Vladimir Lenin

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Vladimir Lenin
Presidente del Consejo de Comisarios del Pueblo de la Unión Soviética
En la oficina
30 diciembre 1922 hasta 21 enero 1924
Precedido por Situación creada
Sucesor: Alexey Rykov
Presidente del Consejo de Comisarios del Pueblo de la RSFS de Rusia
En la oficina
8 nov 1917 a 21 en 1924
Precedido por Situación creada
Sucesor: Alexey Rykov
El líder informal del Partido Comunista Ruso
En la oficina
17 nov 1903 a 21 en 1924
Precedido por Situación creada
Sucesor: José Stalin
(Como Secretario General )
Miembro titular de la Politburó
En la oficina
25 marzo 1919 hasta 21 enero 1924
Datos personales
Nacido Vladimir Ilich Ulianov

( ruso : ???????? ????? ???????)
22 de abril 1870 (22/04/1870)
Simbirsk , Imperio Ruso

Murió 21 de enero 1924 (01/21/1924) (53 años) ( accidente cerebrovascular )
Gorki , SFSR ruso , Unión Soviética
Lugar de descanso Mausoleo de Lenin , de Moscú , Federación de Rusia
Nacionalidad Soviético
Ruso
Partido político Rusia socialdemócrata Partido Laborista
Del Partido Comunista ruso (bolchevique)
Casamiento (s) Nadezhda Krupskaya (1898-1924)
Profesión Abogado , revolucionario , político
Religión Ninguno ( ateo )
Firma

Vladimir Ilich Lenin ( Rusia : Acerca de este sonido ???????? ????? ????? y el 22 de abril [ OS 10 de abril] 1870 - 21 de enero de 1924) fue un ruso marxista, revolucionaria y comunista, político que lideró la Revolución de Octubre de 1917 . Como líder de los bolcheviques , dirigió la Unión Soviética estado durante sus primeros años (1917-1924), ya que luchó por establecer el control de Rusia en la guerra civil rusa y ha trabajado para crear un socialista del sistema económico.

Como político, Lenin fue un convincente orador , como un científico político de su teórica amplia y filosóficas de la evolución del marxismo producido el marxismo-leninismo , la pragmática de Rusia aplicación del marxismo. [1]

Contenido

Primeros años de vida y los antecedentes

Lenin nació Vladimir Ilich Ulianov ( ruso : ???????? ????? ???????) el 22 de abril [ OS 10 de abril] de 1870 en la ciudad de Simbirsk, en el Imperio Ruso . Simbirsk, una ciudad rural en el río Volga cerca de 1.500 kilómetros de la capital San Petersburgo , que se llamará después de la muerte de Uliánov cincuenta y cuatro años más tarde como "Ulyanovsk" en su honor. Ese mismo año, San Petersburgo se pasaría a llamarse Leningrado después de Uliánov mejor conocido nombre de cuadros .

"Volodia", de tres años

Los padres de Lenin eran María Alexandrovna Ulyanova , un maestro de escuela, y Ilya Nikolaevich Ulianov , un funcionario de educación del gobierno. Lenin fue bautizado el 28 de abril [ OS 16 de abril] 1870 en la iglesia local de San Nicolás en la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa . [2] (p4) [3] (P35)

Lenin llegó a partir de un ancestro diversa. Él era de los cristianos de Rusia , tártaros , alemanes y suecos descenso, mientras que su abuelo materno puede haber descendido de la judía de la familia en blanco . [4] Lenin también se cree que han tenido Kalmyk ascendencia del lado de su padre. [5] [6]

Lenin nació en una cómoda familia de clase media. El padre de Lenin Ilya fue elevado a la nobleza rusa , por su trabajo en la burocracia gubernamental, y, después de haber sido nombrado director de las escuelas primarias Simbirsk en 1874, tenía derecho a usar un color azul bordada en oro uniforme y se dirige como "Su Excelencia". [ 7] A pesar de las biografías más tarde la Unión Soviética trató de disimular su origen, el mismo Lenin nunca hizo ningún esfuerzo por ocultar el hecho de que él era un noble por nacimiento. [5] Lenin argumentó de forma explícita en una de sus obras más famosas de lo que se debe hacer? que los intelectuales de "burgués" fondos tienen un papel vital que desempeñar revolucionaria llevar las ideas políticas del movimiento obrero: ". Por su condición social de los fundadores del socialismo científico moderno, Marx y Engels, pertenecían a la intelectualidad burguesa" [8]

Atlético, Lenin era un buen nadador y patinador de hielo, gimnasio y más tarde asistió a los hombres Simbirsk mujer que fue encabezada por el padre de Alexander Kerensky y se graduó en 1887 con una medalla de oro.

Siendo de la intelectualidad , los Uliánov educados a sus hijos (todos ellos, excepto uno se convierten en revolucionarios [9] ) en contra de los males de su tiempo (violaciónes de derechos humanos, la servil psicología, etc), e infundió en ellos una disposición a luchar por los más altos ideales, una sociedad libre, y la igualdad de derechos. Lenin, en particular, quedó impresionado por las descripciones de su padre de la "oscuridad" de la vida en los pueblos y del trato arbitrario de los campesinos por parte de funcionarios. [10] Lenin, un estudiante inteligente y consciente que le encantaba jugar al ajedrez , también se convirtió en un voraz lector, disfrutando de los escritos de Alexander Pushkin , Turguéniev Iván , Leo Tolstoy , y Nikolay Nekrasov . [10] Además, leyó las obras de escritores como protorevolutionary Vissarion Belinsky , Herzen Alexander , Dmitri Pisarev , y Nikolay Dobrolyubov . [10]

Lenin c. 1887

El hermano de la ejecución y la radicalización

Después de la muerte de su padre de una hemorragia cerebral en enero de 1886, una serie de eventos ha contribuido a la radicalización de Lenin. En mayo de 1887 (cuando Lenin tenía 17 años), su hermano mayor, Aleksandr Uliánov fue ahorcado por su participación en un intento de asesinato contra el zar , Alejandro III (1881-1894). [2] (p. 16) Su hermana, Anna Ulyanova , que fue detenido junto con su hermano Alexander, fue desterrado a una finca de la familia Ulianov en Kokushkino , un pueblo a unos 40 kilómetros (25 millas). de Kazan . Estos acontecimientos ayudaron a transformar a Lenin en un político radical . Durante este tiempo, Lenin también fue influenciado por los escritos de Georgi Plejánov , y lo más importante, Nikolai Chernishevski 's 1863 la novela Lo que va a hacer? . [11]

Como complemento de estos trastornos de carácter personal, emocional y política era su matrícula, en agosto de 1887, a la Universidad Kazan , donde estudió Derecho y leer las obras de Karl Marx y Friedrich Engels . [11] Que el marxismo -derivada del desarrollo político involucrado en un Lenin revuelta estudiantil, y posterior detención, en diciembre de 1887, la Universidad de Kazan, y lo expulsaron las autoridades de policía le prohibió otras universidades. Después de esto, él estaba bajo vigilancia policial continua como el hermano de un conocido terrorista . [3] (P36) Sin embargo, él estudió de forma independiente y se licenció en Derecho, en ese momento, leyó por primera vez El Capital (1867-1894). Tres años más tarde, en 1890, se le permitió estudiar en la Universidad de San Petersburgo . [12] En enero de 1892, fue galardonado con un diploma de primera clase en la ley, [2] (p. 18) que, además, era un intelectual distinguido estudiante en las lenguas clásicas de latín y griego , y el de Lenguas Modernas de Alemán , Francés , y Inglés , pero tenían un conocimiento limitado de los dos últimos. En el período 1917 revolucionario, él confiaba en Inessa Armand de traducir un artículo de su en francés e Inglés, y escribió a SN Ravich en Ginebra: "Yo soy incapaz de dar una conferencia en francés". [13]

