Vincent van Gogh

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Vincent van Gogh
A mediados y finales de años 30 hombre mirando hacia la izquierda con un abrigo verde, corbata gris y llevaba un sombrero de paja
Autorretrato con sombrero de paja , París, invierno de 1887/88, Metropolitan Museum of Art , (F365v)
Nombre del nacimiento Vincent Willem van Gogh
Nacido 30 de marzo 1853
Zundert , Países Bajos
Murió 29 de julio 1890 (07/29/1890) (37 años)
Auvers-sur-Oise , Francia
Nacionalidad Holandés
Campo Pintura, dibujo
Formación Anton Mauve
Movimiento Post-Impresionismo
Obras La noche estrellada , girasoles , Dormitorio en Arles , Retrato del Dr. Gachet , Sorrow
Influenciado por Jean-François Millet , Rembrandt van Rijn , Eugène Delacroix , impresionismo , Ukiyo-e
Influenciado Émile Bernard , Henri Matisse , Oskar Kokoschka , Emil Nolde , Wassily Kandinsky

Vincent Willem van Gogh (holandés: [vɪnsɛnt ʋɪləɱ vɑŋ ɣɔχ] ( escuchar ) [nota 1] 30 marzo 1853 a 29 julio 1890) fue un holandés post-impresionista pintor cuya obra, notable por su belleza agreste, la honestidad emocional y colores vivos, tuvo una influencia de largo alcance en arte del siglo 20. Después de años de una dolorosa ansiedad y ataques frecuentes de la enfermedad mental, [1] [2] de 37 años murió de una herida de bala, generalmente aceptada como auto-infligida (aunque no se encontró arma alguna vez). [3] [nota 2] Su trabajo entonces era conocido sólo a un puñado de personas y apreciado por muchos menos.

Van Gogh empezó a dibujar cuando era niño, y él continuó dibujando a lo largo de los años que precedieron a su decisión de convertirse en artista. Él no comenzó a pintar hasta los treinta años, completando muchas de sus obras más conocidas en los dos últimos años de su vida. En poco más de una década, produjo más de 2.100 obras de arte, que consta de 860 óleos y más de 1.300 acuarelas, dibujos, bocetos y grabados . Su trabajo incluye autorretratos , paisajes, naturalezas muertas, retratos y pinturas de cipreses, campos de trigo y girasoles .

Van Gogh pasó su edad adulta trabajando para una empresa de marchantes de arte, los viajes entre La Haya , Londres y París , tras lo cual enseñó durante un tiempo en Inglaterra . Una de sus primeras aspiraciones era convertirse en un pastor y desde 1879 trabajó como misionero en una región minera de Bélgica , donde comenzó a dibujar a gente de la comunidad local. En 1885, pintó su primera gran obra Los comedores de patatas . Su paleta en el momento consistía principalmente en tonos tierra sombría y no mostró ningún signo de la viva coloración que distingue su obra posterior. En marzo de 1886, se trasladó a París y descubrió el impresionismo francés . Más tarde, se trasladó al sur de Francia y fue influenciado por la fuerte luz del sol que encontró allí. Su trabajo se hizo más brillante en color, y desarrolló un estilo único y altamente reconocibles que se realizan plenamente durante su estancia en Arles en 1888.

La medida en que su salud mental se ve afectada su pintura ha sido un tema de especulación desde su muerte. A pesar de una tendencia generalizada a idealizar su mala salud, los críticos modernos de ver a un artista profundamente frustrados por la inactividad y la incoherencia provocada por sus ataques de enfermedad. De acuerdo con el crítico de arte Robert Hughes , las últimas obras de Van Gogh muestran un artista a la altura de su capacidad, con pleno control y "anhelo de concisión y de la gracia". [4]

Contenido

Letras

Foto disparos en la cabeza del artista como un joven afeitado. Tiene grueso, mal kempt, cabello ondulado, frente alta y ojos hundidos, con una expresión alerta, vigilante.
Vicente c. Entre 18 1871-1872. Esta fotografía fue tomada en el momento en que él trabajaba en la sucursal de Goupil & Cie gallery 's en La Haya . [5] [6]
Foto Headshot de un hombre joven, de aspecto similar a su hermano, pero limpio, bien cuidado y tranquilo.
Theo en 1888 en 31. Theo era un partidario de toda la vida y amigo de su hermano. Los dos están enterrados juntos en Auvers-sur-Oise.

La principal fuente más completa para la comprensión de Van Gogh como artista es la colección de cartas entre él y su hermano menor, el comerciante de arte Theo van Gogh . [7] Se sientan las bases para la mayor parte de lo que se conoce acerca de los pensamientos y creencias del artista. [8] [9] Theo siempre a su hermano con el apoyo tanto financiero como emocional. Su amistad de toda la vida, y la mayoría de lo que se conoce de los pensamientos de Van Gogh y de las teorías del arte, se registra en los cientos de cartas que intercambiaron entre 1872 y 1890: más de 600 de Vincent a Theo y 40 de Theo a Vincent.

Aunque muchos no tienen fecha, los historiadores del arte en general han sido capaces de ponerlas en orden cronológico. Sigue habiendo problemas, sobre todo en aquellos que data de Arles , aunque se sabe que durante ese período, Van Gogh escribió 200 cartas a sus amigos en holandés, francés e Inglés. [10] El período en que Vincent vivió en París es la más difícil para los historiadores analizar porque los hermanos vivían juntos y no tenía necesidad de corresponder. [11]

Además de las cartas de y Theo, otros documentos que se conservan son aquellos a Van Rappard , Emile Bernard , Van Gogh hermana Wil y su Kruysse amigo Line. [12] Las letras fueron los primeros anotados en 1913 por la viuda de Theo, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger que Explicó que los publicó con 'temor' porque no quería que el drama de la vida del artista a eclipsar su obra. Van Gogh se era un ávido lector de biografías de otros artistas y esperaban que sus vidas para estar en armonía con el carácter de su arte. [7]

Biografía

Primeros años

Vincent Willem van Gogh nació el 30 de marzo de 1853 en Groot-Zundert , un pueblo cerca de Breda , en la provincia de Brabante Septentrional , en el sur de la Países Bajos , un área predominantemente católica. [13] [14] Él era el hijo mayor de Theodorus van Gogh, un ministro de la Iglesia Reformada Holandesa , y Anna Cornelia Carbentus. Vincent se le dio el nombre de su abuelo, y de un hermano muerto justo un año antes de su nacimiento. [nota 3] La práctica de la reutilización de un nombre que no era inusual. Vincent era un nombre común en la familia de Van Gogh: su abuelo, Vicente (1789-1874), había recibido su título de teología en la Universidad de Leiden en 1811. El abuelo Vicente tuvo seis hijos, tres de los cuales se convirtieron en comerciantes de arte, incluyendo otro Vincent que se hizo referencia en las cartas de Van Gogh como "Tío Cent". Abuelo Vicente había sido nombrado a su vez, tal vez después de tío a su propio padre, el escultor exitoso Vincent van Gogh (1729-1802). [15] [16] Arte y religión fueron las dos ocupaciones a las que la familia de Van Gogh gravitaron. Su hermano Theodorus "Theo", nació el 1 de mayo de 1857. Él tenía otro hermano, Cor, y tres hermanas: Elisabeth, Anna y Willemina . "Wil" [17]

foto oficial tiro en la cabeza en blanco y negro del artista como un joven con chaqueta y corbata. Tiene el pelo espeso y rizado y ojos de color muy pálido, con una expresión alerta, inquieto.
Vicente c. 1866, aprox. 13 años

Cuando era niño, Vincent era serio, callado y pensativo. Asistió a la escuela de la aldea Zundert en 1860, donde el profesor católico solo enseñó alrededor de 200 alumnos. Desde 1861, él y su hermana Anna se enseña en el hogar por una institutriz , hasta el 1 de octubre de 1864, cuando se fue a un internado de Jan Provily en Zevenbergen cerca de 20 millas (32 km) de distancia. Él estaba angustiado a dejar su hogar familiar mientras recordaba más tarde como adulto. El 15 de septiembre de 1866, se trasladó a la nueva escuela secundaria, Colegio Willem II en Tilburg. Constantijn C. Huysmans, un artista de éxito en París, enseñó a Van Gogh a dibujar en la escuela y abogó por un enfoque sistemático de la materia. Vincent interés por el arte comenzó a una edad temprana. Empezó a dibujar cuando era niño y continuó dibujando a lo largo de los años que precedieron a su decisión de convertirse en artista. Aunque bien hecho y expresivo, [18] sus primeros dibujos no se acercan a la intensidad que desarrolló en su obra posterior. [19] En marzo de 1868, Van Gogh abruptamente dejó la escuela y regresar a casa. Un comentario posterior en sus primeros años estuvo en una carta de 1883 a Theo en la que escribió: "Mi juventud fue triste y fría y estéril". [20]

En julio de 1869, su tío Cent le ayudó a obtener una posición con el comerciante de arte Goupil & Cie en La Haya . Después de su formación, en junio de 1873, Goupil lo trasladó a Londres, donde se presentó el 87 Hackford carretera , Brixton, y trabajó en los Sres. Goupil & Co., 17 Southampton Street. [21] Este fue un momento feliz para Vincent, él tuvo éxito en el trabajo y fue, a los 20, ganando más que su padre. Esposa de Theo comentó más adelante que este fue el año más feliz de la vida de Vincent. Él se enamoró de la hija de su patrona, Eugenia Loyer, pero cuando finalmente confesó sus sentimientos hacia ella, ella lo rechazó, diciendo que estaba comprometida en secreto a un inquilino anterior. Se hizo cada vez más aislado y ferviente de la religión, su padre y su tío organizó su traslado a París, donde se convirtió en resentimiento en cómo el arte se trata como una mercancía , un hecho evidente para los clientes. El 1 de abril de 1876, Goupil terminada su relación de trabajo. [22]

Van Gogh regresó a Inglaterra para el trabajo no remunerado como profesor de la oferta en un pequeño colegio de internos con vistas al puerto en Ramsgate , donde hizo dibujos de la vista. Cuando el titular de la escuela se trasladó a Isleworth , Middlesex, Van Gogh se mudó con él, tomando el tren a Richmond y el resto del camino a pie. [23] El arreglo no funcionó y se fue para convertirse en un metodista asistente del ministro , siguiendo su deseo de "predicar el Evangelio por todas partes". [24] En Navidad, él volvió a casa y encontró trabajo en una librería en Dordrecht durante seis meses. Él no era feliz en su nuevo cargo y pasó gran parte de su tiempo haciendo garabatos o bien traducir pasajes de la Biblia en Inglés, francés y alemán. [25] Su compañero de cuarto en ese momento, un joven maestro llamado Görlitz, recordó que comía frugalmente van Gogh y prefería no comer carne. [26] [nota 4]

Celo religioso Van Gogh creció hasta que sintió que había encontrado su verdadera vocación. Para apoyar su esfuerzo por convertirse en un pastor, su familia lo envió a Amsterdam para estudiar teología en mayo de 1877, donde se alojó con su tío Jan van Gogh, una naval vicealmirante . [27] [28] Vincent preparado para el examen de ingreso con su tío Johannes Stricker , un teólogo respetado que publicó el primer "Vida de Jesús" en los Países Bajos. Van Gogh no pasó el examen, y dejó la casa de su tío de Jan en julio de 1878. Él entonces emprendió, sin éxito, un curso de tres meses en el Opleidingsschool Vlaamsche, un protestante escuela misionera en Laeken, cerca de Bruselas . [29]

foto de una casa de ladrillo de dos pisos a la izquierda, parcialmente oculto por los árboles con un jardín delantero y con una hilera de árboles a la derecha
La casa donde Van Gogh se quedó en Cuesmes en 1880, mientras vivía aquí, decidió convertirse en artista

