kazuo Ishiguro , the protagonist, Detective Christopher Banks, begins his narrative immediately after graduating from Cambridge.
  • In Atonement (2001 novel) by Ian McEwan , the characters Cecilia and Robbie arrive home from Cambridge at the start of the novel.
  • Wittgenstein's Poker (2001 novel) by David Edmonds recounts the celebrated confrontation between Sir Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein at Cambridge University's Moral Sciences Club .
  • In Elizabeth Costello (2003 novel) by JM Coetzee , the title character is a former Cambridge student.
  • Cambridge Spies (2003 TV drama) is about the famous Cambridge Five double agents who started their careers at Cambridge: Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean and Anthony Blunt.
  • In the Maisie Dobbs mystery series (2003–2010 collection of novels) by Jacqueline Winspear the heroine is a former student of Girton College, having attended before and after World War I.
  • High Table, Lower Orders (2005–2006 radio series) by Mark Tavener is set at a fictional Cambridge college.
  • In Rock 'n Roll (2006 play) by Tom Stoppard , Cambridge University is a key setting.
  • A Disappearing Number (2007 play) by Simon McBurney is about a famous collaboration between two very different Cambridge scholars: Srinivasa Ramanujan , a poor, self-taught Brahmin from southern India, and GH Hardy , an upper-class Englishman and world-renowned Professor of Mathematics.
  • The Indian Clerk (2007 novel) by David Leavitt is an account of the career of the self-taught mathematical genius Srinivasa Ramanujan, as seen mainly through the eyes of his mentor and collaborator GH Hardy, a British mathematics professor at Cambridge University.
  • Engleby (2007 novel) by Sebastian Faulks is largely set at a fictionalised version of Cambridge University.
  • In Kingdom (2007–2009 TV series), created by Simon Wheeler and Alan Whiting , solicitor Peter Kingdom (played by Stephen Fry ) and his brother ( Dominic Mafham ) are both Cambridge graduates. In the fourth episode of the first series, Kingdom returns to Cambridge and meets his old tutor ( Richard Wilson ), when one of his clients alleges that her daughter has been rejected by his old college purely because of her working-class background. Although the college is never identified, it is Queens', where Fry himself was a student, that appears on screen.
  • The Dongle of Donald Trefusis (2009 audiobook) by Stephen Fry is a 12-part series in which Fry, as himself, receives an inheritance from his (fictional) former Cambridge tutor, Donald Trefusis, who has recently died. The inheritance includes a USB drive (or "dongle") which contains messages from Trefusis to Fry from beyond the grave.
  • In An Education (2009 film), written by Nick Hornby , directed by Lone Scherfig , and based on an autobiographical article by Lynn Barber , the protagonist's main teacher, Miss Stubbs (played by Olivia Williams ) is a Cambridge graduate.
  • Page Eight (2011 film) by David Hare is partly set at Cambridge, where the Director General of MI5 (played by Michael Gambon ), his colleague and closest friend ( Bill Nighy ) and the Prime Minister ( Ralph Fiennes ) were all at college together. Although the college is not named, it is Jesus College that was used for filming.
  • In The Sense of an Ending (2011 novel) by Julian Barnes , Adrian Finn, one of the central characters, studies Moral Sciences at Cambridge. The minor character Brother Jack is also a Cambridge student and the young English teacher Phil Dixon is a recent graduate.
  • In The Vicar of Dibley , David Horton, the town's councillor and chairman of the Parish Council, mentions that he studied at an unknown college of Cambridge. The Vicar mentions in one episode that he has a Master of Arts , and is a Fellow of the Royal Fellowship of Surgeons .

[ edit ] Miscellanea

Cambridge Terrace, a road in Christchurch , New Zealand is named after the University. It runs for much of its length along the left bank of the city's Avon River (Canterbury) . [ 164 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas

  1. ^ "Cambridge University's endowment grows by 16.1% in 1-year" (PDF). University of Cambridge. p. 4 . http://www.varsity.co.uk/news/3967 . Retrieved 27 Nov 2011 .