Revolucionario

Policía de la fotografía de VI Lenin, diciembre 1895

La ley Lenin practicado en el puerto del río Volga de Samara por unos pocos años, en su mayoría propiedad de la tierra de los casos, de la que demostró una gran intuición política de los campesinos rusos "condición socio-económica; [14] en 1893, se trasladó a San Petersburgo , y practica la propaganda revolucionaria . Mientras que en San Petersburgo en la primavera de 1893, Lenin escribió sus nuevos desarrollos económicos en la vida campesina. [15] El tema de este papaer era una crítica de la VY Postuikov libro 's, la agricultura campesina en el sur de Rusia, que se había publicado en 1891 . A pesar de leer en 1893 al círculo marxista, o de un grupo de Samara, Rusia a la que pertenecía Lenin, este trabajo no fue en realidad, se publicó hasta 1923. [16] En el otoño de 1893, Lenin escribió sobre la cuestión llamado mercado, que era su primer intento de revelar la verdadera naturaleza capitalista de la economía campesina de Rusia. [17]

Más tarde, en 1895, fundó la Liga de Lucha por la Emancipación de la Clase Obrera , la consolidación de los grupos marxistas de la ciudad, como un partido revolucionario embrionario, la Liga era activa entre las organizaciones obreras rusas. El 7 de diciembre de 1895, Lenin fue arrestado por conspirar contra el zar Alejandro III, y fue encarcelado durante catorce meses en celda de aislamiento 193 de la Prisión de San Petersburgo de Devolución. [18] En febrero de 1897, fue desterrado a Siberia oriental, que el pueblo Shushenskoye en el Distrito Minusinsky , Yenisei Gubernia. Allí, conoció a Gueorgui Plejánov , el marxista que introdujo el socialismo en Rusia. En julio de 1898, Lenin se casó con la activista socialista, Nadezhda Krupskaya , y, en abril de 1899, publicó el libro El Desarrollo del Capitalismo en Rusia (1899), bajo el seudónimo de Vladimir Ilin, una de las treinta obras teóricas que escribió en el exilio. [18]

En julio de 1898, Lenin se casó con Nadezhda Krupskaya : ella era una marxista y revolucionario profesional

Al final de su exilio en 1900, Lenin se fue de Rusia y vivió en Múnich (1900-1902), Londres (1902-1903), donde una placa conmemorativa a Percy Circus, Kings Cross, WC1, marca su residencia y de Ginebra (1903 -1905). [19] En 1900 él y Julius Martov (más tarde, un destacado oponente), co-fundó el periódico Iskra (Chispa), y publicado artículos y libros sobre la política revolucionaria, mientras que el reclutamiento para el marxista ruso Partido Socialdemócrata del Trabajo (POSDR ), que había celebrado su primer congreso en 1898, mientras que Lenin estaba todavía en el exilio en Siberia. [20] En este trabajo político clandestino, Vladimir Ulianov alias asumido, y, en 1902, Lenin adoptó como su definitivo nombre de guerra , derivado de la Siberia del río Lena . [3] (P35)

En 1903, Lenin asistió a la 2 º Congreso del Partido Obrero Socialdemócrata de Rusia Democrática , que inicialmente se reunieron en Bruselas antes de trasladarse a Londres. Aquí la división ideológica de larga data desarrollados en el partido entre el bolchevique facción, dirigida por Lenin y el menchevique facción, liderada por Martov. Estos términos "bolchevique" (del ruso bol'shinstvo que significa "mayoría") y "menchevique" (del ruso menshinstvo que significa "minoría") se derivan de la estrecha derrota electoral de los bolcheviques a los mencheviques a bordo del partido editoriales de los periódicos, y el centro de dirección de una comisión. [2] (PP60-1) La ruptura en parte su origen en el libro de Lenin ¿Qué es hacer? (1902), que propone una organización del partido más pequeño de profesionales revolucionarios , con Iskra en una primaria ideológico papel. Otra cuestión que dividió a las dos facciones fue el apoyo de Lenin de una alianza obrero-campesina para derrocar el régimen zarista en comparación con el menchevique de apoyo de una alianza entre la clase obrera y la burguesía liberal para lograr el mismo objetivo (mientras que una pequeña facción tercero llevó por Trotsky acuerdo con la idea de que la clase obrera solo era el instrumento de cambio revolucionario-que no necesita la ayuda de cualquiera de los campesinos o de las clases medias). [21]

Residencia de Lenin durante su exilio en Zurich , Suiza , tomada en 1920
"Aquí residió, a partir de febrero 21, 1916 hasta abril 2, 1917, Lenin, el líder de la Revolución Rusa" (placa conmemorativa, la residencia de Lenin, Zürich , 2008)
Residencia de Lenin en Zurich en 2008

En noviembre de 1905, Lenin regresó a Rusia para apoyar a la Revolución Rusa de 1905 . [2] (P81) En 1906, fue elegido miembro del Presidium del POSDR, y venía entre Finlandia y Rusia, pero volvió a su exilio en diciembre de 1907, después de la derrota zarista de la revolución y tras el escándalo del robo de un banco de Tiflis 1907 . [2] (P81) Hasta que el de febrero y las revoluciones de Octubre de 1917, vivió en Europa occidental, donde, a pesar de la pobreza relativa, que desarrolló el leninismo -urbana el marxismo adaptada a la Rusia agraria revertir la economía de la política de Karl Marx, la prescripción para permitir una dinámica de la revolución dirigida por un partido de vanguardia de revolucionarios profesionales. [22] [2] (P86)

En 1909, para eliminar la ambigüedad dudas filosóficas sobre el curso bien en la práctica de una revolución socialista , Lenin publicó Materialismo y empiriocriticismo (1909), que se convirtió en un filósofo base de marxismo-leninismo . A lo largo exilio, Lenin viajó por Europa, participó en socialistas , por las actividades de 1912 en Praga Conferencia del Partido ). Cuando Inessa Armand dejó Rusia para París , conoció a Lenin y otros bolcheviques exiliados. Corre el rumor de que ella era la amante de Lenin;. Sin embargo, el historiador Neil Smith señala que existe un "stock delgado de la evidencia ... aún no tenemos pruebas de que eran sexualmente íntima" [23]

En 1914, cuando la Primera Guerra Mundial (1914-18) comenzó, la mayoría de los partidos socialdemócratas de masas de Europa apoyó el esfuerzo de guerra de sus países de origen. En primer lugar, Lenin no creía veleidades políticas, en especial la que los alemanes habían votado a favor de los créditos de guerra, la que se autoriza la guerra de los socialdemócratas votos rompió la conexión de corriente de Lenin con la Segunda Internacional (1889-1916). Se opuso a la Gran Guerra, porque los campesinos y los trabajadores sería la lucha contra la "guerra imperialista" de la burguesía-que debe ser transformado en una organización internacional la guerra civil , entre las clases. Al comienzo de la guerra, los austriacos lo detuvieron brevemente en Poronin , su ciudad de residencia, el 5 de septiembre de 1914, Lenin se trasladó a la posición neutral Suiza , con domicilio por primera vez en Berna , luego en Zurich . [24]