En enero de 1879, tomó un puesto temporal como misionero en el pueblo de Petit Wasmes [nota 5] , en el distrito de minas de carbón de Borinage en Bélgica. Tomando el cristianismo a lo que él consideraba su conclusión lógica, van Gogh vivió como los que él predicó, durmiendo sobre paja en una pequeña cabaña en la parte trasera de la casa de la panadería donde se hospedaba. La mujer del panadero dijeron haber escuchado van Gogh sollozando por la noche en la cabaña. La elección de las condiciones de vida miserables no le granjearon las simpatías de las autoridades eclesiásticas horrorizados, que lo despidió por "menoscabar la dignidad del sacerdocio". A continuación, se dirigió a Bruselas, [30] regresó brevemente a la aldea de Cuesmes en el Borinage, pero cedió a la presión de sus padres para volver a casa a Etten . Se quedó allí hasta alrededor de marzo del año siguiente, [nota 6] un motivo de preocupación cada vez mayor y la frustración de sus padres. Hubo conflicto particular entre Vincent y su padre, Theodorus hecho averiguaciones acerca de tener a su hijo comprometido con el manicomio en Geel . [31] [nota 7]

Volvió a Cuesmes donde se alojó hasta octubre con un minero llamado Charles Decrucq. [32] Cada vez más interesado en las personas y las escenas a su alrededor, van Gogh grabó su tiempo allí en sus dibujos y siguió la sugerencia de Theo, que debería ocupar el arte en serio . Él viajó a Bruselas que el otoño con la intención de seguir la recomendación de Theo para estudiar con el destacado artista holandés Willem Roelofs , quien le convenció, a pesar de su aversión a las escuelas formales del arte, para asistir a la Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts de Bruselas, donde registrada el 15 de noviembre de 1880. En la Academia, estudió anatomía y las reglas estándar de modelado y perspectiva , de la que dijo: "... hay que saber para ser capaz de sacar lo más mínimo". [33] Van Gogh aspira a convertirse en un artista en el servicio de Dios, diciendo: "... para tratar de entender el verdadero significado de lo que los grandes artistas, los maestros serios, nos dicen en sus obras maestras, que conduce a Dios, un hombre escribió o dijo en un libro, y otro en un dibujo ".

Etten, Drenthe y La Haya

Anotado por el artista en tinta abajo a la izquierda: En la Puerta de la Eternidad , 1882, litografía, Teherán Museo de Arte Contemporáneo [34]
Kee Vos Stricker con su hijo Jan c. 1879/1880.

En abril de 1881, Van Gogh se mudó a la Etten campo con sus padres, donde continuó dibujando, usando a menudo los vecinos como sujetos. Durante el verano pasó un tiempo caminando y hablando con su primo recientemente viudo, Kee Vos-Stricker, la hija de la hermana mayor de su madre y Johannes Stricker, con quien se quedó en Amsterdam en 1878. [35] Kee, quien tenía un niño de ocho años de edad, hijo, era siete años mayor que Van Gogh. Le propuso matrimonio, pero ella rechazó con estas palabras: "No, mejor dicho, nunca," ("nooit, neen, nimmer"). [36] [37] Más tarde esa noviembre, van Gogh escribió una dura carta a Johannes, [ 38] y luego se apresuró a Amsterdam , donde habló con él en varias ocasiones. [39] Kee se negó a recibirlo, y sus padres escribió: "Su persistencia es repugnante". En la desesperación, él levantó la mano izquierda en la llama de una lámpara, con las palabras: "Déjame ver durante todo el tiempo que puedo mantener mi mano en el fuego". [40] No recordaba bien el evento, pero más tarde supuso que su tío apagó la llama. Padre de Kee dejó en claro que lo que la negativa de Kee debe ser escuchada y que los dos no se casaría [41] debido a la incapacidad de Van Gogh a sí mismo. [42] la percepción de Van Gogh de su tío y la hipocresía antiguo tutor le afectó profundamente y poner fin a su fe religiosa para siempre. [43] Que la Navidad se negó a ir a la iglesia, discutiendo violentamente con su padre como un resultado y que lo llevó a salir de su casa el mismo día de La Haya . [44] [45]

Una visión desde una ventana de pálidos tejados rojos. Un pájaro volando en el cielo azul y en los campos de distancia y cerca de la derecha, los edificios de la ciudad y otros se pueden ver. En el horizonte lejano son las chimeneas
Rooftops, Vista desde el Atelier de La Haya de 1882, acuarela, Colección particular.

En enero de 1882, se estableció en La Haya, donde llamó a su primo-en-ley, Anton Mauve (1838-1888), quien fue un holandés realista pintor y miembro destacado de la Escuela de La Haya . Mauve le introdujo en la pintura en óleo y acuarela y le prestó dinero para montar un estudio [46] , pero los dos pronto se cayó, posiblemente por el tema de la elaboración de moldes de yeso . [47] Mauve parece haber desaparecido de repente frío hacia Van Gogh y no respondió a un número de sus cartas. [48] Van Gogh suponía que había aprendido de su disposición interior nuevo con una prostituta alcohólica, Clasina Maria "Sien" Hoornik (1850-1904), y su pequeña hija. [ 49] [50] [51] Había conocido a Sien a finales de enero, cuando ella tenía una hija de cinco años de edad y estaba embarazada. Ella ya había tenido dos hijos que habían muerto, a pesar de que van Gogh no era consciente de ello. [52] El 2 de julio, dio a luz a un varón, Willem. [53] Cuando el padre de Van Gogh descubrió los detalles de su relación, una considerable presión sobre su hijo a abandonar Sien y sus hijos, aunque Vincent al principio lo habían desafiado. [54] [55]

Tío Van Gogh Cornelis , un comerciante de arte, encargó 12 dibujos a tinta de vistas de la ciudad, los cuales van Gogh terminado poco después de su llegada a La Haya, junto con otros siete dibujos de mayo. [56] En junio, pasó tres semanas en un hospital que sufre de gonorrea . [57] Durante el verano comenzó a pintar al óleo. [58] En el otoño de 1883, después de un año juntos, dejó Sien y los dos niños. Había pensado en mover la familia fuera de la ciudad, pero al final hizo la pausa. [59] Es posible que la falta de dinero Sien empujado de vuelta a la prostitución, la casa se ​​convirtió en menos feliz, y van Gogh pudo haber sentido la vida familiar era irreconciliable con su desarrollo artístico. Cuando se fue, Sien dio a su hija a su madre y al bebé a su hermano Guillermo. Después se mudó a Delft , y luego a Amberes . [60] Willem recordó haber sido llevado a visitar a su madre en Rotterdam en torno a la edad de 12 años, donde su tío trató de persuadir a Sien a casarse con el fin de legitimar el niño. Willem recordó a su madre diciendo: "Pero yo sé quién es el padre. Él era un artista que vivió con casi 20 años en La Haya. Se llamaba Van Gogh". Ella se volvió hacia Willem y dijo: "Usted ha sido llamado por él". [61] Si bien se creía hijo de Willem van Gogh, el momento de su nacimiento hacen poco probable. [62] En 1904, Sien se ahogó en el río Escalda . Van Gogh se mudó a la provincia holandesa de Drenthe , en el norte de Holanda. Ese diciembre, impulsado por la soledad, se fue a vivir con sus padres que había sido enviado a Nuenen , North Brabant. [63]

Artista Emergente

Nuenen y Amberes (1883-1886)

En Nuenen, Van Gogh se dedicó al dibujo, y le dio el dinero a los niños para traerlo de nidos de pájaros para la materia para cuadros, [nota 8] e hizo muchos dibujos y pinturas de los tejedores en sus casas . [64] En el otoño 1884, Margot Begemann, la hija de un vecino y diez años mayor que él, a menudo se le unió en sus incursiones pictóricas. Ella se enamoró, y él correspondió, aunque con menos entusiasmo. Decidieron casarse, pero la idea fue rechazada por ambas familias. Como resultado, Margot tomó una sobredosis de estricnina . Ella se salvó cuando van Gogh le llevaron a un hospital cercano. [53] El 26 de marzo de 1885, su padre murió de un ataque al corazón y se lamentaba profundamente la pérdida. [65]

Por primera vez, no había interés de París en su obra. Esa primavera, completó lo que se considera su primera gran obra, Los comedores de patatas , la culminación de varios años de trabajo de pintura estudio de personajes campesinos . [66] En agosto de 1885, su obra fue expuesta por primera vez, en las ventanas de un distribuidor de pintura, Leurs, en La Haya. Cuando fue acusado de forzar a sí mismo en una de su joven campesino sitters Gordina de Groot , que quedó embarazada ese mes de septiembre [nota 9] el cura del pueblo católico prohibió a los feligreses desde el modelado por él. [67] En 1885, pintó varios grupos de still- vida pinturas.

A partir de este período, Naturaleza muerta con sombrero de paja y pipa y Naturaleza muerta con olla de barro-y Zuecos se caracterizan por la pincelada suave, meticuloso y bien sombreado de colores. [68] Durante su estancia de dos años en Nuenen, realizó numerosos dibujos y acuarelas y casi 200 pinturas al óleo. Su paleta consistía principalmente en sombríos tonos de la tierra , particularmente marrón oscuro, y no mostró ningún signo de desarrollo de la coloración viva que distingue su tarde, obra más conocida. Cuando se quejó de que Theo no estaba haciendo suficiente esfuerzo para vender sus pinturas en París, su hermano le respondió, diciéndole que las pinturas eran demasiado oscuros y no en consonancia con el estilo actual de las brillantes impresionistas pinturas. [69]

En noviembre de 1885, se trasladó a Amberes y alquiló una pequeña habitación encima de la tienda de un comerciante de la pintura en las imágenes de la Rue des (Lange Beeldekensstraat). [70] Él tenía poco dinero y comía mal, prefiriendo gastar el dinero Theo enviado el material de pintura y modelos. El pan, el café y el tabaco eran su consumo básico. En febrero de 1886, le escribió a Theo diciendo que sólo podía recordar comer seis comidas calientes desde mayo del año anterior. Sus dientes se aflojaron y doloroso. [71] Durante su estancia en Amberes se dedicó al estudio de la teoría del color y pasó un tiempo en los museos, en particular el estudio de la obra de Peter Paul Rubens , ganando ánimo de ampliar su paleta de carmín , cobalto y verde esmeralda . Se compró un número de japoneses Ukiyo-e grabado en madera en la zona portuaria, e incorporó a su estilo en el fondo de una serie de sus pinturas. [72] Mientras que en Amberes, Van Gogh comenzó a beber ajenjo en gran medida. [73] Fue tratado por Dr. Amadeus Cavenaile, cuya práctica estaba cerca de la zona portuaria, [nota 10] , posiblemente, para la sífilis ; [nota 11] el tratamiento de riego alumbre y baños de asiento se anotó por Van Gogh en uno de sus cuadernos. [74] A pesar de su rechazo de la enseñanza académica, que tomaron el examen de admisión de nivel superior en la Academia de Bellas Artes de Amberes, y en enero de 1886, se matriculó en la pintura y el dibujo. Durante la mayor parte del mes de febrero, que estaba enfermo y agotado por el exceso de trabajo, la mala alimentación y el tabaquismo excesivo. [75]

París (1886-1888)

Multicolor retrato de una cortesana de Extremo Oriente con ornamentación elaborada cabello, prendas de vestir robelike colorido, y una frontera que representa las aguas pantanosas y cañas.
Cortesana (después de Eisen ) de 1887, Van Gogh Museum
Retrato de un árbol con flores y con las letras del alfabeto del lejano oriente, tanto en el retrato ya lo largo de los bordes izquierdo y derecho.
El Plumtree Blooming (después de Hiroshige ), de 1887, Van Gogh Museum

Van Gogh viajó a París en marzo de 1886, donde compartió apartamento de Theo Rue Laval en Montmartre , para estudiar en Fernand Cormon studio 's. En junio, se llevó a un apartamento más grande más cuesta arriba, en la Rue Lepic 54. Debido a que no tenía necesidad de escribir cartas para comunicarse, poco se sabe acerca de esta estancia en París. [76] En París pintó retratos de amigos y conocidos , bodegones , vistas de Le Moulin de la Galette , escenas de Montmartre , Asnières , ya lo largo del Sena .