  2. ^ a b c d e "Facts and Figures January 2012" (PDF). Cambridge University . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/planning/information/statistics/facts/poster2012.pdf . Retrieved 1 April 2012 .
  3. ^ "Identity Guidelines – Colour" (PDF). University of Cambridge Office of External Affairs and Retrieved 28 March 2008 .
  4. ^ "A Brief History: Early records" . University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/univ/history/records.html . Retrieved 17 August 2008 .
  5. ^ "Cambridge holds top slot in university league table" . BBC News. 5 September 2011 . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-14762356 . Retrieved 12 September 2012 .
  6. ^ "QS Word University Rankings 2012 - Overall" . QS World University Rankings . http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2012 . Retrieved 12 September 2012 .
  7. ^ Jack Grove (28 June 2012). "In the grand sweepstakes, Cambridge takes top spot" . Times Higher Education . http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=420400 . Retrieved 12 September 2009 .
  8. ^ Bernard Kingston (28 April 2008). "League table of UK universities" . The Complete University Guide . http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/single.htm?ipg=6524 . Retrieved 4 February 2009 .
  9. ^ "Top Universities by Reputation (2011)" . Times Higher Education. Retrieved 11 March 2011 .
  10. ^ "Golden opportunities" . Naturaleza. 6 July 2005 . http://www.nature.com/naturejobs/2005/050707/full/nj7047-144a.html . Retrieved 19 October 2010 .
  11. ^ Hilde De-Ridder Symoens (2003). Cambridge University Press. ed. 1 . p. 89. ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8 .
  12. ^ a b Hackett, MB (1970). The original statutes of Cambridge University: The text and its history . Cambridge University Press. p. 178 . http://books.google.com/books?id=7og8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA178 . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  13. ^ Willey, David (Easter 2012). "Vatican reveals Cambridge papers". Cam 66 : 05.
  14. ^ Charles Henry Cooper (1860). Memorials of Cambridge . 1 . W. Metcalfe. p. 32 . http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=7bQWAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false .
  15. ^ Helmholtz, HR (2004) Roman Canon Law in Reformation England (Cambridge: University Press) pp.35,153
  16. ^ Thompson, Roger, Mobility & Migration, East Anglian Founders of New England, 1629–1640, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press , 1994, 19.
  17. ^ AR Forsyth (1935). "Old Tripos days at Cambridge" . The Mathematical Gazette (The Mathematical Association) 19 (234): 166 . http://www.jstor.org/stable/3605871?seq=5 . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  18. ^ "The History of Mathematics in Cambridge" . Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cambridge . http://www.maths.cam.ac.uk/about/history/ . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  19. ^ The six alumni are Michael Atiyah (Abel Prize and Fields Medal), Enrico Bombieri , Simon Donaldson , Richard Borcherds , Timothy Gowers , Alan Baker and the four official representatives were John G. Thompson , Alan Baker , Richard Borcherds , Timothy Gowers (see also "Fields Medal" . Wolfram MathWorld . http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FieldsMedal.html . Retrieved 3 December 2009 . )
  20. ^ The National Archives, ed. "Cambridge University Act 1856" . http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/19-20/88/contents . Consultado el 2 de mayo de 2012.
  21. ^ University of Cambridge, ed. "Biography - The Hon. Richard Consultado el 2 de mayo de 2012.
  22. ^ Taylor 1994 , p. 22
  23. ^ Cambridge University Physics Society (1995). Cambridge University Physics Society. ed. A Hundred Years and More of Cambridge Physics . ISBN 978-0-9507343-1-6 .
  24. ^ University of Cambridge, ed. "The Revived University of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" . http://www.cam.ac.uk/univ/history/19c.html . Consultado el 2 de mayo de 2012.
  25. ^ University of Cambridge, ed. "The University after 1945" . http://www.cam.ac.uk/univ/history/post1945.html . Retrieved 2 May 2005 .
  26. ^ "At last, a degree of honour for 900 Cambridge women" . The Independent . 31 May Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  27. ^ "Trinity Hall's Steamboat Ladies" . Trinity news. 14 March 2012 . http://trinitynews.ie/trinity-halls-steamboat-ladies/ . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  28. ^ Martin, Nicole (8 June 2006). "St Hilda's to end 113-year ban on male students" . Daily Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  29. ^ "Single-sex colleges: a dying breed?" . HERO. June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 20 April 2009 .