En 1915, en Suiza, en la lucha contra la guerra de la Conferencia de Zimmerwald , que llevó a la izquierda de Zimmerwald minoría, que no, contra la mayoría pacifistas , para lograr la adopción de la conferencia de Lenin propuesta de transformar la guerra imperialista en una guerra de clases . En la próxima conferencia (24 a 30 ab, 1916), en Kienthal , Lenin y la Izquierda de Zimmerwald presentó una resolución similar, pero la conferencia concordada sólo un manifiesto de compromiso. [2] (pp132-4)

En la primavera de 1916, en Zurich , Lenin escribió El imperialismo, fase superior del capitalismo (1916). En esta obra de Lenin sintetiza trabajos previos sobre el tema por parte de Karl Kautsky , John A. Hobson ( El imperialismo: Un estudio de 1902), y Rudolf Hilferding (Das Finanzkapital, 1910), y las aplicó a las nuevas circunstancias de la Primera Guerra Mundial ( 1914-1918) librada entre el alemán y el británico imperios, que ejemplifica la competencia imperial, capitalista, que era la tesis de su libro. Esta tesis postula que la fusión de los bancos y la industria carteles dio origen a financiar el capital -la base del imperialismo, el cenit del capitalismo . A saber, en la búsqueda de mayores beneficios que el mercado puede ofrecer su casa, negocio de capital de las exportaciones, que, a su vez, conduce a la división del mundo, entre los internacionales, las empresas monopolistas, y los estados europeos colonizando gran parte del mundo, en apoyo de sus negocios. imperialismo , por lo tanto, es una etapa avanzada del capitalismo basado en el establecimiento de monopolios , y sobre la exportación de capital (en lugar de bienes), gestionado con un sistema financiero global , de los cuales el colonialismo es una característica. [25] [26] [2] (pp116-26)

De acuerdo con esta tesis, Lenin creía que Rusia estaba siendo utilizado como una herramienta del imperialismo capitalista francés y británico en la Primera Guerra Mundial y que su participación en el conflicto fue a instancias de esos intereses. [2] (p144)

Vilén, Lenin con peluca y bien afeitado, Finlandia , 11 de agosto 1917

La Revolución de Febrero

La locomotora que llevó a Lenin a Petrogrado en abril de 1917

En febrero de 1917 las manifestaciones populares en Rusia provocadas por la dureza de la guerra obligó a zar Nicolás II a abdicar. La monarquía fue reemplazada por una difícil relación política entre, por un lado, un gobierno provisional de las figuras parlamentarias y, por otro, una serie de " soviets "(las que destacan el Soviet de Petrogrado ): consejos revolucionarios elegidos directamente por los trabajadores, los soldados y los campesinos. Lenin estaba todavía en el exilio en Zurich.

Lenin estaba preparando para ir a la Altstadt la biblioteca después del almuerzo el 15 de marzo, cuando un compañero de exilio, el Polo Mieczyslav Bronski , se echó a exclamar: "¿No has oído la noticia Hay una revolución en Rusia?" Al día siguiente, Lenin escribió a Alexandra Kollontai en Estocolmo, insistiendo en "la propaganda revolucionaria, la agitación y la lucha con el objetivo de una revolución proletaria internacional y para la conquista del poder por los Soviets de diputados obreros". Al día siguiente: "¡Corre a Rouse nuevas secciones Despierta nueva iniciativa, formar nuevas organizaciones en todos los estratos y demostrarles que la paz sólo puede venir con la armada soviética de diputados obreros en el poder". [27]

Lenin estaba decidido a regresar a Rusia a la vez. Pero eso no fue una tarea fácil en medio de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Suiza fue rodeada por los países en guerra de Francia , Alemania , Austria-Hungría y de Italia , y los mares eran dominados por el aliado de Rusia, Gran Bretaña. Lenin consideraba cruce de Alemania con un pasaporte sueco, pero Krupskaya dijo en broma que él se regalan por insultar a los mencheviques en Rusia, en su sueño. [27]

Las negociaciones con el Gobierno Provisional para obtener paso a través de Alemania para los exiliados rusos a cambio de prisioneros alemanes y austro-húngaros de la guerra se prolongó. Con el tiempo, sin pasar por el Gobierno Provisional, el 31 de marzo el suizo Comunista Fritz Platten obtenido el permiso del Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores alemán a través de su embajador en Suiza, el barón von Romberg Gisbert, para Lenin y otros exiliados rusos que viajan a través de Alemania a Rusia en un sobre sellado un vagón de tren. A petición de Lenin, el transporte estaría protegido de la interferencia de una subvención especial de extraterritorialidad de estado.

El 9 de abril de Lenin y Krupskaya se reunieron con sus compañeros de exilio, en Berna , un grupo de treinta numeración finalmente subió a un tren que los llevó a Zurich. Desde allí viajaron en el tren con arreglos especiales que se espera en Gottmadingen, poco antes de la estación de cruce oficial alemán en Singen. Acompañado por dos oficiales del Ejército alemán, que se sentaron en la parte trasera del carro sola detrás de una línea de tiza, los exiliados viajaron a través de Frankfurt y Berlín a Sassnitz (llegando 12 de abril), donde un ferry les llevó a Trelleborg. Krupskaia señaló cómo, mirando por la ventanilla del coche a su paso por Alemania durante la guerra, los exiliados fueron "golpeados por la ausencia total de hombres adultos. Sólo las mujeres, los adolescentes y los niños podían verse en las estaciones al borde del camino, en los campos, y en las calles de los pueblos ". [27] Una vez en Suecia, el grupo viajó en tren a Estocolmo y desde allí de vuelta a Rusia.

Justo antes de la medianoche el 16 de abril [ OS 03 de abril] de 1917, del tren de Lenin llegó a la estación de Finlandia en Petrogrado . Fue recibido, al son de la Marsellesa , por una multitud de trabajadores, marineros y soldados que llevan banderas rojas. por ahora un ritual en la Rusia revolucionaria para recibir a los exiliados políticos de origen [28] Lenin fue recibido formalmente por Chjeídze , el Presidente menchevique del Soviet de Petrogrado. Pero Lenin deliberadamente se dirigió a la multitud en lugar de abordarlo en la importancia internacional de la Revolución Rusa:

La guerra imperialista de pirata es el comienzo de la guerra civil en toda Europa ... La revolución socialista en todo el mundo ya ha amanecido ... Alemania es un hervidero ... Cualquier día la totalidad del capitalismo europeo se puede bloquear ... Los marineros, compañeros, tenemos que luchar por una revolución socialista, de luchar hasta que el proletariado gana la victoria completa! ¡Viva la revolución socialista mundial! [29]

Las Tesis de Abril

En el tren de Suiza, Lenin había escrito su famosa Tesis de Abril : su programa para el Partido Bolchevique. En las Tesis, Lenin argumentó que los bolcheviques no debe darse por satisfecho, al igual que casi todos los socialistas rusos de otro modo, con la revolución "burguesa" de febrero. En cambio, los bolcheviques deben seguir adelante con la revolución socialista de los obreros y los campesinos más pobres:

2) La característica específica de la situación actual en Rusia es que el país está pasando de la primera etapa de la revolución-que, debido a la insuficiente conciencia de clase y organización del proletariado, el poder en manos de la burguesía-a su segunda etapa, que debe poner el poder en manos del proletariado y los sectores más pobres de los campesinos. [30]

Lenin sostuvo que esta revolución socialista se lograría por los soviéticos la toma del poder por parte del Gobierno provisional parlamentaria: "No apoyo al Gobierno provisional ... No una república parlamentaria - para volver a una república parlamentaria de los Soviets de diputados obreros sería dar un paso atrás -. sino una república de los Soviets de Trabajadores, Obreros Agrícolas y de diputados campesinos en todo el país, de arriba a abajo " [30]