Durante su estancia en París, recogió más japonés ukiyo-e grabados en madera , que se interesó en estas obras , cuando en 1885 en Amberes, las usaba para decorar las paredes de su estudio. Él recogió cientos de impresiones, que son visibles en los antecedentes de varios de sus cuadros. En 1887 su Retrato de Père Tanguy varios se puede ver colgando en la pared detrás de la figura principal. En La cortesana o Oiran (después de Eisen Kesai) (1887), van Gogh trazó la figura de una reproducción en la portada de la revista Paris Illustre, que luego amplió gráficamente en la pintura. [77] Su 1888 del árbol de ciruelo en flor ( Después de Hiroshige) es un claro ejemplo de la admiración que sentía por las impresiones que recogió. Su versión es un poco más audaz que Hiroshige 's original. [78]

Después de ver Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli trabajo 's en la Galerie Delareybarette, que él admiraba, van Gogh inmediatamente adoptó una paleta brillante y un ataque más audaz, sobre todo en obras como su Paisaje marino en Saintes-Maries (1888). [79] [80 ] Dos años más tarde, en 1890, Vincent y Theo pagó para que un libro sobre Monticelli publicado, y van Gogh comprado un número de pinturas Monticelli, añadiéndolos a su colección. [81]

azul en tonos pastel dibujo de un hombre mirando hacia la derecha, sentado en una mesa con las manos y un vaso en él mientras llevaba un abrigo y con ventanas en segundo plano.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Retrato de Vincent van Gogh, 1887, dibujo en pastel, Van Gogh Museum .

Durante meses, Van Gogh trabajó en el estudio de Cormon, donde frecuentó el círculo de los británicos-artista australiano John Peter Russell , [82] y se reunió con sus compañeros como Émile Bernard , Louis Anquetin y Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , que pintó un retrato de Van Gogh con pastel . El grupo congregó a Julien "Père" Tanguy 's tienda de pintura, en ese momento el único lugar donde Paul Cézanne 's pinturas fueron exhibidas. Él tenía fácil acceso a las obras impresionistas en París de la época. En 1886, dos exposiciones de vanguardia grandes se organizaron; espectáculos donde Neo-Impresionismo fue exhibida por primera vez y visto, con obras de Georges Seurat y Paul Signac convirtiendo en la comidilla de la ciudad. Aunque Theo mantenía un stock de impresionistas pinturas en su galería en el Boulevard Montmartre, de artistas como Claude Monet , Alfred Sisley , Degas Edgar y Camille Pissarro -van Gogh aparentemente tuvo problemas reconociendo la evolución de cómo los artistas pintar y ver su contenido. [83]

Los conflictos surgieron entre los hermanos. A finales de 1886, Theo encontró que vivir con Vincent era "insoportable". En la primavera de 1887, se encontraban de nuevo en paz, a pesar de que van Gogh se mudó a Asnières un suburbio del noroeste de París, donde entró en contacto con Signac. Con Émile Bernard , adoptó elementos de puntillismo , una técnica en la que se aplica una multitud de pequeños puntos de colores en el lienzo que, cuando se ve desde la distancia, crean una mezcla óptica de colores. [84] El estilo hace hincapié en el valor de los colores complementarios -incluyendo azul y naranja para formar contrastes vibrantes que aumenta cuando se yuxtaponen. [85] Mientras que en Asnières pintó parques y restaurantes y el Sena , incluyendo puentes sobre el Sena en Asnières .

En noviembre de 1887, Theo y Vincent conoció y se hizo amigo de Paul Gauguin , que acababa de llegar a París. [86] Hacia el final del año, Vincent organizó una exposición de pinturas de sí mismo, Bernard, Anquetin, y probablemente Toulouse-Lautrec en el Gran -Bouillon Restaurant du Chalet, 43 Avenue de Clichy, en Montmartre. En un relato contemporáneo, Emile Bernard escribió sobre el evento: "En la avenida de Clichy un nuevo restaurante fue abierto Vincent solía comer allí Él propuso al director de una exposición que se celebrará allí .... lienzos de Anquetin, por.. Lautrec, por Koning ... llenó la sala .... Realmente tuvo el impacto de algo nuevo, sino que era más moderno que cualquier cosa que se hizo en París en ese momento ". [87] Hay Bernard y Anquetin vendió sus primeros cuadros y Van Gogh intercambian trabajo con Gauguin, que pronto se fue a Pont-Aven . Las discusiones sobre arte, los artistas y sus situaciones sociales que comenzaron durante esta exposición continuó y se amplió para incluir los visitantes de la feria como Pissarro y su hijo Lucien , Signac y Seurat. Finalmente, en febrero de 1888, sintiéndose agotado de la vida en París, dejó, después de haber pintado más de 200 cuadros durante sus dos años en la ciudad. Sólo unas horas antes de su partida, junto con Theo, él hizo su primera y única visita a Seurat en su taller (estudio). [88]

Avance artístico y años finales

Mover a Arles (1888-1889)

Van Gogh se mudó a Arles con la esperanza de refugio en un momento en que estaba enfermo de la bebida y el sufrimiento de la tos del fumador. [10] Llegó el 21 de febrero de 1888, y tomó una habitación en el Carrel Hôtel-Restaurant, el cual, idealmente, tuvo espera tener una de Hokusai (1760-1849) o Utamaro impresiones 's (1753-1806). [5] [10] Parece que se había trasladado a la ciudad con pensamientos de fundar una utópica colonia de artistas . El artista danés cristiano Mourier-Petersen (1858-1945), se convirtió en su compañera durante dos meses, y apareció por primera vez en Arles exótico y muy sucias. En una carta que lo describió como un país extranjero: "Los zuavos, los burdeles, los Arlisiennes adorables va a la primera comunión, el sacerdote en su sobrepelliz, que se parece a un rinoceronte peligroso, las personas que beben ajenjo, todo me parece criaturas de otro mundo ". [89] Cien años más tarde, Van Gogh fue recordado por 113 años, Jeanne Calment , quien, a los 13 años de edad, se desempeñaba en la tienda de telas de su tío donde van Gogh quería comprar algún lienzo -como "sucio, mal vestido y desagradable", y "muy feo, descortés, mal educado y enfermo". También recordó haberlo vendido lápices de colores. [90] [91]

Van Gogh was enchanted by the local landscape and light, and his works from the period are richly draped in yellow, ultramarine and mauve . His portrayals of the Arles landscape are informed by his Dutch upbringing; the patchwork of fields and avenues appear flat and lack perspective , but excel in their intensity of color. [ 10 ] [ 89 ] The vibrant light in Arles excited him, and his newfound appreciation is seen in the range and scope of his work. That March he painted local landscapes using a gridded "perspective frame". Three of these paintings were shown at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants . In April, he was visited by the American artist Dodge MacKnight , who was living nearby at Fontvieille . [ 5 ] [ 92 ] On 1 May, he signed a lease for 15 francs a month in the eastern wing of the Yellow House at No. 2 Place Lamartine. The rooms were unfurnished and uninhabited for some time. He was still at the Hôtel Restaurant Carrel, but the rate charged by the hotel was 5 francs a week, which he found excessive. He disputed the price, took the case to a local arbitrator and was awarded a twelve franc reduction on the total bill. [ 93 ]

laborers toil in the field, with all but one on foot and the other manning a beast drawn cart; a river curves in and out of the scene from the upper right with one person in it and the sun is prominently displayed among yellow lighting; the foreground fields are multicolored and the background fields are yellowish.
The Red Vineyard , November 1888, Pushkin Museum , Moscow). Sold to Anna Boch , 1890
A wooden rocking chair with a couple of opened books set on the green and yellow seat cushion with a lit candle in a holder also on the seat of the chair. On the wall is a burning candle in a holder casting a glowing light.
Paul Gauguin's Armchair , 1888, Van Gogh Museum

He moved from the Hôtel Carrel to the Café de la Gare on 7 May, [ 94 ] where he became friends with the proprietors, Joseph and Marie Ginoux . Although the Yellow House had to be furnished before he could fully move in, van Gogh was able to utilize it as a studio. [ 95 ] Hoping to have a gallery to display his work, his project at this time was a series of paintings including Van Gogh's Chair (1888), Bedroom in Arles (1888), The Night Café (1888), Cafe Terrace at Night (September 1888), Starry Night Over the Rhone (1888), Still Life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (1888), all intended to form the décoration for the Yellow House . [ 96 ] van Gogh wrote about The Night Café : "I have tried to express the idea that the café is a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime." [ 97 ]

When he visited Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer that June he gave drawing lessons to a Zouave second lieutenant, Paul-Eugène Milliet [ 98 ] and painted boats on the sea and the village . [ 99 ] MacKnight introduced van Gogh to Eugène Boch , a Belgian painter who stayed at times in Fontvieille, and the two exchanged visits in July. [ 98 ]

Gauguin's visit

When Gauguin agreed to visit Arles, van Gogh hoped for friendship and for his utopian idea of a collective of artists. In anticipation that August he painted sunflowers. When Boch visited again, van Gogh painted a portrait of him, as well as the study The Poet Against a Starry Sky. Boch's sister Anna (1848–1936), also an artist, purchased The Red Vineyard in 1890. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] In preparation for Gauguin's visit he bought two beds, on advice from his friend the station's postal supervisor Joseph Roulin , whose portrait he painted, and on 17 September spent the first night in the still sparsely furnished Yellow House. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] When Gauguin consented to work and live side-by-side in Arles with van Gogh, he started to work on The Décoration for the Yellow House , probably the most ambitious effort he ever undertook. [ 104 ] van Gogh did two chair paintings: Van Gogh's Chair and Gauguin's Chair . [ 105 ]

After repeated requests, Gauguin finally arrived in Arles on 23 October. During November, the two painted together. Gauguin painted van Gogh's portrait The Painter of Sunflowers : Portrait of Vincent van Gogh, and uncharacteristically, van Gogh painted some pictures from memory—deferring to Gauguin's ideas in this—as well as his The Red Vineyard . Their first joint outdoor painting exercise produced Les Alyscamps , and was conducted at the Alyscamps . [ 106 ]

A seated red bearded man wearing a brown coat; facing to the left; with a paint brush in his right hand, is painting a picture of large sunflowers
Paul Gauguin , The Painter of Sunflowers : Portrait of Vincent van Gogh , 1888, Van Gogh Museum , Amsterdam.