  30. ^ "Special No 19" . Cambridge University Reporter . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2004-05/special/19/ . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  31. ^ "Choir that sings to the world" . BBC. 24 December 2001 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/1703517.stm . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  32. ^ . The Telegraph. 18 December Consultado el 3 de enero de 2013.
  33. ^ "Cambridge City: Annual demographic and socio-economic report" . Cambridgeshire County Council. Abril Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  34. ^ "A brief history of Punting" . Cambridge River Tour . http://www.cambridgerivertour.co.uk/history.php . Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  35. ^ "Official Map" . University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/map/ . Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  36. ^ "History of the School" . University of Cambridge . http://www.medschl.cam.ac.uk/about/history.html . Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  37. ^ "West Cambridge site" . University of Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  38. ^ "Business school rankings: University of Cambridge, Judge Business School" . Financial Times . http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/university-of-cambridge-judge . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  39. ^ "What makes Cambridge a model cycling city?" . The Guardian. 17 August 2011 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/bike-blog/2011/aug/17/cambridge-model-cycling-city . Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  40. ^ Shepard, Alexandra; Phil, Withington (2000). Manchester University Press. ed. Communities in Early Modern England: Networks, Place, Rhetoric . pp Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  41. ^ "Is Town v Gown a thing of the past?" . Cambridge News. 7 October 2008 . http://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/Home/Features/Is-Town-v-Gown-a-thing-of-the-past.htm . Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  42. ^ "What is the Cambridge Phenomenon?" . Cambridge Phenomenon . http://www.cambridgephenomenon.com/what-phenomenon/ . Retrieved 4 September 2012 .
  43. ^ O'Grady, Jane (13 June 2003). "Obituary – Professor Sir Bernard Williams" . The Guardian (UK) . http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,3604,976477,00.html . Consultado el 8 de mayo de 2009.
  44. ^ "Information about Churchill College" . Churchill College . http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/the_college/info/ . Retrieved 7 January 2008 .
  45. ^ "About St. Catharine's College" . University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/colleges/stcatharines/ . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  46. ^ "Homerton College Accommodation Guide" . Homerton College . http://www.homerton.cam.ac.uk/lifeathomerton/facilities/accommodation . Retrieved 13 March 2013 .
  47. ^ "Trinity College Accommodation Guide" . Trinity College . http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/index.php?pageid=112 . Retrieved 13 March 2009 .
  48. ^ "Alternative Prospectus" (PDF). Cambridge University Students' Union . http://www.cusu.cam.ac.uk/prospective/prospectus/alternativeprospectus.pdf . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  49. ^ "Survey ranks colleges by green credentials" . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  50. ^ "Westcott House - Partner Universities" . Westcott.cam.ac.uk . http://www.westcott.cam.ac.uk/about/partners.html . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  51. ^ "Undergraduate Study - How will I be taught" . University of Cambridge . http://www.study.cam.ac.uk/undergraduate/courses/teaching.html . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  52. ^ "Cambridge considers end to one-to-one tuition" . The Guardian. 25 January 2011 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/jan/25/cambridge-may-end-individual-tuition . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  53. ^ Postman, Neil (1992). Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology . New York City: Alfred A. Knopf . ISBN 978-0-679-74540-2 .
  54. ^ "About the Schools, Faculties & Departments" . University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/deptdirectory/moreinfo.html . Consultado el 1 de mayo de 2010.
  55. ^ "University of Cambridge Term dates" . University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/univ/termdates.html . Retrieved 19 April 2010 .
  56. ^ University of Cambridge (2009). Cambridge University Press . ed. Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge 2009 . pp Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  57. ^ Sastry, Tom; Bekhradnia, Bahram (25 September 2007). "The Academic Experience of Students in English Universities (2007 report)" (PDF). Higher Education Policy Institute. pp. footnote 14 . http://www.hepi.ac.uk/downloads/33TheacademicexperienceofstudentsinEnglishuniversities2007.pdf . Retrieved 4 November 2007 . "Even within Russell Group institutions, it is remarkable how consistently Oxford and Cambridge appear to require more effort of their students than other universities. On the other hand, they have fewer weeks in the academic year than other universities, so the extent to which this is so may be exaggerated by these results."