Para lograr esto, Lenin argumentó, la tarea inmediata de los bolcheviques era hacer campaña con diligencia entre el pueblo ruso para persuadirlos de la necesidad de que el poder soviético:

4) El reconocimiento del hecho de que en la mayoría de los Soviets de diputados obreros, nuestro partido está en minoría, hasta ahora una pequeña minoría, ... y que por lo tanto, nuestra tarea es, siempre y cuando este gobierno se someta a la influencia de la burguesía, para presentar un paciente, sistemática y persistente de la explicación de los errores de su táctica, tenaz y adaptado especialmente a las necesidades prácticas de las masas. [ 30]

Las Tesis de Abril fueron más radicales que prácticamente todo lo que compañeros revolucionarios de Lenin había oído hablar. La política bolchevique anterior había sido como la de los mencheviques en este sentido: que Rusia estaba listo sólo para la burguesía, no socialista, la revolución. Stalin y Kámenev , que había regresado del exilio en Siberia a mediados de marzo y tomado el control del periódico bolchevique Pravda , había estado haciendo campaña por su apoyo al Gobierno provisional. Cuando Lenin presentó sus tesis en una articulación POSDR reunión, que fue abucheado por los mencheviques. Boris Bogdanov llamó "los desvaríos de un loco". De los bolcheviques, sólo Kollontai en un primer momento apoyó las tesis. [31]

Lenin llegó a la revolucionaria tesis de abril, gracias a su trabajo en el exilio en la teoría del imperialismo . A través de su estudio de la política en todo el mundo y la economía, Lenin llegó a ver la política rusa en la perspectiva internacional. En las condiciones de la Primera Guerra Mundial, Lenin creía que, si bien el capitalismo ruso estaba poco desarrollado, una revolución socialista en Rusia podría provocar la revolución en las naciones más avanzadas de Europa, lo que podría ayudar a Rusia a lograr el desarrollo económico y social. AJP Taylor argumentó: "Lenin hizo su revolución por el bien de Europa, no por el bien de Rusia, y que esperaba que la revolución preliminar de Rusia a ser eclipsado, cuando la revolución internacional se llevó a cabo. Lenin no inventó la cortina de hierro. Por el contrario, fue inventado en su contra por los poderes anti-revolucionarios de Europa. Entonces fue llamado el cordón sanitario ". [32]

De este modo, Lenin se alejó de la política anterior bolchevique de perseguir sólo la revolución burguesa en Rusia, y hacia la posición de su compañero revolucionario ruso León Trotsky y su teoría de la revolución permanente , que puede haber influido en Lenin en este momento. [33]

Polémico como lo fue en abril de 1917, el programa de las Tesis de Abril hizo el Partido Bolchevique un refugio político para los rusos desilusionados con el gobierno provisional y la guerra. [34] [2] (pp157-60)

La Revolución de Octubre

Pintura de Lenin en la parte frontal del Instituto Smolny por Isaak Brodsky

En Petrogrado, la insatisfacción con el régimen que culminó en los espontáneos días de julio de disturbios, los trabajadores industriales y militares. [2] (P158-61) Después de haber sido suprimida, estos disturbios fueron acusados ??por el gobierno de Lenin y los bolcheviques. [2] (pp160 1) Aleksandr Kerensky , Aleksinsky Grigori, y otros opositores, también acusó a los bolcheviques de Lenin y, sobre todo de ser imperiales alemanas agentes provocadores , el 17 de julio, León Trotsky, que defendieron: [35]

Una atmósfera insoportable se ha creado, en el que, al igual que nosotros, se asfixia. Están lanzando acusaciones sucias a Lenin y Zinoviev. Lenin ha luchado treinta años de la revolución. He peleado [para] veinte años en contra de la opresión del pueblo. Y no podemos dejar de abrigar un odio hacia el militarismo alemán. . . He sido condenado por un tribunal alemán de ocho meses de prisión por mi lucha contra el militarismo alemán. Esta todo el mundo sabe. Que nadie en esta sala decir que somos mercenarios de Alemania. [36]

En el evento, el Gobierno Provisional arrestó a los bolcheviques y fuera de la ley de su partido, lo que llevó a Lenin a huir a Finlandia. En el exilio, una vez más, reflexionar sobre las jornadas de julio y sus secuelas, Lenin determinó que, para evitar el triunfo de las fuerzas contrarrevolucionarias, el Gobierno provisional debe ser derrocado por un levantamiento armado. [2] (pp162-3) Mientras tanto, publicó Estado y la Revolución (1917) propone el gobierno por la soviets (obreros, soldados y campesinos elegidos los consejos) y no por un órgano parlamentario. [37]

A finales de agosto de 1917, mientras que Lenin estaba escondido en Finlandia, el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército Ruso general Kornilov Lavr envió tropas desde el frente de Petrogrado, en lo que parecía ser un intento de golpe de Estado militar contra el gobierno provisional. Kerenski entró en pánico y se volvió hacia el Soviet de Petrogrado en busca de ayuda, lo que permite a los revolucionarios a organizar a los trabajadores como los Guardias Rojos para defender Petrogrado. El golpe se desvaneció antes de llegar a Petrogrado, gracias a la acción sindical de los obreros de Petrogrado y la falta de voluntad de los soldados cada vez mayor a obedecer a sus oficiales. [38]

Sin embargo, la fe en el gobierno provisional había sido severamente afectada. La consigna de Lenin desde la Tesis de Abril - "Todo el poder a los soviets!" - Se convirtió en más plausible cuanto más el gobierno provisional fue desacreditada en los ojos del público. Los bolcheviques ganaron la mayoría en el Soviet de Petrogrado el 31 de agosto y en el Soviet de Moscú el 5 de septiembre. [39]

En octubre de Lenin regresó de Finlandia. Desde el Instituto Smolny para las niñas, Lenin ordenó al Gobierno Provisional de la deposición (6-8 noviembre de 1917), y el asalto (7-8 de noviembre) del Palacio de Invierno para realizar el Kerensky capitulación que estableció el gobierno bolchevique en Rusia.

La formación de un gobierno

Lenin en el Kremlin de trabajo de 1918

Lenin había argumentado en un artículo de periódico en septiembre de 1917:

El desarrollo pacífico de cualquier revolución es, en general, extremadamente raro y difícil ... pero ... un desarrollo pacífico de la revolución es posible y probable, si toda la energía se transfiere a los soviéticos. La lucha de los partidos por el poder dentro de los Soviets puede proceder pacíficamente, si los soviéticos se hicieron plenamente democrático [40]

La Revolución de Octubre había sido relativamente pacífica. Las fuerzas revolucionarias que ya tenía de facto el control de la capital gracias a la defección de la guarnición de la ciudad. Pocos soldados se habían quedado para defender al gobierno provisional en el Palacio de Invierno . [41] La mayoría de los ciudadanos hubieran seguido en sus quehaceres diarios, mientras que el Gobierno Provisional fue derrocado en realidad. [38]

Por lo tanto, parecía que todo el poder había sido transferido a los soviéticos relativamente pacífica. On the evening of the October Revolution, the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets met, with a Bolshevik- Left SR majority, in the Smolny Institute in Petrograd. When the left-wing Menshevik Martov proposed an all-party Soviet government, the Bolshevik Lunacharsky stated that his party did not oppose the idea. The Bolshevik delegates voted unanimously in favour of the proposal. [ 42 ]