The two visited Montpellier that December and viewed works in the Alfred Bruyas collection by Courbet and Delacroix in the Musée Fabre , [ 107 ] but their relationship began to deteriorate. Van Gogh greatly admired Gauguin, and desperately wanted to be treated as his equal. But Gauguin was arrogant and domineering, a fact that often frustrated van Gogh. They quarreled fiercely about art; van Gogh felt an increasing fear that Gauguin was going to desert him, as a situation he described as one of "excessive tension" reached crisis point. [ 108 ]

On 23 December 1888, frustrated and ill, van Gogh confronted Gauguin with a razor blade, but in panic, left and fled to a local brothel. Deeply lonely at the time, he often visited the prostitutes at a brothel on Rue du Bout d'Aeles as his single emotional and sensuous point of contact with other people. While there, he cut off his left ear, though it is often claimed that it was only the lower part of his left earlobe. [ note 12 ] He wrapped the severed ear in newspaper and handed it to a prostitute named Rachel, asking her to "keep this object carefully." He staggered home, where he was later found by Gauguin lying unconscious with his head covered in blood. [ 109 ]

Van Gogh was taken to a hospital and remained in a critical state for several days. He asked for Gauguin continually over the next number of days, but the Frenchman stayed away. Gauguin told one of the policeman attending the case, "Be kind enough, Monsieur, to awaken this man with great care, and if he asks for me tell him I have left for Paris; the sight of me might prove fatal for him." [ 110 ] Gauguin wrote of van Gogh, "His state is worse, he wants to sleep with the patients, chase the nurses, and washes himself in the coal bucket. That is to say, he continues the biblical mortifications." [ 110 ] Theo—notified by Gauguin—visited, as did both Madame Ginoux and Roulin. Gauguin left Arles and never saw van Gogh again. [ note 13 ] In January 1889, van Gogh returned to the Yellow House, but spent the following month between the hospital and home, suffering from hallucinations and delusions that he was being poisoned. In March, the police closed his house after a petition by 30 townspeople, who called him "fou roux" ( the redheaded madman ). Paul Signac visited him in the hospital and van Gogh was allowed home in his company. In April, he moved into rooms owned by Dr. Rey, after floods damaged paintings in his own home. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] Around this time, he wrote, "Sometimes moods of indescribable anguish, sometimes moments when the veil of time and fatality of circumstances seemed to be torn apart for an instant." Two months later he had left Arles and entered an asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence . [ 113 ]

Saint-Rémy (May 1889 – May 1890)

A landscape in which the starry night sky takes up two thirds of the picture. In the left foreground a dark pointed Cypress pine tree extends from the bottom to the top of the picture. To the left, village houses and a church with a tall steeple are clustered at the foot of a mountain range. The sky is deep blue. In the upper right is a yellow crescent moon surrounded by a halo of light. There are many bright stars large and small, each surrounded by intense swirling halos. Across the center of the sky the Milky Way is represented as a double swirling vortex.
The Starry Night , June 1889, The Museum of Modern Art , New York
A man is scattering seeds in a ploughed field. The figure is represented as small, and is set in the upper right and walking out of the picture. He carries a bag of seed over one shoulder. The ploughed soil is grey, and behind it rises standing crop, and in the left distance, a farmhouse. In the center of the horizon is a giant yellow rising sun surrounded by emanating yellow rays. A path leads into the picture, and birds are swooping down.
The Sower , 1888, Kröller-Müller Museum

On 8 May 1889, accompanied by his carer, the Reverend Salles, van Gogh committed himself to the hospital at Saint Paul-de-Mausole . A former monastery in Saint-Rémy less than 20 miles (32 km) from Arles, the monastery is located in an area of cornfields, vineyards and olive trees at the time run by a former naval doctor, Dr. Théophile Peyron . Theo arranged for two small rooms—adjoining cells with barred windows. The second was to be used as a studio. [ 114 ]

During his stay, the clinic and its garden became the main subjects of his paintings. He made several studies of the hospital interiors, such as Vestibule of the Asylum and Saint-Remy (September 1889) . Some of the work from this time is characterized by swirls—including one of his best-known paintings The Starry Night . [ 115 ] He was allowed short supervised walks, which led to paintings of cypresses and olive trees , like Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background 1889, Cypresses 1889, Cornfield with Cypresses (1889), Country road in Provence by Night (1890). That September he also produced a further two versions of Bedroom in Arles .

Limited access to the world outside the clinic resulted in a shortage of subject matter. He was left to work on interpretations of other artist's paintings , such as Millet's The Sower and Noon – Rest from Work (after Millet) , as well as variations on his own earlier work. Van Gogh was an admirer of the Realism of Jules Breton , Gustave Courbet and Millet [ 116 ] and compared his copies to a musician's interpreting Beethoven . [ 117 ] [ 118 ] Many of his most compelling works date from this period. His The Round of the Prisoners (1890) was painted after an engraving by Gustave Doré (1832–1883). It is suggested that the face of the prisoner in the center of the painting and looking toward the viewer is van Gogh himself, although the noted van Gogh scholar Jan Hulsker discounts this. [ 119 ] [ 120 ]

Towards the end of his stay, van Gogh suffered a severe relapse lasting two month between February and April 1890. Nevertheless he was able to paint and draw a little during this time and he later wrote Theo that he had made a few small canvases "from memory ... reminisces of the North". [ 121 ] Amongst these was Two Peasant Women Digging in a Snow-Covered Field at Sunset . Hulsker believes that this small group of paintings formed the nucleus of a large number of drawings and study sheets depicting landscapes and figures that van Gogh worked on during this time. He comments that, save for this short period, van Gogh's illness had hardly any effect on his work but in these he sees a reflection of van Gogh's mental health at the time. [ 122 ] Also belonging to this period is Sorrowing Old Man ('At Eternity's Gate') , a color study that Hulsker describes as "another unmistakable remembrance of times long past". [ 122 ] [ 123 ]

In February 1890 he painted five versions of L'Arlésienne (Madame Ginoux) , based on a charcoal sketch Gauguin had produced when Madame Ginoux sat for both artists at the beginning of November 1888. [ 124 ] The version intended for Madame Ginoux is lost. It was attempting to deliver this painting to Madame Ginoux in Arles that precipitated his February relapse. [ 125 ]

His work was praised by Albert Aurier in the Mercure de France in January 1890, when he was described as "a genius". [ 126 ] That February he was invited by Les XX , a society of avant-garde painters in Brussels , to participate in their annual exhibition . At the opening dinner, Les XX member Henry de Groux insulted van Gogh's work. Toulouse-Lautrec demanded satisfaction, while Signac declared he would continue to fight for van Gogh's honor if Lautrec should surrender. Later, while van Gogh's exhibit was on display with the Artistes Indépendants in Paris, Monet said that his work was the best in the show. [ 127 ] In February 1890, following the birth of his nephew Vincent Willem, he wrote in a letter to his mother, that with the new addition to the family, he "started right away to make a picture for him, to hang in their bedroom, branches of white almond blossom against a blue sky." [ 128 ]

Auvers-sur-Oise (May–July 1890)

An enclosed garden surrounded by trees, with a large house in the background, and another house off to the right. On the green lawn foreground is a cat, in the center of the lawn is a bed of flowers and at the rear of the lawn is a bench, a table and a few chairs. Nearby is a lone figure
Daubigny's Garden , July 1890, Auvers, Kunstmuseum Basel , one of Van Gogh's late works [ 129 ]

In May 1890, van Gogh left the clinic in Saint-Rémy to move nearer the physician Dr. Paul Gachet in Auvers-sur-Oise , and also to Theo. Gachet was recommended by Camille Pissarro , had treated several other artists, and was himself an amateur artist. Van Gogh's first impression was that Gachet was "...sicker than I am, I think, or shall we say just as much." [ 130 ] In June 1890 he painted a number of portraits of the physician, including Portrait of Dr. Gachet , and his only etching ; in each the emphasis is on Gachet's melancholic disposition. Van Gogh stayed at the Auberge Ravoux , where he paid 3 francs and 50 centimes to rent an attic room measuring 75 square feet (7.0 m 2 ).

A picture of a vast open landscape field, dark blue sky over yellowish and green land.
Wheatfield Under Clouded Sky , July 1890, Van Gogh Museum , Amsterdam, (F778), painted in July 1890 during his last weeks. [ 131 ]
A redheaded man wearing a cap, a black jacket with green buttons; with a red mustache and scraggly Van Dyke beard is leaning on his arm to the left looking slightly to the right. He is seated at a table with two yellow books and a red tablecloth. In the foreground on the table is a clear glass vase with flowers. In the background are hills and a dark blue starless night sky.
Portrait of Dr. Gachet , 1890, was sold for US$ 82.5 million in 1990. [ 132 ] Private collection

Before he left, In his last weeks at Saint-Rémy, van Gogh's thoughts returned to his "memories of the North", [ 133 ] and several of the approximately 70 oils he painted during his 70 days in Auvers-sur-Oise, such as The Church at Auvers , are reminiscent of northern scenes. [ 134 ]

Wheat Field with Crows (July 1890) is an example of the double square technique he developed in the last weeks of his life. In its turbulent intensity, it is among his most haunting and elemental works. [ 135 ] It is often mistakenly believed to be his last work, Hulsker lists seven paintings that postdate it. [ 136 ]

Barbizon painter Charles Daubigny had moved to Auvers in 1861, and this in turn drew other artists there, including Camille Corot and Honoré Daumier . In July 1890, van Gogh completed two paintings of Daubigny's Garden ; one of these is likely to be his final work. [ 129 ] There are also paintings that show evidence of being unfinished, including Thatched Cottages by a Hill . [ 135 ]

Muerte

Portrait of a clean shaven man wearing a furry winter hat and smoking a pipe; facing to the right with a bandaged right ear
Self-portrait , 1889, Courtauld Institute Galleries, London. Mirror-image self portrait with bandaged ear
A table in a cafe with a bottle half filled with a clear liquid and a filled drinking glass of clear liquid
Still Life with Absinthe , 1887, Van Gogh Museum

On 22 February 1890, van Gogh suffered a new crisis that was "the starting point for one of the saddest episodes in a life already rife with sad events". [ 125 ] This period lasted until the end of April, during which time he was unable to bring himself to write though he did continue to draw and paint. [ 125 ] Hughes writes that from May 1889 to May 1890 he, "had fits of despair and hallucination during which he could not work, and in between them, long clear months in which he could and did, punctuated by extreme visionary ecstasy." [ 137 ]

On 27 July 1890, aged 37, van Gogh is believed to have shot himself in the chest with a revolver (although no gun was ever found). [ 138 ] There were no witnesses; where he was when he shot himself is unclear. Ingo Walther writes that "Some think van Gogh shot himself in the wheat field that had engaged his attention as an artist of late; others think he did it at a barn near the inn." [ 139 ] Biographer David Sweetman writes that the bullet was deflected by a rib bone and passed through his chest without doing apparent damage to internal organs, probably stopped by his spine. He was able to walk back to the Auberge Ravoux . He was attended by two physicians, neither with the capability to perform surgery to remove the bullet, who left him alone in his room, smoking his pipe. The following morning (Monday), as soon as he was notified, Theo rushed to be with Vincent, to find him in surprisingly good shape; within hours, however, he began to fail, the result of untreated infection in the wound. Vincent died in the evening, 29 hours after he apparently shot himself. Theo reported his brother's last words as "The sadness will last forever." [ 138 ] [ 140 ]