  58. ^ "Home - News - University of Cambridge" . Admin.cam.ac.uk . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2011051901 . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  59. ^ "Update: Booming Blessed To Bloom As Chancellor? « The Tab" . Cambridgetab.co.uk. 2011-06-02 . http://cambridgetab.co.uk/news/booming-blessed-to-bloom-as-chancellor . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  60. ^ Caroline Davies (17 June 2011). "Cambridge university chancellor race gets tasty as grocer joins in" . The Retrieved 2011-06-26 .
  61. ^ a b "Election for the Office of Chancellor" . 21June 2011 . http://news.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/2011/06/21/election-for-the-office-of-chancellor/ . Retrieved 2011-06-26 .
  62. ^ Statute and Ordinances , Historical Note: "The University is ... consisting of a Chancellor, Masters and Scholars who from time out of mind have had the government of their members"
  63. ^ Grace 2 of 5 December 2007
  64. ^ "University of Cambridge: how the University works" . Cam.ac.uk. 2011-06-20 . http://www.cam.ac.uk/univ/works/senate.html . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  65. ^ Statutes and Ordinances, 2007–2008
  66. ^ "Annual Report of the Council for 2003–04" . Cambridge University Reporter . 15 December 2004 . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2004-05/weekly/5984/1.html . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  67. ^ Grace 2 of 5 December 2008
  68. ^ Acta in the Reporter , No 6107, publishing Results of Ballot
  69. ^ "Statutes approved: Notice" . Cambridge University Reporter . 23 July 2008 . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2007-08/weekly/6119/2.html . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  70. ^ "Developing governance by building on good practice: a green paper issued by the University Council" . Cambridge University Reporter . 25 April 2007 . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/current/weekly/6071/17.html . Retrieved 8 September 2008 . [ dead link ]
  71. ^ a b c d "Cambridge tops university rich list" . Financial Times . 15 September 2012 . http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f1126d04-c0fc-11df-99c4-00144feab49a.html#axzz1Yv4QeQ8w . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  72. ^ Peter Pagnamenta (2008). The University of Cambridge: An 800th Anniversary Portrait . Third Millenium. p. 295. ISBN 978-1-903942-65-9 .
  73. ^ "Oxford and Cambridge: How different they are?" . report . 26 April 2011 . http://www.hepi.ac.uk/files/44%20Oxford%20and%20Cambridge%20summary.pdf . Retrieved 22 October 2011 .
  74. ^ http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2011-12/weekly/6246/i.pdf
  75. ^ "Gates to fund Cambridge scholarship" . BBC News. 23 May 2000 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/760103.stm . Consultado el 3 de enero de 2013.
  76. ^ "Cambridge University Fundraising Campaign" . University of Cambridge. 10 June 2010 . http://www.campaign.cam.ac.uk/?dp=2010061001 . Retrieved 9 September 2012 .
  77. ^ "Facilities and resources" . Cambridge Admissions Office . http://www.cam.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/courses/facilities.html . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  78. ^ "Legal Deposit in the British Library" . The British Library . http://www.bl.uk/aboutus/stratpolprog/legaldep/ . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  79. ^ "Museums & Collections" . University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/museums/ . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  80. ^ "Estate management - Active projects" . University of Cambridge . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/em/estate/building_projects/active.html . Retrieved 4 January 2013 .
  81. ^ a b c "Cambridge Interviews: the facts" (PDF). University of Cambridge . http://www.cam.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/publications/interviews.pdf . Retrieved 11 August 2009 .
  82. ^ "Entrance requirements" . Cam.ac.uk . http://www.cam.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/requirements/#alevels . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  83. ^ "Cambridge entry level is now A*AA" . BBC News. 16 March 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/7946675.stm . Retrieved 27 May 2010 .