However, not all Russian socialists supported transferring all power to the Soviets. The Right SRs and Mensheviks walked out of this very first session of the Congress of Soviets in protest at the overthrow of the Provisional Government, of which their parties had been members. [ 43 ]

The next day, on the evening of 26 October OS , Lenin attended the Congress of Soviets: undisguised in public for the first time since the July Days, although not yet having regrown his trademark beard. The American journalist John Reed described the man who appeared at about 8:40 pm to "a thundering wave of cheers":

A short, stocky figure, with a big head set down in his shoulders, bald and bulging. Little eyes, a snubbish nose, wide, generous mouth, and heavy chin; clean-shaven now, but already beginning to bristle with the well-known beard of his past and future. Dressed in shabby clothes, his trousers much too long for him. Unimpressive, to be the idol of a mob, loved and revered as perhaps few leaders in history have been. A strange popular leader—a leader purely by virtue of intellect; colourless, humourless, uncompromising and detached, without picturesque idiosyncrasies—but with the power of explaining profound ideas in simple terms, of analysing a concrete situation. And combined with shrewdness, the greatest intellectual audacity. [ 44 ]

According to Reed, Lenin waited for the applause to subside before declaring simply: "We shall now proceed to construct the Socialist order!" Lenin proceeded to propose to the Congress a Decree on Peace , calling on "all the belligerent peoples and to their Governments to begin immediately negotiations for a just and democratic peace", and a Decree on Land , transferring ownership of all "land-owners' estates, and all lands belonging to the Crown, [and] to monasteries" to the Peasants' Soviets. The Congress passed the Decree on Peace unanimously, and the Decree on Land faced only one vote in opposition. [ 45 ]

Having approved these key Bolshevik policies, the Congress of Soviets proceeded to elect the Bolsheviks into power as the Council of People's Commissars by "an enormous majority". [ 46 ] The Bolsheviks offered posts in the Council to the Left SRs : an offer which the Left SRs at first refused, [ 47 ] but later accepted, joining the Bolsheviks in coalition on 12 December OS . [ 48 ] Lenin had suggested that Trotsky take the position of Chairman of the Council—the head of the Soviet government—but Trotsky refused on the grounds that his Jewishness would be controversial, and he took the post of Commissar for Foreign Affairs instead. [ 47 ] Thus Lenin became the head of government in Russia.

Trotsky announced the composition of the new Soviet Central Executive Committee: with a Bolshevik majority, but with places reserved for the representatives of the other parties, including the seceded Right SRs and Mensheviks. Trotsky concluded the Congress: "We welcome into the Government all parties and groups which will adopt our programme." [ 46 ]

Lenin declared in 1920 that "Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the entire country" in modernising Russia into a 20th-century country: [ 49 ]

Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) , drawing by Nikolai Bukharin , 31 March 1927

We must show the peasants that the organisation of industry on the basis of modern, advanced technology, on electrification, which will provide a link between town and country, will put an end to the division between town and country, will make it possible to raise the level of culture in the countryside and to overcome, even in the most remote corners of land, backwardness, ignorance, poverty, disease, and barbarism. [ 50 ]

Yet the Bolshevik Government had to first withdraw Russia from the First World War (1914–18). Facing continuing Imperial German eastward advance, Lenin proposed immediate Russian withdrawal from the West European war; yet, other, doctrinaire [ clarification needed ] Bolshevik leaders (eg Nikolai Bukharin ) advocated continuing in the war to foment revolution in Germany. Lead peace treaty negotiator Leon Trotsky proposed No War, No Peace , an intermediate-stance Russo–German treaty conditional upon neither belligerent annexing conquered lands; the negotiations collapsed, and the Germans renewed their attack, conquering much of the (agricultural) territory of west Russia. Resultantly, Lenin's withdrawal proposal then gained majority support, and, on 3 March 1918, Russia withdrew from the First World War via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , losing much of its European territory. Because of the German threat Lenin moved the Soviet Government from Petrograd to Moscow on 10–11 March 1918. [ 2 ] (p212) [ 51 ]

On 19 January 1918, relying upon the soviets , the Bolsheviks, allied with anarchists and the Socialist Revolutionaries , dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly thereby consolidating the Bolshevik Government's political power. Yet, that left-wing coalition collapsed consequent to the Social Revolutionaries opposing the territorially expensive Brest-Litovsk treaty the Bolsheviks had concorded with Imperial Germany . The anarchists and the Socialist Revolutionaries then joined other political parties in attempting to depose the Bolshevik Government, who defended themselves with persecution and jail for the anti-Bolsheviks.

To initiate the Russian economic recovery, on 21 February 1920, he launched the GOELRO plan , the State Commission for Electrification of Russia (??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????), and also established free universal health care and free education systems, and promulgated the politico-civil rights of women . [ 52 ] Moreover, since 1918, in re-establishing the economy , for the productive business administration of each industrial enterprise in Russia, Lenin proposed a government-accountable leader for each enterprise. Workers could request measures resolving problems, but had to abide the leader's ultimate decision. Although contrary to workers' self-management , such pragmatic industrial administration was essential for efficient production and employment of worker expertise. Yet Lenin's doctrinaire [ clarification needed ] Bolshevik opponents argued that such industrial business management was meant to strengthen State control of labour, and that worker self-management failures were owed to lack of resources, not incompetence. Lenin resolved that problem by licencing (for a month) all workers of most factories; thus historian SA Smith's observation: "By the end of the civil war , not much was left of the democratic forms of industrial administration promoted by the factory committees in 1917, but the government argued that this did not matter since industry had passed into the ownership of a workers' state."

Excavation of Red Terror victims outside the headquarters of the Kharkov Cheka, Summer 1919.

Internationally, Lenin's admiration of the Irish socialist revolutionary James Connolly , led to the USSR's being the first country to grant diplomatic recognition to the Irish Republic that fought the Irish War of Independence from Britain. In the event, Lenin developed a friendship with Connolly's revolutionary son, Roddy Connolly .

Establishing the Cheka

On December 20, 1917, "The Whole-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage", the Cheka ( Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya – Extraordinary Commission) was created by a decree issued by Lenin to defend the Russian Revolution . [ 53 ] The establishment of the Cheka, secret service , headed by Felix Dzerzhinsky , formally consolidated the censorship established earlier, when on "17 November, the Central Executive Committee passed a decree giving the Bolsheviks control over all newsprint and wide powers of closing down newspapers critical of the régime. . . ."; [ 54 ] non-Bolshevik soviets were disbanded; anti-soviet newspapers were closed until Pravda ( Truth ) and Izvestia ( The News ) established their communications monopoly. According to Leonard Schapiro the Bolshevik "refusal to come to terms with the [Revolutionary] socialists, and the dispersal of the Constituent assembly, led to the logical result that revolutionary terror would now be directed, not only against traditional enemies, such as the bourgeoisie or right-wing opponents, but against anyone, be he socialist , worker, or peasant, who opposed Bolshevik rule". [ 55 ] On December 19, 1918, a year after its creation, a resolution was adopted at Lenin's behest that forbade the Bolshevik's own press from publishing "defamatory articles" about the Cheka. [ 56 ] As Lenin put it: "A Good Communist is also a good Chekist ." [ 56 ]

Lenin on anti-Semitism

Jewish children killed in 1905 pogroms of the Russian Empire in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk ); institutionalized persecution of Jews convinced Lenin that they were victims of tsarist oppression.