Two graves and two gravestones side by side; heading behind a bed of green leaves, bearing the remains of Vincent and Theo Van Gogh, where they lie in the cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise. The stone to the left bears the inscription: Ici Repose Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890) and the stone to the right reads: Ici Repose Theodore van Gogh (1857–1891)
Vincent and Theo buried together in Auvers-sur-Oise . Vincent's stone bears the inscription: Ici Repose Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890) , Theo's Ici Repose Theodore van Gogh (1857–1891)

Van Gogh was buried on 30 July in the municipal cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise at a funeral attended by Theo van Gogh , Andries Bonger , Charles Laval , Lucien Pissarro , Émile Bernard , Julien Tanguy and Dr. Gachet amongst some 20 family and friends, as well as a number of locals. The funeral was described by Émile Bernard in a letter to Albert Aurier . [ 141 ] [ 142 ] Theo suffered from syphilis and his health declined rapidly after Vincent's death. Weak and unable to come to terms with Vincent's absence, he died six months later, on 25 January, at Den Dolder . [ 143 ] The original burial plot was leased for 15 years; the intention was to bury Vincent alongside Theo. Vincent's remains were exhumed on 13 June 1905, in the presence of Jo Bonger, Dr. Gachet and others, and relocated, eventually for Theo to be buried beside him. The precise location of the original grave is no longer known. In 1914, the year she had van Gogh's letters published, Jo Bonger had Theo moved from Utrecht and reburied with Vincent. [ 144 ]

While many of Vincent's late paintings are somber, they are essentially optimistic and reflect his desire to return to lucid mental health right up to the time of his death. Yet some of his final works reflect his deepening concerns. Referring to his paintings of wheatfields under troubled skies, he commented in a letter to his brother Theo: "I did not have to go out of my way very much in order to try to express sadness and extreme loneliness." Nevertheless, he adds in the same paragraph: " ... these canvases will tell you what I cannot say in words, that is, how healthy and invigorating I find the countryside". [ 145 ] [ 146 ]

There has been much debate over the years as to the source of van Gogh's illness and its effect on his work. Over 150 psychiatrists have attempted to label its root, with some 30 different diagnoses. [ 147 ] Diagnoses include schizophrenia , bipolar disorder , syphilis , poisoning from swallowed paints, temporal lobe epilepsy and acute intermittent porphyria . Any of these could have been the culprit and been aggravated by malnutrition, overwork, insomnia and consumption of alcohol, especially absinthe .

In Van Gogh: the Life , a biography published in 2011, authors Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith argue that van Gogh did not commit suicide. They contend that he was shot accidentally by two boys he knew who had “a malfunctioning gun”. [ 148 ] However experts at the Van Gogh Museum remain unconvinced. [ 149 ] Prominent skeptic Joe Nickell also was not convinced. [ 150 ] Nickell analyzed the questions raised by Naifeh and Smith to support their new theory and claimed that they could be addressed with more plausible answers. He maintained that Naifeh and Smith ignored the well-known psychological state of Van Gogh, as well as reliable testimony from Adeline Ravoux, daughter of the innkeeper Gustave Ravoux, the owner of the gun. According to Nickell, Naifeh and Smith make many assumptions about the circumstances surrounding the incident. He asserts that they also misrepresent the remarks of Rene Secretan, one of the two boys, who in 1956 admitted to having tormented the artist, but not to having shot him. Nickell concludes that their theory is the result of the logical fallacy of 'confirmation bias' – "start the investigation with a supposed answer and work backward to the evidence". [ 150 ]

Trabajar

Van Gogh drew and painted with watercolors while at school, however few survive and authorship is challenged on some of those that do. [ 151 ] When he committed to art as an adult, he began at an elementary level, copying the Cours de dessin , a drawing course edited by Charles Bargue . Within two years he had begun to seek commissions. In spring 1882, his uncle, Cornelis Marinus, owner of a well-known gallery of contemporary art in Amsterdam, asked him for drawings of the Hague. Van Gogh's work did not live up to his uncle's expectations. Marinus offered a second commission, this time specifying the subject matter in detail, but was once again disappointed with the result. Nevertheless, van Gogh persevered. He improved the lighting of his studio by installing variable shutters and experimented with a variety of drawing materials. For more than a year he worked on single figures—highly elaborated studies in "Black and White", [ 152 ] which at the time gained him only criticism. Today, they are recognized as his first masterpieces. [ 153 ]

A white two story house at twilight, with 2 cypress trees on one end, and smaller green trees all around the house, with a yellow fence surrounding it. Two women are entering through the gate in the fence; while a woman in black walks on by going towards the left. In the sky, there is a bright star with a large intense yellow halo around it
White House at Night , 1890, Hermitage Museum , St. Petersburg, painted six weeks before the artist's death

Early in 1883, he began to work on multi-figure compositions, which he based on his drawings. He had some of them photographed, but when his brother remarked that they lacked liveliness and freshness, he destroyed them and turned to oil painting. By Autumn 1882, his brother had enabled him financially to turn out his first paintings, but all the money Theo could supply was soon spent. Then, in spring 1883, van Gogh turned to renowned Hague School artists like Weissenbruch and Blommers , and received technical support from them, as well as from painters like De Bock and Van der Weele , both second generation Hague School artists. [ 154 ] When he moved to Nuenen after the intermezzo in Drenthe he began a number of large-sized paintings but destroyed most of them. The Potato Eaters and its companion pieces— The Old Tower on the Nuenen cemetery and The Cottage —are the only ones to have survived. Following a visit to the Rijksmuseum , Van Gogh was aware that many of his faults were due to lack of technical experience. [ 154 ] So in November 1885 he traveled to Antwerp and later to Paris to learn and develop his skill. [ 155 ]

After becoming familiar with Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist techniques and theories, van Gogh went to Arles to develop on these new possibilities. But within a short time, older ideas on art and work reappeared: ideas such as working with serial imagery on related or contrasting subject matter, which would reflect on the purposes of art. As his work progressed, he painted many Self-portraits . Already in 1884 in Nuenen he had worked on a series that was to decorate the dining room of a friend in Eindhoven. Similarly in Arles, in spring 1888 he arranged his Flowering Orchards into triptychs, began a series of figures that found its end in The Roulin Family series , and finally, when Gauguin had consented to work and live in Arles side-by-side with Van Gogh, he started to work on The Décorations for the Yellow House , which was by some accounts the most ambitious effort he ever undertook. [ 104 ] Most of his later work is involved with elaborating on or revising its fundamental settings. In the spring of 1889, he painted another, smaller group of orchards. In an April letter to Theo, he said, "I have 6 studies of Spring, two of them large orchards. There is little time because these effects are so short-lived." [ 156 ]

Art historian Albert Boime believes that van Gogh—even in seemingly fantastical compositions like Starry Night —based his work in reality. [ 157 ] The White House at Night , shows a house at twilight with a prominent star surrounded by a yellow halo in the sky. Astronomers at Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos calculated that the star is Venus, which was bright in the evening sky in June 1890 when Van Gogh is believed to have painted the picture. [ 158 ]

Self portraits

An intense man with close cropped hair and red beard gazes to the left.
Self-Portrait , Spring 1887, Oil on pasteboard, 42 × 33.7 cm., Art Institute of Chicago (F 345).
A red-bearded man in a pale blue-green suit gazes to the left.
Self-Portrait , September 1889, (F 627), Oil on canvas, 65 cm × 54 cm. Musée d'Orsay , Paris.
An intense man clean shaven man, with close cropped hair looks to the left.
Self-portrait without beard , end September 1889, (F 525), Oil on canvas, 40 × 31 cm., Private collection. This was Van Gogh's last self portrait, given as a birthday gift to his mother. [ 5 ]
A redbearded man in a blue smock holding paintbrushes and artist palette in his hand; looks to the left
Self-portrait , 1889, National Gallery of Art . All self-portraits executed in Saint-Rémy show the artist's head from the right, ie the side with the unmutilated ear, since he painted himself as he saw himself in the mirror.

Van Gogh created many self-portraits during his lifetime. He was a prolific self-portraitist, who painted himself 37 times between 1886 and 1889. [ 159 ] In all, the gaze of the painter is seldom directed at us; even when it is a fixed gaze, he appears to look elsewhere. The paintings vary in intensity and color and some portray the artist with beard, some beardless, some with bandages—depicting the episode in which he severed a portion of his ear. Self-portrait Without Beard , from late September 1889, is one of the most expensive paintings of all time, selling for $71.5 million in 1998 in New York. [ 160 ] At the time, it was the third (or an inflation-adjusted fourth) most expensive painting ever sold. It was also van Gogh's last self-portrait, given as a birthday gift to his mother. [ 5 ]

All of the self-portraits painted in Saint-Rémy show the artist's head from the right, the side opposite his mutilated ear, as he painted himself reflected in his mirror. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] [ 163 ] During the final weeks of his life in Auvers-sur-Oise , he produced many paintings, but no self-portraits, a period in which he returned to painting the natural world. [ 164 ]

Portraits

An intense woman with black hair, elbow rests on a table of books and stares to the left.
L'Arlesienne: Madame Ginoux with Books , November 1888. The Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York, New York (F488).
A white-bearded man in a broad yellow hat gazes to the right.
Patience Escalier , second version August 1888, Private collection (F444)
An open faced, well dressed, young woman with reddish-blond hair gazes to the right.
La Mousmé , 1888, National Gallery of Art , Washington DC
A blackbearded man in a uniform and red Fez; looks to the right
Le Zouave (half-figure) , June 1888, Van Gogh Museum , Amsterdam (F423)

Although Van Gogh is best known for his landscapes, he seemed to find painting portraits his greatest ambition. [ 165 ] He said of portrait studies, "The only thing in painting that excites me to the depths of my soul, and which makes me feel the infinite more than anything else." [ 166 ]

To his sister he wrote, "I should like to paint portraits which appear after a century to people living then as apparitions. By which I mean that I do not endeavor to achieve this through photographic resemblance, but my means of our impassioned emotions—that is to say using our knowledge and our modern taste for color as a means of arriving at the expression and the intensification of the character." [ 165 ]

Of painting portraits, van Gogh wrote: "in a picture I want to say something comforting as music is comforting. I want to paint men and women with that something of the eternal which the halo used to symbolize, and which we seek to communicate by the actual radiance and vibration of our coloring." [ 167 ]

Cypresses

One of van Gogh's most popular and widely known series are his Cypresses . During the Summer of 1889, at sister Wil 's request, he made several smaller versions of Wheat Field with Cypresses . [ 168 ] These works are characterised by swirls and densely painted impasto , and produced one of his best-known paintings, The Starry Night . Other works from the series include Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background (1889) Cypresses (1889), Cypresses with Two Figures (1889–1890), Wheat Field with Cypresses (1889), (van Gogh made several versions of this painting that year), Road with Cypress and Star (1890), and Starry Night Over the Rhone (1888). They have become synonymous with van Gogh's work through their stylistic uniqueness. According to art historian Ronald Pickvance,

An open field of yellow wheat, under swirling and bright white clouds in an afternoon sky. A large cypress tree to the extreme right painted in shades of dark greens with swirling and impastoed brushstrokes. There are several smaller trees to the left and around the cypress tree are more small trees and several haystacks. There are blue-gray hills on the horizon in the background.
Wheat Field with Cypresses , 1889, National Gallery , London.
A pair of large trees to the left, one so tall it goes out of the top of the picture and mountains in the distance along the horizon. The afternoon sky is painted with bright blue and green swirls with white clouds and a visible daytime crescent moon also surrounded by swirls and halos. The dark green trees to the left are painted with thick impasto brush-strokes and swirls as well as the lighter yellow-green grasses in the foreground below.
Cypresses , 1889, Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York.
A pair of women stand facing left in front of four massive cypress trees.
Cypresses with Two Figures , 1889–90, Kröller-Müller Museum (F620).