  84. ^ "Special No 11" (PDF). Cambridge University Reporter . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2006-07/special/11/table3_1.pdf . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  85. ^ "Board of Graduate Studies admissions flowchart" . University of Cambridge . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/univ/gsprospectus/applying/next.html . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  86. ^ a b "UK | Education | State school participation rate" . BBC News. 4 June 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8083423.stm . Retrieved 8 August 2009 .
  87. ^ "Number of Cambridge state school students falls" . The Guardian. 4 April 2008 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/apr/04/highereducation.accesstouniversity . Consultado el 3 de septiembre de 2012.
  88. ^ "Report by the Sutton Trust" (PDF). Sutton Trust. Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  89. ^ Johnson, Rachel (2002). "A bias against excellence" . The Spectator (UK) . http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3724/is_200203/ai_n9019732 . Retrieved 8 September 2008 . [ dead link ]
  90. ^ "Call for more university links" . BBC. 10 October 2007 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/7036891.stm . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  91. ^ "Special No 11" (PDF). Cambridge University Reporter . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2005-06/special/11/table1-1.pdf . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  92. ^ "Cambridge University given £4 million to support widening access" . Cambridge Network. 28 March 2008 . http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/article/default.aspx?objid=45639 . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  93. ^ "Education | The Times" . Timesonline.co.uk. 2013-01-21 . http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/article6350374.ece . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  94. ^ "Cambridge tops research tables" . The Guardian (UK). 14 December 2001 . http://education.guardian.co.uk/RAE/story/0,,618278,00.html . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  95. ^ MacLeod, Donald (22 September 2005). "University figures show sharp research divide" . The Guardian (UK) . http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/research/story/0,,1575165,00.html . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  96. ^ "Thomson Scientific ranks UK research" . Thomson Scientific. 4 May 2006 . http://scientific.thomson.com/press/2006/8319732/ . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  97. ^ "Report in the Times Higher Education Supplement" . Times Higher Education Supplement . http://www.thes.co.uk/search/story.aspx?story_id=2033320 .
  98. ^ "Cambridge University press release" . http://www.entrepreneurs.jbs.cam.ac.uk/news/news.htm .
  99. ^ O'Leary, John (2012). Times Good University Guide 2013 . HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-746434-0 .
  100. ^ "University league table" . The Guardian (London). 21 May 2012 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2012/may/21/university-league-table-2013 .
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h "QS World University Rankings - University of Cambridge" . Quacquarelli Symonds Limited . http://www.topuniversities.com/institution/university-cambridge/wur . Retrieved 4 January 2013 .
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "University of Cambridge - Performance in Academic Ranking of World Universities" . Academic Ranking of World Universities . http://www.shanghairanking.com/Institution.jsp?param=University%20of%20Cambridge . Retrieved 4 January 2013 .
  103. ^ O'Leary, John (2011). The Times Good University Guide 2012 . Times Books.
  104. ^ a b Shepherd, Jessica (16 May 2011). "University Guide 2012: Cambridge tops the Guardian league table" . The
  105. ^ Vasagar, Jeevan (21 May 2012). "Cambridge tops Guardian University Guide league table again" . The
  106. ^ O'Leary, John; Kennedy, Patrick; Horseman, Nicki (2010). The Times Good University Guide 2011 . HarperCollins UK. ISBN 978-0-00-735614-0 .
  107. ^ O'Leary, John; Kennedy, Patrick; Horseman, Nicki (2009). The Times Good University Guide 2010 . HarperCollins UK. ISBN 978-0-00-731348-8 .
  108. ^ "University guide 2010: University league table | Education | guardian.co.uk" . Guardian (UK). 12 May 2009 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2009/may/12/university-league-table . Retrieved 8 August 2009 .
  109. ^ "The Complete University Guide 2010" . The Complete University Guide . http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/league-tables/rankings?y=2010 . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  110. ^ O'Leary, John; Kennedy, Patrick; Horseman, Nicki (16 June 2008). The Times Good University Guide 2009 . Times Books. ISBN 978-0-00-727353-9 .