Lenin was enthusiastic about new mass communication technology like the radio and the gramophone and its capacity for educating Russia's mostly illiterate peasant population. In 1919 Lenin recorded eight speeches on to gramophone records . During the Nikita Khrushchev era (1953–64), seven were published. The eighth speech, which was not published, outlined Lenin's thoughts on anti-Semitism : [ 57 ]

The tsarist police, in alliance with the landowners and the capitalists, organised pogroms against the Jews. The landowners and capitalists tried to divert the hatred of the workers and peasants who were tortured by want against the Jews. ... It is not the Jews who are the enemies of the working people. The enemies of the workers are the capitalists of all countries. Among the Jews there are working people, and they form the majority. They are our brothers, who, like us, are oppressed by capital; they are our comrades in the struggle for socialism. ... The capitalists strive to sow and foment hatred between workers of different faiths, different nations and different races. ... Rich Jews, like rich Russians, and the rich in all countries, are in alliance to oppress, crush, rob, and disunite the workers. ... Shame on those who foment hatred towards the Jews, who foment hatred towards other nations. [ 58 ]

Failed assassinations

Comrades under fire—Lenin and Fritz Platten , 1919

The first occasion was on 14 January 1918 in Petrograd , when assassins ambushed Lenin in his automobile after a speech. He and Fritz Platten were in the back seat when assassins began shooting, and "Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down... Platten's hand was covered in blood, having been grazed by a bullet as he was shielding Lenin". [ 59 ]

The second event was on 30 August 1918, when the Socialist Revolutionary Fanya Kaplan approached Lenin at his automobile after a speech; he was resting a foot on the running board as he spoke with a woman. Kaplan called to Lenin, and when he turned to face her she shot at him three times. The first bullet struck his arm, the second bullet his jaw and neck, and the third missed him, wounding the woman with whom he was speaking; the wounds felled him and he became unconscious. [ 60 ] Fearing in-hospital assassins, Lenin was brought to his Kremlin apartment; physicians decided against removing the bullets lest the surgery endanger his recovery, which proved to be slow.

Pravda publicly ridiculed Fanya Kaplan as a failed assassin, a latter-day Charlotte Corday (the murderess of Jean-Paul Marat ) who could not derail the Russian Revolution, reassuring readers that, immediately after surviving the assassination: "Lenin, shot through twice, with pierced lungs spilling blood, refuses help and goes on his own. The next morning, still threatened with death, he reads papers, listens, learns, and observes to see that the engine of the locomotive that carries us towards global revolution has not stopped working..."; despite unharmed lungs, the neck wound did spill blood into a lung. [ 61 ]

The Russian public remained ignorant of the gravity of the physical wounds of the Soviet Head of State [ citation needed ] . Other than from panegyrics of immortality ( viz. the cult of personality [ citation needed ] ), they knew nothing about the (second) failed assassination attempt, the assassin, Fanya Kaplan , or about Lenin's health [ citation needed ] . Historian Richard Pipes reports that "the impression one gains ... is that the Bolsheviks deliberately underplayed the event to convince the public that, whatever happened to Lenin, they were firmly in control". Moreover, in a letter to his wife (7 September 1918), Leonid Borisovich Krasin , a Tsarist and Soviet régime diplomat , describes the public atmosphere and social response to the failed assassination attempt on 30 August and to Lenin's survival:

As it happens, the attempt to kill Lenin has made him much more popular than he was. One hears a great many people, who are far from having any sympathy with the Bolsheviks, saying that it would be an absolute disaster if Lenin had succumbed to his wounds, as it was first thought he would. And they are quite right, for, in the midst of all this chaos and confusion, he is the backbone of the new body politic, the main support on which everything rests. [ 62 ]

A cult of personality originated from his having survived the second assassination attempt [ citation needed ] . This Lenin, per his intellectual origins and pedigree, disliked and discouraged as the revival of superstition ; nevertheless, his health, as a fifty-three-year-old man, declined from the effects of the two bullet wounds, later aggravated by three strokes , culminating in his death. [ 63 ]

Red Terror

A picture saying, "Comrade Lenin Cleanses the Earth of Filth"

In response to Fanya Kaplan's failed assassination of Lenin on 30 August 1918, and the successful assassination of the Petrograd Cheka chief Moisei Uritsky , Stalin proposed to Lenin "open and systematic mass terror . . . [against] . . . those responsible"; the Bolsheviks instructed Felix Dzerzhinsky to commence a Red Terror , announced in the 1 September 1918 issue of the Krasnaya Gazeta ( Red Gazette ). [ 64 ] To that effect, among other acts, at Moscow, execution lists signed by Lenin authorised the shooting of 25 Tsarist ministers, civil servants, and 765 White Guards in September 1918. [ 65 ] In his Diaries in Exile, 1935 , Leon Trotsky recollected that Lenin authorised the execution of the Russian Royal Family . [ 66 ] However, according to Greg King and Penny Wilson's investigation into the fate of the Romanovs, Trotsky's recollections on this matter, seventeen years after the events described, are unsubstantiated, inaccurate and contradicted by what Trotsky himself said on other occasions. [ 67 ] Most historians say there is enough evidence to prove Lenin ordered the killings. [ 68 ] According to the late Soviet historian Dmitri Volkogonov [ 69 ] :

Indirect evidence shows that the order to execute the royal family was given verbally by Lenin and Sverdlov . The object of 'exterminating the entire Romanov kin' is confirmed by the almost simultaneous murders of Grand Duchess Yelizaveta Feodorovna , Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich , Prince Ivan Konstantinovich , Prince Konstantin Konstantinovich , Prince Igor Konstantinovich and Count Vladimir Paley (son of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich ), all of them in Alapaevsk , a hundred miles from Yekaterinburg .

Earlier, in October, Lev Kamenev and cohort, had warned the Party that terrorist rule was inevitable, given Lenin's assumption of sole command. [ 70 ] In late 1918, when he and Nikolai Bukharin tried curbing Chekist excesses, Lenin over-ruled them; in 1921, via the Politburo , he expanded the Cheka's discretionary death-penalty powers. [ 71 ] [ 72 ]

The foreign-aided White Russian counter-revolution failed for want of popular Russian support, because the Bolshevik proletarian state , protected with "mass terror against enemies of the revolution", was socially organised against the previous capitalist establishment, thus class warfare terrorism in post–Tsarist Russia originated in working class (peasant and worker) anger against the privileged aristocrat classes of the deposed absolute monarchy . [ 73 ] During the Russian Civil War, anti-Bolsheviks faced torture and summary execution , and by May 1919, there were some 16,000 enemies of the people imprisoned in the Tsarist katorga labour camps ; by September 1921 the prisoner populace exceeded 70,000. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ] [ 79 ]

In pursuing their revolution and counter-revolution the White and the Red Russians committed atrocities, against each other and their supporting populaces, yet contemporary historians disagree about equating the terrorisms—because the Red Terror was Bolshevik Government policy (eg Decossackization ) against given social classes , whilst the class-based White Terror was racial and political, against Jews , anti-monarchists, and Communists , (cf. White Movement ). [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Such numbers are recorded in cities occupied by the Bolsheviks:

In Kharkov there were between 2,000 and 3,000 executions in February–June 1919, and another 1,000-2,000 when the town was taken again in December of that year; in Rostov-on-Don , approximately 1,000 in January 1920; in Odessa , 2,200 in May–August 1919, then 1,500-3,000 between February 1920 and February 1921; in Kiev , at least 3,000 in February–August 1919; in Ekaterinodar , at least 3,000 between August 1920 and February 1921; In Armavir , a small town in Kuban , between 2,000 and 3,000 in August–October 1920. The list could go on and on. [ 82 ]