Road with Cypress and Star (1890), is compositionally as unreal and artificial as the Starry Night . Pickvance goes on to say the painting Road with Cypress and Star represents an exalted experience of reality, a conflation of North and South, what both van Gogh and Gauguin referred to as an "abstraction". Referring to Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background, on or around 18 June 1889, in a letter to Theo, he wrote, "At last I have a landscape with olives and also a new study of a Starry Night." [ 169 ]

Hoping to attain a gallery for his work, his undertook a series of paintings including Still Life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (1888), and Starry Night Over the Rhone (1888), all intended to form the décorations for the Yellow House . [ 170 ] [ 171 ]

Flowering Orchards

The series of Flowering Orchards , sometimes referred to as the Orchards in Blossom paintings, were among the first groups of work that van Gogh completed after his arrival in Arles , Provence in February 1888. The 14 paintings in this group are optimistic, joyous and visually expressive of the burgeoning Springtime. They are delicately sensitive, silent, quiet and unpopulated. About The Cherry Tree Vincent wrote to Theo on 21 April 1888 and said he had 10 orchards and: one big (painting) of a cherry tree, which I've spoiled . [ 172 ] The following spring he painted another smaller group of orchards, including View of Arles, Flowering Orchards . [ 156 ]

Van Gogh was taken by the landscape and vegetation of the South of France, and often visited the farm gardens near Arles. Because of the vivid light supplied by the Mediterranean climate his palette significantly brightened. [ 173 ] From his arrival, he was interested in capturing the effect of the seasons on the surrounding landscape and plant life.

Flowers

Van Gogh painted several versions of landscapes with flowers, including his View of Arles with Irises, and paintings of flowers, including Irises , Sunflowers , [ 174 ] lilacs and roses. Some reflect his interests in the language of color, and also in Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock prints . [ 175 ]

A field with flowers, various plants and trees in front of a several buildings (some of which are either tall or on a hill).
View of Arles with Irises , 1888, Van Gogh Museum , Amsterdam.
A field of flowers. The foreground includes long green stems with blue flowers, while the background includes prominent gold flowers on the left; white flowers in the center and a field to the right.
Irises , 1889, Getty Center , Los Angeles

He completed two series of sunflowers. The first dated from his 1887 stay in Paris, the second during his visit to Arles the following year. The Paris series shows living flowers in the ground, in the second, they are dying in vases. The 1888 paintings were created during a rare period of optimism for the artist. He intended them to decorate a bedroom where Gauguin was supposed to stay in Arles that August, when the two would create the community of artists van Gogh had long hoped for. The flowers are rendered with thick brushstrokes (impasto) and heavy layers of paint. [ 176 ]

In an August 1888 letter to Theo, he wrote,

"I am hard at it, painting with the enthusiasm of a Marseillais eating bouillabaisse, which won't surprise you when you know that what I'm at is the painting of some sunflowers. If I carry out this idea there will be a dozen panels. So the whole thing will be a symphony in blue and yellow. I am working at it every morning from sunrise on, for the flowers fade so quickly. I am now on the fourth picture of sunflowers. This fourth one is a bunch of 14 flowers ... it gives a singular effect." [ 176 ]

Wheat fields

Van Gogh made several painting excursions during visits to the landscape around Arles. He made a number of paintings featuring harvests, wheat fields and other rural landmarks of the area, including The Old Mill (1888); a good example of a picturesque structure bordering the wheat fields beyond. [ 177 ] It was one of seven canvases sent to Pont-Aven on 4 October 1888 as exchange of work with Paul Gauguin, Emile Bernard, Charles Laval , and others. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] At various times in his life, van Gogh painted the view from his window—at The Hague, Antwerp, Paris. These works culminated in The Wheat Field series, which depicted the view he could see from his adjoining cells in the asylum at Saint-Rémy. [ 179 ]

Writing in July 1890, van Gogh said that he had become absorbed "in the immense plain against the hills, boundless as the sea, delicate yellow". [ 180 ] He had become captivated by the fields in May when the wheat was young and green. The weather worsened in July, and he wrote to Theo of "vast fields of wheat under troubled skies", adding that he did not "need to go out of my way to try and express sadness and extreme loneliness". [ 181 ] In particular, the work Wheatfield with Crows serves as a compelling and poignant expression of the artist's state of mind in his final days, a painting Hulsker discusses as being associated with "melancholy and extreme loneliness," a painting with a "somber and threatening aspect", a "doom-filled painting with threatening skies and ill-omened crows. [ 182 ]

Legado

Posthumous fame

man wearing a straw hat, carrying a canvas and paintbox, walking to the left, down a tree lined, leaf strewn country road
Painter on the Road to Tarascon , August 1888, Vincent van Gogh on the road to Montmajour, oil on canvas, 48 × 44 cm., formerly Museum Magdeburg, believed to have been destroyed by fire in World War II

Following his first exhibitions in the late 1880s, van Gogh's fame grew steadily among colleagues, art critics, dealers and collectors. [ 183 ] After his death, memorial exhibitions were mounted in Brussels, Paris, The Hague and Antwerp. In the early 20th century, there were retrospectives in Paris (1901 and 1905), and Amsterdam (1905), and important group exhibitions in Cologne (1912), New York (1913) and Berlin (1914). [ 184 ] These had a noticeable impact on later generations of artists. [ 185 ] By the mid 20th century van Gogh was seen as one of the greatest and most recognizable painters in history. [ 186 ] [ 187 ] In 2007 a group of Dutch historians compiled the " Canon of Dutch History " to be taught in schools and included van Gogh as one of the fifty topics of the canon, alongside other national icons such as Rembrandt and De Stijl . [ 188 ]

Together with those of Pablo Picasso , Van Gogh's works are among the world's most expensive paintings ever sold , as estimated from auctions and private sales. Those sold for over $100 million (today's equivalent) include Portrait of Dr. Gachet , [ 189 ] Portrait of Joseph Roulin and Irises . [ 190 ] A Wheatfield with Cypresses was sold in 1993 for $57 million, a spectacularly high price at the time, while his Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear was sold privately in the late 1990s for an estimated $80/$90 million. [ 191 ]

Influence

In his final letter to Theo, Vincent admitted that as he did not have any children, he viewed his paintings as his progeny. Reflecting on this, the historian Simon Schama concluded that he "did have a child of course, Expressionism, and many, many heirs." Schama mentioned a wide number of artists who have adapted elements of van Gogh's style, including Willem de Kooning , Howard Hodgkin and Jackson Pollock . [ 192 ] The Fauves extended both his use of color and freedom in application, [ 193 ] as did German Expressionists of the Die Brücke group, and as other early modernists . [ 194 ] Abstract Expressionism of the 1940s and 1950s is seen as in part inspired from van Gogh's broad, gestural brush strokes. In the words of art critic Sue Hubbard: "At the beginning of the twentieth century Van Gogh gave the Expressionists a new painterly language that enabled them to go beyond surface appearance and penetrate deeper essential truths. It is no coincidence that at this very moment Freud was also mining the depths of that essentially modern domain—the subconscious . This beautiful and intelligent exhibition places Van Gogh where he firmly belongs; as the trailblazer of modern art ." [ 195 ]

In 1957, Francis Bacon (1909–1992) based a series of paintings on reproductions of van Gogh's The Painter on the Road to Tarascon , the original of which was destroyed during World War II. Bacon was inspired by not only an image he described as "haunting", but also van Gogh himself, whom Bacon regarded as an alienated outsider, a position which resonated with Bacon. The Irish artist further identified with van Gogh's theories of art and quoted lines written in a letter to Theo, "[R]eal painters do not paint things as they are...They paint them as they themselves feel them to be". [ 196 ] An exhibition devoted to Vincent van Gogh's letters took place in the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam from October 2009 to January 2010 [ 197 ] and then moved to the Royal Academy in London from late January to April. [ 198 ]

Notas al pie

  1. ^ The pronunciation of "Van Gogh" varies in both English and Dutch. Especially in British English it is / ˌ v æ n ˈ ɡ ɒ x / van- GOKH or sometimes / ˌ v æ n ˈ ɡ ɒ f / van- GOF . US dictionaries list / ˌ v æ n ˈ ɡ / van- GOH , with a silent gh , as the most common pronunciation. In the dialect of Holland , it is [ˈvɪnsɛnt fɑŋˈxɔx] ( listen ) , with a voiceless V. Van Gogh grew up in Brabant (although his parents were not born there), and used Brabant dialect in his writing; it is therefore likely that he himself pronounced his name with a Brabant accent: [vɑɲˈʝɔç] , with a voiced V and palatalized G and gh. In France, where much of his work was produced, it is [vɑ̃ ɡɔɡ ə ]
  2. ^ A biography published in 2011 contends that van Gogh did not kill himself. The authors claim that he was shot by two boys he knew, who had a "malfunctioning gun". See Vincent van Gogh's death . [ |Gompertz, Will ] (17 October 2011). "Van Gogh did not kill himself, authors claim" . BBC News . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-15328583 . Consultado el 17 de octubre de 2011.
  3. ^ It has been suggested that being given the same name as his dead elder brother might have had a deep psychological impact on the young artist, and that elements of his art, such as the portrayal of pairs of male figures, can be traced back to this. See Lubin (1972), 82–4
  4. ^ "...he would not eat meat, only a little morsel on Sundays, and then only after being urged by our landlady for a long time. Four potatoes with a suspicion of gravy and a mouthful of vegetables constituted his whole dinner"—from a letter to Frederik van Eeden, to help him with preparation for his article on Van Gogh in De Nieuwe Gids , Issue 1, December 1890. Quoted in Van Gogh: A Self-Portrait; Letters Revealing His Life as a Painter . WH Auden , New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, CT. 1961. 37–9
  5. ^ Letter 129 , April 1879, and Letter 132 . Van Gogh lodged in Wasmes at 22 rue de Wilson with Jean-Baptiste Denis, a breeder or grower ('cultivateur', in the French original) according to Letter 553b . In the recollections of his nephew Jean Richez, gathered by Wilkie (in the 1970s!), 72–8. Denis and his wife Esther were running a bakery, and Richez admits that the only source of his knowledge is Aunt Esther.
  6. ^ There are different views as to this period; Jan Hulsker (1990) opts for a return to the Borinage and then back to Etten in this period; Dorn, in: Ges7kó (2006), 48 & note 12 supports the line taken in this article
  7. ^ see Jan Hulsker's speech The Borinage Episode and the Misrepresentation of Vincent van Gogh, Van Gogh Symposium, 10–11 May 1990. In Erickson (1998), 67–68
  8. ^ Johannes de Looyer, Karel van Engeland, Hendricus Dekkers, and Piet van Hoorn all as old men recalled being paid 5, 10 or 50 cents per nest, depending on the type of bird. See Theo's son's Webexhibits.org
  9. ^ The girl was Gordina de Groot, who died in 1927; she claimed the child's father was not van Gogh, but a relative.
  10. ^ Vincent's doctor was Hubertus Amadeus Cavenaile. Wilkie, 143–146
  11. ^ Arnold, 77. The evidence for syphilis is thin, coming solely from interviews with the grandson of the doctor; see Tralbaut (1981), 177–178
  12. ^ According to Doiteau & Leroy, the diagonal cut removed the lobe and probably a little more.
  13. ^ They continued to correspond and in 1890 Gauguin proposed they form an artist studio in Antwerp. See Pickvance (1986), 62