  111. ^ "The Complete University Guide 2009" . The Complete University Guide . http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/league-tables/rankings?y=2009 . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  112. ^ "University ranking by institution" . The Retrieved 29 October 2007 .
  113. ^ Naughton, Philippe; Costello, Miles. "The Sunday Times Good University Guide League Tables" . The Sunday Times (UK) . http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/stug/universityguide.php . Retrieved 3 November 2007 . [ dead link ]
  114. ^ "The Complete University Guide 2008" . The Complete University Guide . http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/league-tables/rankings?y=2008 . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  115. ^ O'Leary, John; Kingston, Bernard; Hindmarsh, Andrew (5 June 2006). The Times Good University Guide 2007 . Times Books. ISBN 978-0-00-723148-5 .
  116. ^ Thompson, Damian (30 July 2007). "University league table" . The Daily Retrieved 29 October 2007 .
  117. ^ O'Leary, John (6 June 2005). The Times Good University Guide 2006 . Times Books. ISBN 978-0-00-720303-1 .
  118. ^ "University ranking by institution" . The Retrieved 29 October 2007 .
  119. ^ a b "The Sunday Times University League Table" (PDF). The Sunday Times (UK) . http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/stug2006/stug2006.pdf . Retrieved 3 November 2007 .
  120. ^ O'Leary, John; Hindmarsh, Andrew (2004). The Times Good University Guide 2005 . HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-716524-7 .
  121. ^ "University ranking by institution" . The Retrieved 29 October 2007 .
  122. ^ Hindmarsh, Andrew; Kingston, Bernard; O'Leary, John (2 June 2003). The Times Good University Guide 2004 . Times Books. ISBN 978-0-00-715185-1 .
  123. ^ Hindmarsh, Andrew; Kingston, Bernard; O'Leary, John (3 June 2002). The Times Good University Guide 2003 . Times Books. ISBN 978-0-00-712648-4 .
  124. ^ "University league table" . The Daily Telegraph (UK) . http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/graphics/2003/06/27/unibigpic.jpg . [ dead link ]
  125. ^ University of Warwick , ed. "Academic Statistics 2002" . http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/mip/businessinformation/academicstatistics/2002/ . Consultado el 1 de mayo de 2012.
  126. ^ a b "The 2002 ranking – From Warwick" . Warwick Uni
  127. ^ a b c d e "University ranking based on performance over 10 years" (PDF). The Times (UK). 2007 . http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/pdfs/univ07ten.pdf . Retrieved 28 April 2008 .
  128. ^ a b "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2012" . Shanghai Ranking Consultancy . http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2012.html . Retrieved 23 August 2012 .
  129. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings 2012/13" . Quacquarelli Symonds . http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2012 . Retrieved 19 September 2012 .
  130. ^ a b "Top European Universities 2012" . Times Higher Consultado el 4 de diciembre de 2012.
  131. ^ "University League Table 2013" . The Complete University Guide . http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/league-tables/rankings . Retrieved 10 May 2012 .
  132. ^ "University guide 2013: University league table" . The Guardian. 21 May 2012 . http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2012/may/21/university-league-table-2013 . Retrieved 22 May 2012 .
  133. ^ "The Sunday Times University Guide 2013" . Times Newspapers . http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/ . Retrieved 30 September 2012 . (subscription required)
  134. ^ "The Times Good University Guide 2013" . Times Retrieved 30 September 2012 . (subscription required)
  135. ^ QS World University Rankings 2010 Results
  136. ^ USnews World's Best Universities: Top 400
  137. ^ "World Top 300 Universities Alumni Ranking" . Chasecareer.net . http://www.chasecareer.net/news_detail.php?id=61 . Retrieved 2012-06-06 .
  138. ^ "World University Rankings" . Times Higher Education. 2010–11 . http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2011-2012/top-400.html . Retrieved 16 September 2010 .
  139. ^ "URAP – University Ranking by Academic Performance" . http://www.urapcenter.org/2010 .
  140. ^ "THE-QS World University Rankings 2009 Results" . http://www.topuniversities.com/world-university-rankings .
  141. ^ "University League Table 2011". thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk. May 20, 2010." . http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/single.htm?ipg=8726 . .