Professor Christopher Read states that though terror was employed at the height of the Civil War fighting, "from 1920 onwards the resort to terror was much reduced and disappeared from Lenin's mainstream discourses and practices". [ 2 ] (p251) However, after a clerical insurrection in the town of Shuia, in a 19 March 1922 letter to Vyacheslav Molotov and the Politburo , Lenin delineated action against defiers of the decreed Bolshevik removal of Orthodox Church valuables: "We must... put down all resistance with such brutality that they will not forget it for several decades... The greater the number of representatives of the reactionary clergy and reactionary bourgeoisie we succeed in executing... the better." [ 83 ] As a result of this letter, historian Orlando Figes estimates that perhaps 8,000 priests and laymen were executed. [ 84 ] And the crushing of the revolts in Kronstadt and Tambov in 1921 resulted in tens of thousands of executions. [ 85 ]

Trotsky , Lenin and Kamenev at the II Party Congress in 1919

Civil War

In 1917, as an anti-imperialist , Lenin said that oppressed peoples had the unconditional right to secede from the Russian Empire; however, at end of the Civil War, the USSR annexed Armenia , Georgia , and Azerbaijan , because the White Movement used them as attack bases. [ 86 ] Lenin pragmatically defended the annexations as geopolitical protection against capitalist imperial depredations. [ 87 ]

To maintain the war-isolated cities, keep the armies fed, and to avoid economic collapse , the Bolshevik government established war communism , via prodrazvyorstka , food requisitioning from the peasantry, for little payment, which peasants resisted with reduced harvests. The Bolsheviks blamed the kulak s' withholding grain to increase profits; but statistics indicate most such business occurred in the black market economy. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] Nonetheless, the prodrazvyorstka resulted in armed confrontations which the Cheka and Red Army suppressed with shooting hostages, poison gas , and labour-camp deportation; yet Lenin increased the requisitioning. [ 80 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ]

The six-year long White–Red civil war, the war communism, the famine of 1921 , which killed an estimated 5 million, and foreign military intervention reduced much of Russia to ruin, and provoked rebellion against the Bolsheviks, the greatest being the Tambov rebellion (1919–21). After the March 1921 left-wing Kronstadt Rebellion mutiny, Lenin replaced war communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP), and successfully rebuilt industry and agriculture . The NEP was his pragmatic recognition of the political and economic realities, despite being a tactical, ideological retreat from the socialist ideal; later, the doctrinaire Joseph Stalin reversed the NEP in consolidating his control of the Communist Party and the USSR.

Lenin and World Revolution

As stated in his Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism Lenin's revolutionary project embraced not just Russia but the world. To implement world revolution the Third or Communist International was convened in Russia in 1919, to replace the discredited Second International. [ 92 ] Lenin dominated the first, second (1920) and third (1921) Congresses of the International and hoped to use the organisation as an agency of international socialist revolution. [ 93 ] After the failure of revolutionary ambitions in Poland, in the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–21, and after various revolutions in Germany and Eastern Europe in 1919 had been crushed, Lenin, increasingly, saw that anti-colonial struggles in the Third World would be the foci of the revolutionary struggle. In 1923 Lenin said:

The outcome of the struggle will be determined by the fact that Russia, India, China, etc,. account for the overwhelming majority of the population of the globe. And during the last few years it is this majority that has been drawn into the struggle for emancipation with extraordinary rapidity, so that in this respect there cannot be the slightest doubt what the final outcome of the world struggle will be. In this sense the complete victory of socialism is fully and absolutely assured. [ 94 ]

Lenin praised Chinese socialist revolutionary leader Sun Yatsen and his Kuomintang party for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Sun, his attempts on social reformation and congratulated him for fighting foreign Imperialism. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ] Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congratulations on the revolution in Russia. [ 98 ] Organised on Leninism , [ 99 ] the Kuomintang was a nationalist revolutionary party, which had been supported by the Soviet Union.

After Lenin's death in 1924, world revolution was soon rejected by his successor Joseph Stalin in favour of Socialism in One Country . This contributed to the split with Leon Trotsky .

Later life and death

Kamenev and Lenin, at Gorki , south of Moscow, 1922

The mental strains of leading a revolution, governing, and fighting a civil war aggravated the physical debilitation consequent to the wounds from the attempted assassinations; Lenin retained a bullet in his neck, until a German surgeon removed it on 24 April 1922. [ 100 ] Among his comrades, Lenin was notable for working almost ceaselessly, fourteen to sixteen hours daily, occupied with minor, major, and routine matters. About the man at his life's end, Volkogonov said:

Lenin was involved in the challenges of delivering fuel into Ivanovo-Vosnesensk ... the provision of clothing for miners, he was solving the question of dynamo construction, drafted dozens of routine documents, orders, trade agreements, was engaged in the allocation of rations, edited books and pamphlets at the request of his comrades, held hearings on the applications of peat , assisted in improving the workings at the "Novii Lessner" factory, clarified in correspondence with the engineer PA Kozmin the feasibility of using wind turbines for the electrification of villages... all the while serving as an adviser to party functionaries almost continuously. [ 101 ]

When already sick, Lenin remembered that, since 1917, he had only rested twice: once, whilst hiding from the Kerensky Provisional Government (when he wrote The State and Revolution ), and whilst recovering from Fanya Kaplan's failed assassination. [ 102 ] In March 1922, when physicians examined him, they found evidence of neither nervous nor organic pathology , but, given his fatigue and the headaches he suffered, they prescribed rest. Upon returning to St. Petersburg in May 1922, Lenin suffered the first of three strokes , which left him unable to speak for weeks, and severely hampered motion in his right side; by June, he had substantially recovered. By August he resumed limited duties, delivering three long speeches in November. In December 1922, he suffered the second stroke that partly paralyzed his right side, he then withdrew from active politics. In March 1923, he suffered the third stroke that rendered him mute and bed-ridden until his death.

During Lenin's sickness (1922–23).

After the first stroke, Lenin dictated government papers to Nadezhda; among them was Lenin's Testament (changing the structure of the soviets), partly inspired by the 1922 Georgian Affair (Russian cultural assimilation of constituent USSR republics [ citation needed ] ), and it criticised high-rank Communists, including Joseph Stalin , Grigory Zinoviev , Lev Kamenev , Nikolai Bukharin , and Leon Trotsky . About the Communist Party's General Secretary (since 1922), Joseph Stalin, Lenin reported that the "unlimited authority" concentrated in him was unacceptable, and suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post." His phrasing, "?????? ??????? ????" , implies "personal rudeness, unnecessary roughness, lack of finesse", flaws "intolerable in a Secretary-General".