Referencias

  1. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 286,287
  2. ^ Hulsker (1990), 390
  3. ^ "Vincent Van Gogh expert doubts 'accidental death' theory" . The Daily Telegraph . 17 de octubre Retrieved 8 February 2012 .
  4. ^ Hughes (1990), 144
  5. ^ a b c d e Pickvance (1986), 129
  6. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 39
  7. ^ a b Pomerans (1996), ix
  8. ^ "Van Gogh: The Letters" . Van Gogh Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  9. ^ Van Gogh's letters, Unabridged and Annotated . Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  10. ^ a b c d Hughes (1990), 143
  11. ^ Pomerans (1996), i–xxvi
  12. ^ Pomerans (1997), xiii
  13. ^ Vincent Van Gogh Biography, Quotes & Paintings . The Art History Archive. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  14. ^ Pomerans (1997), 1
  15. ^ Erickson (1998), 9
  16. ^ Van Gogh-Bonger, Johanna. "Memoir of Vincent van Gogh" . van Gogh's Letters . Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  17. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 24
  18. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 25–35
  19. ^ Hulsker (1984), 8–9
  20. ^ Letter 347 Vincent to Theo, 18 December 1883. van Gogh's Letters . Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  21. ^ Letter 7 Vincent to Theo, 5 May 1873. van Gogh's Letters . Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  22. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 35–47
  23. ^ [1] Letter from Vincent van Gogh to Theo van Gogh, Isleworth 18 August 1876. van Gogh's Letters . Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  24. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 47–56
  25. ^ Callow (1990), 54
  26. ^ See the recollections gathered in Dordrecht by MJ Brusse , Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 26 May and 2 June 1914.
  27. ^ McQuillan (1989), 26
  28. ^ Erickson (1998), 23
  29. ^ Hulsker (1990), 60–62, 73
  30. ^ Letter from mother to Theo, 7 August 1879 and Callow, work cited, 72
  31. ^ Letter 158 Vincent to Theo, 18 November 1881. van Gogh's Letters . Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  32. ^ Letter 134 , 20 August 1880 from Cuesmes
  33. ^ Tralbaut (1981) 67–71
  34. ^ "At Eternity's Gate" , vggallery.com. Last Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  35. ^ Erickson (1998), 5
  36. ^ Letter 153 Vincent to Theo, 3 November 1881
  37. ^ "Letter 179: To Theo van Gogh. Etten, Thursday, 3 November 1881" . Vincent van Gogh: The Letters . Van Gogh Museum . Note 1 . http://vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let179/letter.html . "..."no, nay, never"..."
  38. ^ Letter 161 Vincent to Theo, 23 November 1881
  39. ^ Letter 164 Vincent to Theo, from Etten c.21 December 1881, describing the visit in more detail
  40. ^ Letter Letter 193 from Vincent to Theo, The Hague, 14 May 1882.
  41. ^ "Uncle Stricker", as van Gogh refers to him in letters to Theo.
  42. ^ Gayford (2006), 130–1
  43. ^ Pomerans (1997), 112
  44. ^ Letter 166 Vincent to Theo, 29 December 1881
  45. ^ "Letter 194: To Theo van Gogh. The Hague, Thursday, 29 December 1881" . Vincent van Gogh: The Letters . Van Gogh Museum . Note 2 . http://vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let194/letter.html . "At Christmas I had a rather violent argument with Pa ..."
  46. ^ "Letter 196" . Vincent van Gogh. The Letters . Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum . http://vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let196/letter.html .
  47. ^ "Letter 219" . Vincent van Gogh. The Letters . Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum . http://www.vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let219/letter.html .
  48. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 96–103
  49. ^ Callow (1990), 116; cites the work of Hulsker.
  50. ^ Callow (1990), 123–124
  51. ^ "Letter 224" . Vincent van Gogh. The Letters . Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum . http://www.vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let224/letter.html .
  52. ^ Callow (1990), 117,116; citing the research of Jan Hulsker ; the two dead children were born in 1874 and 1879.
  53. ^ a b Tralbaut (1981), 107
  54. ^ Callow (1990), 132
  55. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 102–104, 112
  56. ^ McQuillan, 34
  57. ^ Letter 206 , Vincent to Theo, 8 June or 9, June 1882
  58. ^ Tralbaut (1981),110
  59. ^ Arnold, 38
  60. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 113
  61. ^ Wilkie, 185
  62. ^ Tralbaut (1981),101–107
  63. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 111–122
  64. ^ Vincent's nephew noted some reminiscences of local residents in 1949, including the description of the speed of his drawing
  65. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 154
  66. ^ McQuillan, 127
  67. ^ Vincent Van Gogh and Gordina de Groot
  68. ^ Hulsker (1980) 196–205
  69. ^ Tralbaut (1981),123–160
  70. ^ Callow (1990), 181
  71. ^ Callow (1990), 184
  72. ^ Hammacher (1985), 84
  73. ^ Callow (1990), 253
  74. ^ Van der Wolk (1987), 104–105
  75. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 173
  76. ^ Tralbaut (1981) 187–192
  77. ^ Pickvance (1984), 38–39
  78. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 216
  79. ^ Letter 626a . Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  80. ^ Van Gogh et Monticelli . Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  81. ^ Turner, J. (2000), 314
  82. ^ Pickvance (1986), 62–63
  83. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 212–213
  84. ^ "Glossary term: Pointillism" , National Gallery London. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
  85. ^ "Glossary term: Complimentary colours" , National Gallery , London. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
  86. ^ D. Druick & P. Zegers, Van Gogh and Gauguin: The Studio of the South, Thames & Hudson, 2001. 81; Gayford, (2006), 50
  87. ^ Hulsker (1990), 256
  88. ^ Letter 510 Vincent to Theo, 15 July 1888. Letter 544a . Vincent to Paul Gauguin, 3 October 1888
  89. ^ a b Hughes, 144
  90. ^ Whitney, Craig R. "Jeanne Calment, World's Elder, Dies at 122" . The New York Times , 5 August 1997. Retrieved on 15 July 2011.
  91. ^ "World's oldest person marks 120 beautiful, happy years" , Deseret News . 21 February 1995. Retrieved on 15 July 2011.
  92. ^ "Letters of Vincent van Gogh". Penguin, 1998. 348. ISBN 0-14-044674-5
  93. ^ Nemeczek, Alfred (1999). 59–61.
  94. ^ Gayford (2006), 16
  95. ^ Callow (1990), 219
  96. ^ Pickvance (1984), 175–176 and Dorn (1990), passim
  97. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 266
  98. ^ a b Pomerans (1997), 356, 360
  99. ^ "Fishing Boats on the Beach at Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, 1888" . Permanent Collection. Van Gogh Museum. 2005–2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  100. ^ Hulsker (1980), 356
  101. ^ Pickvance (1984), 168–169;206
  102. ^ Letter 534 ; Gayford (2006), 18
  103. ^ Letter 537 ; Nemeczek, 61
  104. ^ a b See Dorn (1990)
  105. ^ Pickvance (1984), 234–235
  106. ^ Gayford (2006), 61
  107. ^ Pickvance (1984), 195
  108. ^ Gayford (2007), 274–277
  109. ^ Gayford (2007), 277
  110. ^ a b Gayford, 284
  111. ^ Pickvance (1986). Chronology , 239–242
  112. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 265–273
  113. ^ Hughes (1990), 145
  114. ^ Callow (1990), 246
  115. ^ Carol Vogel, NY Times . Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  116. ^ Jules Breton and Realism, Van Gogh Museum
  117. ^ Pickvance (1984), 102–103
  118. ^ Pickvance (1986), 154–157
  119. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 286
  120. ^ Hulsker (1990), 434
  121. ^ "To Theo van Gogh. Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Tuesday, 29 April 1890." . Vincent van Gogh: The Letters . Vincent van Gogh Museum . http://vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let863/letter.html . Retrieved 9 February 2012 .
  122. ^ a b Hulsker (1990), 390, 404
  123. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 287
  124. ^ Pickvance (1986) 175–177
  125. ^ a b c Hulsker (1990), 440
  126. ^ Aurier, G. Albert. " The Isolated Ones: Vincent van Gogh ", January 1890. Reproduced on vggallery.com. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  127. ^ Rewald (1978), 346–347; 348–350
  128. ^ Tralbaut (1981), 293
  129. ^ a b Pickvance (1986), 272–273
  130. ^ Letter 648 Vincent to Theo, 10 July 1890
  131. ^ Van Gogh Museum collection
  132. ^ Kleiner, Carolyn (24 July 2000). "Van Gogh's vanishing act" . Mysteries of History ( US News & World Report ) . http://www.usnews.com/usnews/doubleissue/mysteries/portrait.htm . Consultado el 7 de mayo de 2011.
  133. ^ "Letter 863" . Van Gogh Museum . http://vangoghletters.org/vg/letters/let863/letter.html . Retrieved 17 July 2011 .
  134. ^ Rosenblum, Robert (1975), 98–100
  135. ^ a b Pickvance (1986), 270–271
  136. ^ Hulsker (1980), 480–483. Wheat Field with Crows is work number 2117 of 2125
  137. ^ Hughes (2002), 8
  138. ^ a b Sweetman (1990), 342–343
  139. ^ Metzger and Walther (1993), 669
  140. ^ Hulsker (1980), 480–483
  141. ^ Pomerans (1997), 509
  142. ^ "Letter from Emile Bernard to Albert" . van Gogh's Letters . Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  143. ^ van der Veen, Wouter; Knapp, Peter (2010). Van Gogh in Auvers: His Last Days . Monacelli Press. pp. 260–264. ISBN 978-1-58093-301-8 .
  144. ^ Sweetman (1990), 367
  145. ^ Vincent van Gogh, "Letter to Theo van Gogh, written c. 10 July 1890 in Auvers-sur-Oise" , translated by Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, edited by Robert Harrison, letter number 649. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  146. ^ Rosenblum, Robert (1975), 100
  147. ^ Blumer, Dietrich. " "The Illness of Vincent van Gogh ". American Journal of Psychiatry , 2002
  148. ^ Gompertz, Will (17 October 2011). "Van Gogh did not kill himself, authors claim" . BBC News . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-15328583 . Retrieved 17 October 2011 .
  149. ^ Max, Arthur (17 October 2011). "Van Gogh museum unconvinced by new theory painter didn't commit suicide but was shot by 2 boys" . Associated Press . Winnipeg Free Consultado el 11 de diciembre de 2012.
  150. ^ a b Nickell, Joe (2012). "The 'Murder' of Vincent van Gogh". Skeptical Inquirer ( Committee for Skeptical Inquiry ) 36(5) (September/October): 14–17.
  151. ^ Van Heugten (1996), 246–251
  152. ^ Artists working in Black & White , ie, for illustrated papers like The Graphic or Illustrated London News were among van Gogh's favorites. See Pickvance (1974/75)
  153. ^ See Dorn, Keyes & alt. (2000)
  154. ^ a b See Dorn, Schröder & Sillevis, ed. (1996)
  155. ^ See Welsh-Ovcharov & Cachin (1988)
  156. ^ a b Hulsker (1980), 385
  157. ^ Boime (1989)
  158. ^ At around 8:00 pm on 16 June 1890, as astronomers determined by Venus 's position in the painting. " Star dates Van Gogh canvas ". BBC News , 8 March 2001.
  159. ^ Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art, art of self-portrait . Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  160. ^ "Top-ten most expensive paintings" . Chiff.com. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  161. ^ Cohen, Ben. A Tale of Two Ears . Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine . June 2003. vol. 96. issue 6. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  162. ^ Van Gogh Myths; The ear in the mirror . Letter to the New York Times , September 1989. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  163. ^ Self Portraits . Van Gogh Gallery. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  164. ^ Metzger and Walther (1993), 653
  165. ^ a b Cleveland Museum of Art (2007). Monet to Dalí: Impressionist and Modern Masterworks from the Cleveland Museum of Art . Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-940717-89-3 . http://books.google.com/books?id=lCTuPh-ixmIC&pg=PA67#v=onepage&f=false .
  166. ^ "La Mousmé" . Postimpressionism . National Gallery of Art. 2011 . http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg84/gg84-46626.html . Retrieved 20 March 2011 Additional information about the painting is found in the audio clip.
  167. ^ Portrait of Madame Augustine Roulin and Baby Marcelle . Collections. Philadelphia Museum of Art. 2011. Additional information in "Teacher Resources" and audio clip. Retrieved 4 June 2011
  168. ^ Pickvance (1986), 132–133
  169. ^ Pickvance (1986), 101; 189–191
  170. ^ Pickvance (1984), 175–176
  171. ^ Letter 595 Vincent to Theo, 17 or 18 June 1889
  172. ^ Pickvance (1984), 45–53
  173. ^ Fell (1997), 32
  174. ^ " Letter 573 " Vincent to Theo. 22 or 23 January 1889
  175. ^ Pickvance (1986), 80–81; 184–187
  176. ^ a b " Sunflowers 1888 ". National Gallery , London. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
  177. ^ a b Pickvance (1984), 177
  178. ^ Seeing Feelings . Buffalo Fine Arts Academy. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  179. ^ Hulsker (1980), 390–394
  180. ^ Edwards, Cliff. Van Gogh and God: A Creative Spiritual Quest . Loyola University Press, 1989. 115. ISBN 0-8294-0621-2
  181. ^ Letter 649
  182. ^ Hulsker (1990), 478-479
  183. ^ John Rewald, Studies in Post-Impressionism , The Posthumous Fate of Vincent van Gogh 1890–1970, pp. 244–254, published by Harry N. Abrams 1986, ISBN 0-8109-1632-0
  184. ^ See Dorn, Leeman & alt. (1990)
  185. ^ Rewald, John. "The posthumous fate of Vincent van Gogh 1890–1970". Museumjournaal , August–September 1970. Republished in Rewald (1986), 248
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  187. ^ National Gallery of Art, Washington DC . Retrieved 2 July 2010.
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  189. ^ Andrew Decker, "The Silent Boom" , Artnet.com . Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  190. ^ "Top 10 Most Expensive Paintings" , TipTopTens.com . Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  191. ^ G. Fernández, "The Most Expensive Paintings ever sold" , TheArtWolf.com . Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  192. ^ Schama, Simon . "Wheatfield with Crows". Simon Schama's Power of Art , 2006. Documentary, from 59:20
  193. ^ Glossary: Fauvism , Tate , archived from the original on retrieved 23 June 2009
  194. ^ David Minthorn, NYC exhibit highlights van Gogh's impact on German modernists, USA Today, 2007 . Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  195. ^ Hubbard, Sue. " Vincent Van Gogh and Expressionism ". Independent , 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
  196. ^ Farr, Dennis; Peppiatt, Michael; Yard, Sally. Francis Bacon: A Retrospective . Harry N Abrams, 1999. 112. ISBN 0-8109-2925-2
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  198. ^ "The Real Van Gogh: The Artist and His Letters" . Royal Academy of Arts . http://www.royalacademy.org.uk/exhibitions/vangogh/ . Consultado el 24 de marzo de 2010.