  142. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities" . ShangaiRanking . http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2012.html . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  143. ^ "The Top 100 Global Universities" . MSNBC. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080522052332/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14321230/site/newsweek/ . Retrieved 8 September 2008 .
  144. ^ Watson, Roland; Elliott, Francis; Foster, Patrick. "The Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings" . The Times (UK) . http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/tol_gug/gooduniversityguide.php . Retrieved 26 November 2008 . [ dead link ]
  145. ^ "Press Release" . Cambridge University Press . http://www.cambridge.org/press/timeline.asp . Retrieved 6 January 2011 .
  146. ^ "About OCR - Oxford and Cambridge and RSA Examinations" . OCR . http://www.ocr.org.uk/about-us/ . Retrieved 3 January 2013 .
  147. ^ a b "Graduation: The Ceremony" . University of Retrieved 3 September 2012 .
  148. ^ "Graduation dress code" . Pembroke College . http://www.pem.cam.ac.uk/current-students/graduation/dress-code/ . Retrieved 3 September 2012 .
  149. ^ "Statutes and Ordinances 2011: Admission to Degrees" . University of Cambridge. 21 May 2011 . http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/univ/so/pdfs/ordinance02.pdf . Retrieved 3 September 2012 .
  150. ^ "About the Union" . Cambridge University Students' Union. 27 June 2012 . http://www.cusu.cam.ac.uk/union/ . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  151. ^ "A brief history of CUSU" . Cambridge University Students' Union. 12 April 2012 . http://www.cusu.cam.ac.uk/union/ . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  152. ^ Hawks' Club, ed. "Origins of the Cambridge Blue" . http://www.hawksclub.co.uk/the-club/club-history.aspx . Retrieved 4 January 2013 .
  153. ^ "£16m plans for new Cambridge University sports centre approved" . Cambridge News. 11 de enero Retrieved 4 January 2013 .
  154. ^ "Societies Directory" . Cambridge University Students' Union. 12 January 2010 . http://www.cusu.cam.ac.uk/societies/directory/ . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  155. ^ "Information for JCRs, MCRs and other Student Associations" . Cambridge University Students' Union. 12 January 2010 . http://www.cusu.cam.ac.uk/officers/associations/ . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  156. ^ "Inside Cambridge: Fizz, Fellows and Formal Hall" . The Huffington Post. 5 January 2012 . http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/anna-sheinman/cambridge-formals_b_1180791.html . Retrieved 25 April 2012 .
  157. ^ "Living in Cambridge" . Catalog . http://www.catalog.group.cam.ac.uk/cambridge.html . Consultado el 25 de abril de 2012.
  158. ^ "Cambridge University Sports" . Cambridge.net . http://cambridge.net/uk/cambridge-university-sports/ . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  159. ^ "Why Cambridge?" . Cambridge Judge Business School . http://www.jbs.cam.ac.uk/execed/aboutus/whycambridge/index.html . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  160. ^ "International Cambridge - United States of America" . University of Cambridge. 29 March 2012 . http://www.cam.ac.uk/international/research/usa.html . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.
  161. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers , "Holmes' College Career", for the Baker Street Studies , edited by HW Bell, 1934. Sayers's analysis was somewhat tongue-in-cheek . In the foreword to Unpopular Opinions , in which her essay appeared, Sayers says that the "game of applying the methods of the Higher Criticism to the Sherlock Holmes canon ... has become a hobby among a select set of jesters here and in America."
  162. ^ Chariots of Fire at the IMDb
  163. ^ "Lucasian Chair - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki" . En.memory-alpha.org . http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Lucasian_Chair . Retrieved 2013-02-04 .
  164. ^ "Christchurch Street Names" . Christchurch City libraries . http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Heritage/PlaceNames/ChristchurchStreetNames-C.pdf . Consultado el 2 de septiembre de 2012.

[ editar ] Referencias

[ editar ] Enlaces externos

Coordinates : 52°12′19″N 0°7′2″E  /  52.20528°N 0.11722°E  / 52.20528; 0.11722