Bibliografía

General and biographical
  • Bernard, Bruce (ed.). Vincent by Himself . London: Time Warner, 2004.
  • Callow, Philip. Vincent van Gogh: A Life . Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1990. ISBN 1-56663-134-3
  • Erickson, Kathleen Powers. At Eternity's Gate: The Spiritual Vision of Vincent van Gogh , 1998. ISBN 0-8028-4978-4
  • Gayford, Martin. The Yellow House: Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Nine Turbulent Weeks in Arles . London: Penguin, 2006. ISBN 0-670-91497-5
  • Grossvogel, David I. Behind the Van Gogh Forgeries: A Memoir by David I. Grossvogel . San Jose: Author's Choice Press, 2001. ISBN 0-595-17717-4
  • Hammacher, AM Vincent van Gogh: Genius and Disaster . New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1985. ISBN 0-8109-8067-3
  • Havlicek, William J. Van Gogh's Untold Journey . Amsterdam: Creative Storytellers, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9824872-1-1
  • Hughes, Robert . Nothing If Not Critical . London: The Harvill Press, 1990. ISBN 0-14-016524-X
  • Hulsker, Jan . Vincent and Theo van Gogh; A dual biography . Ann Arbor: Fuller Publications, 1990. ISBN 0-940537-05-2
  • Hulsker, Jan The Complete Van Gogh . Oxford: Phaidon, 1980. ISBN 0-7148-2028-8
  • Hughes, Robert. "Introduction". The Portable Van Gogh . 2002. New York: Universe. ISBN 0-7893-0803-7
  • Lubin, Albert J. Stranger on the earth: A psychological biography of Vincent van Gogh . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. ISBN 0-03-091352-7
  • McQuillan, Melissa. Van Gogh . London: Thames and Hudson, 1989. ISBN 1-86046-859-4
  • Naifeh, Steven and Smith, Gregory White. Van Gogh: the Life , New York: Random House, 2011. ISBN 978-0-375-50748-9
  • Nemeczek, Alfred. Van Gogh in Arles . Prestel Verlag, 1999. ISBN 3-7913-2230-3
  • Pomerans, Arnold. The Letters of Vincent van Gogh . London: Penguin Classics, 1997. ISBN 0-14-044674-5
  • Petrucelli, Alan W. Morbid Curiosity: The Disturbing Demises of the Famous and Infamous . Perigee Trade. ISBN 0-399-53527-6
  • Rewald, John . Post-Impressionism: From van Gogh to Gauguin . London: Secker & Warburg, 1978. ISBN 0-436-41151-2
  • Rewald, John. Studies in Post-Impressionism . New York: Abrams, 1986. ISBN 0-8109-1632-0
  • Sund, Judy. Van Gogh . London: Phaidon, 2002. ISBN 0-7148-4084-X
  • Sweetman, David. Van Gogh: His Life and His Art . New York: Touchstone. 1990. ISBN 0-671-74338-4
  • Tralbaut, Marc Edo. Vincent van Gogh, le mal aimé . Edita, Lausanne (French) & Macmillan, London 1969 (English); reissued by Macmillan, 1974 and by Alpine Fine Art Collections, 1981. ISBN 0-933516-31-2
  • van Heugten, Sjraar. Van Gogh The Master Draughtsman . London: Thames and Hudson, 2005. ISBN 978-0-500-23825-7
  • Walther, Ingo F. & Metzger, Rainer. Van Gogh: the Complete Paintings . New York: Taschen, 1997. ISBN 3-8228-8265-8
  • Wilkie, Kenneth. "The Van Gogh File: The Myth and the Man". Souvenir Press Ltd, 2004. ISBN 978-0-285-63691-0
Art historical
  • Boime, Albert . Vincent van Gogh: Die Sternennacht-Die Geschichte des Stoffes und der Stoff der Geschichte , Frankfurt/Mainz: Fischer, 1989 ISBN 3-596-23953-2
  • Cachin, Françoise & Welsh-Ovcharov, Bogomila. Van Gogh à Paris (exh. cat. Musée d'Orsay, Paris 1988), Paris: RMN, 1988. ISBN 2-7118-2159-5 .
  • Dorn, Roland: Décoration: Vincent van Gogh's Werkreihe für das Gelbe Haus in Arles . Zürich & New York: Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, 1990. ISBN 3-487-09098-8 .
  • Dorn, Roland, Leeman, Fred & alt. Vincent van Gogh and Early Modern Art, 1890–1914 (exh. cat). Essen & Amsterdam, 1990. ISBN 3-923641-33-8 (in English) ISBN 3-923641-31-1 (in German) ISBN 90-6630-247-X (in Dutch)
  • Dorn, Roland, Keyes, George S. & alt. Van Gogh Face to Face: The Portraits (exh. cat). Detroit, Boston & Philadelphia, 2000–01, Thames & Hudson, London & New York, 2000. ISBN 0-89558-153-1
  • Druick, Douglas, Zegers, Pieter Kort & alt. Van Gogh and Gauguin-The Studio of the South (exh. cat). Chicago & Amsterdam 2001–02, Thames & Hudson, London & New York 2001. ISBN 0-500-51054-7
  • Fell, Derek. "The Impressionist Garden". London: Frances Lincoln, 1997. ISBN 0-7112-1148-5
  • Geskó, Judit, ed. Van Gogh in Budapest . Budapest: Vince Books, 2006. ISBN 978-963-7063-34-3 (English edition). ISBN 963-7063-33-1 (Hungarian edition).
  • Ives, Colta, Stein, Susan Alyson & alt. Vincent van Gogh-The Drawings . New Haven: YUP, 2005. ISBN 0-300-10720-X
  • Kōdera, Tsukasa. Vincent van Gogh-Christianity versus Nature . Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990. ISBN 90-272-5333-1
  • Pickvance, Ronald. English Influences on Vincent van Gogh (exh. cat). University of Nottingham & alt. 1974/75). London: Arts Council, 1974.
  • Pickvance, Ronald. Van Gogh in Arles (exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York: Abrams, 1984. ISBN 0-87099-375-5
  • Pickvance, Ronald. Van Gogh In Saint-Rémy and Auvers (exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York: Abrams, 1986. ISBN 0-87099-477-8
  • Orton, Fred and Pollock, Griselda. "Rooted in the Earth: A Van Gogh Primer", in: Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed . London: Redwood Books, 1996. ISBN 0-7190-4398-0
  • Rosenblum, Robert (1975), Modern Painting and the Northern Romantic Tradition: Friedrich to Rothko, New York: Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-430057-9
  • Schaefer, Iris, von Saint-George, Caroline & Lewerentz, Katja: Painting Light. The hidden techniques of the Impressionists . Milan: Skira, 2008. ISBN 88-6130-609-8
  • Turner, J. (2000). From Monet to Cézanne: late 19th-century French artists . Grove Art. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22971-2
  • Van der Wolk, Johannes: De schetsboeken van Vincent van Gogh , Meulenhoff/Landshoff, Amsterdam 1986 ISBN 90-290-8154-6 ; translated to English: The Seven Sketchbooks of Vincent van Gogh: a facsimile edition , New York: Abrams, 1987.
  • Van Heugten, Sjraar. "Radiographic images of Vincent van Gogh's paintings in the collection of the Van Gogh Museum". Van Gogh Museum Journal . 1995. 63–85. ISBN 90-400-9796-8
  • Van Heugten, Sjraar. Vincent van Gogh Drawings, vol. 1 , Bussum: V+K, 1996. ISBN 90-6611-501-7 (Dutch edition).
  • Van Uitert, Evert, et al. Van Gogh in Brabant: Paintings and drawings from Etten and Nuenen . (English edition). Zwolle: Waanders, Zwolle, 1987. ISBN 90-6630-104-X
  • Van Uitert, Evert, van Tilborgh, Louis, van Heughten, Sjraar. Paintings . (1990). (Centenary exhibition catalogue) Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh.

Enlaces externos