At Lenin's death, Nadezhda mailed his testament to the central committee, to be read aloud to the 13th Party Congress in May 1924. However, to remain in power, the ruling troika —Stalin, Kamenev, Zinoviev—suppressed Lenin's Testament ; it was not published until 1925, in the United States, by the American intellectual Max Eastman . In that year, Trotsky published an article minimising the importance of Lenin's Testament , saying that Lenin's notes should not be perceived as a will, that it had been neither concealed, nor violated; [ 103 ] yet he did invoke it in later anti-Stalin polemics. [ 104 ] [ 105 ]

Lenin died at 18.50 hrs, Moscow time, on 21 January 1924, aged 53, at his estate at Gorki settlement (later renamed Gorki Leninskiye ). In the four days that the Bolshevik Leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin lay in state , more than 900,000 mourners viewed his body in the Hall of Columns; among the statesmen who expressed condolences to Russia (the USSR) was Chinese premier Sun Yat-sen , who said:

Lenin in 1923

Through the ages of world history, thousands of leaders and scholars appeared who spoke eloquent words, but these remained words. You, Lenin, were an exception. You not only spoke and taught us, but translated your words into deeds. You created a new country. You showed us the road of joint struggle... You, great man that you are, will live on in the memories of the oppressed people through the centuries. [ 106 ]

Winston Churchill , who encouraged British intervention against the Russian Revolution , in league with the White Movement , to destroy the Bolsheviks and Bolshevism, said:

He alone could have found the way back to the causeway... The Russian people were left floundering in the bog. Their worst misfortune was his birth... their next worst his death. [ 107 ]

Three days after his death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honour, so remaining until 1991, when the USSR dissolved, yet the administrative area remains "Leningrad Oblast". In the early 1920s, the Russian cosmism movement proved so popular that Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov proposed to cryonically preserve Lenin for future resurrection, yet, despite buying the requisite equipment, that was not done. [ 108 ] Instead, the body of VI Lenin was embalmed and permanently exhibited in the Lenin Mausoleum , in Moscow, on 27 January 1924.

Pallbearers Carrying Lenin's Coffin during his funeral, from Paveletsky Rail Terminal to the Labor Temple. Felix Dzerzhinsky at the front with Timofei Sapronov behind him and Lev Kamenev on the left

Despite the official diagnosis of death from stroke consequences, the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov reported that Lenin died of neurosyphilis , according to a publication by V. Lerner and colleagues in the European Journal of Neurology in 2004. The authors also note that "It is possible that future DNA technology applied to Lenin's preserved brain material could ultimately establish or disprove neurosyphilis as the primary cause of Lenin's death." [ 109 ]

In January 2011, United Russia party created a website « goodbyelenin.ru » with voting on a question whether Lenin's body should be buried. [ 110 ] [ 111 ]

Personal life and characteristics

According to Leon Trotsky , who knew him well:

Lenin's outward appearance was distinguished by simplicity and strength. He was below the middle height, with the plebeian features of the Slavonic type of face, brightened by piercing eyes; and his powerful forehead and still more powerful head gave him a marked distinction. [ 112 ]

According to most reports, in his personal life Lenin was a modest and unassuming man. He liked children and cats and his enthusiasms included bicycling, amateur photography, chess, skating, swimming, hunting, music and hiking. [ 113 ] When in exile in Switzerland, Lenin, accompanied by his wife Krupskaya, developed a considerable passion for mountain walking in the Swiss peaks. [ 2 ] (pp20, 64, 132–37) Lenin's personal life is documented in detail in his wife's book Memories of Lenin . [ 2 ] (pp2, 301)

Writings

Lenin the icon: A 1929 Laz language newspaper featuring Lenin's writing

Lenin was a prolific political theoretician and philosopher who wrote about the practical aspects of carrying out a proletarian revolution; he wrote pamphlets, articles, and books, without a stenographer or secretary , until prevented by illness. [ 114 ] He simultaneously corresponded with comrades, allies, and friends, in Russia and world-wide. His Collected Works comprise 54 volumes, each of about 650 pages, translated into English in 45 volumes by Progress Publishers, Moscow 1960–70. [ 115 ] The most influential include:

Soviet censorship of Lenin

After Lenin's death, the USSR selectively censored his writings, to establish the dogma of the infallibility of Lenin, Stalin (his successor), and the Central Committee; [ 116 ] thus, the Soviet fifth edition (55 vols., 1958–65) of Lenin's œuvre deleted the Lenin–Stalin contradictions, and all that was unfavourable to the founder of the USSR. [ 117 ] The historian Richard Pipes published a documentary collection of letters and telegrams excluded from the Soviet fifth edition, proposing that edition as incomplete. [ 118 ]

Legacy

As influential as he was in life, Lenin may have been more so in death. Over 100 million have lined up to view his mummified body . His memory has been used to support every change in Soviet policy and every new regime since his death. His theories inspired the successful revolutions of Fidel Castro , Mao Zedong , and Ho Chi Minh ; as well as countless other revolutionaries in countries full of oppressed and powerless people.
Vladimir Lenin: Voice of Revolution , A&E Biography , 2005 [ 11 ]
Commemorative one rouble coin minted in 1970, in honor of Lenin's 100th birthday.

When Lenin died on January 21, 1924, near Moscow, he was acclaimed as "the greatest genius of mankind" and "the leader and teacher of the peoples of the whole world". [ 10 ] Historian J. Arch Getty has remarked that "Lenin deserves a lot of credit for the notion that the meek can inherit the earth, that there can be a political movement based on social justice and equality". [ 11 ] Time Magazine also named Lenin one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century , [ 119 ] and one of their top 25 political icons of all time; remarking that "for decades, Marxist-Leninist rebellions shook the world while Lenin's embalmed corpse lay in repose in the Red Square ". [ 120 ] Following the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, reverence for Lenin declined among the post-Soviet generations, yet he remains an important historical figure for the Soviet-era generations. [ 121 ]

According to the article in Encyclopædia Britannica written by Professor of Northern Illinois University Albert Resis [ 122 ] :

If the Bolshevik Revolution is-as some people have called it-the most significant political event of the 20th century, then Lenin must for good or ill be considered the century's most significant political leader. Not only in the scholarly circles of the former Soviet Union, but even among many non-Communist scholars, he has been regarded as both the greatest revolutionary leader and revolutionary statesman in history, as well as the greatest revolutionary thinker since Marx

In space, Lenin is commemorated by asteroid 852 Wladilena

Statues and city names

Although many Eastern European countries have removed most statues of Lenin, Russia still retains some. Furthermore, also in 1991, after a contested vote between Communists and liberals, the Leningrad government reverted the city's name to St. Petersburg , whilst the surrounding Leningrad Oblast remained so named; [ 123 ] like-wise the city of Ulyanovsk (VI Lenin's birthplace) remains so named. Gyumri in Armenia was named Leninakan from 1924 to 1990, Khujand in Tajikistan Leninabad from 1936 to 1991.

Lenin's Funeral Van and Lenin's Locomotive

Lenin's locomotive U-127 (Russian Y-127) and Lenin's funeral van No 1691 were preserved at what was the Museum of Lenin's Funeral train . It is now the Museum of the Moscow Railway

U-127 Lenin's Locomotive (a 4-6-0 oil burning De Ghehn Compound locomotive ) at the Museum of the Moscow Railway at Paveletsky Rail Terminal
Van 1691 Lenin's Funeral Van at the Museum of the Moscow Railway at Paveletsky Rail Terminal

In popular culture

Film

Lenin as represented in Sergei Eisenstein 's 1927 film October .

Televisión

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ ?????? ? ???????? - ?. ?. ??????: ???????????? ???????. ( Triumph and Tragedy - IV Stalin : A Political Portrait ) ??????? ?????????? (Dmitriy Volkogonov). Book 1, Part 1, PP. 95 - 114. ??????? Publications. Moscow. 1989.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Read, Christopher (2005). Lenin: A Revolutionary Life . Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415206495 .  
  3. ^ a b c Hill, Christopher (1971). Lenin and the Russian Revolution . Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140212976 .  
  4. ^ "Vladimir Lenin Was Part Jewish, Say Declassified KGB Files" . Time . 13 June 2011 . http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2077413,00.html .  
  5. ^ a b Ronald W. Clark, Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask , London: Faber and Faber (1989), p. 4.
  6. ^ "Moscow Museum Puts Lenin's Jewish Roots on Display" . The New York Times (New York). 23 de mayo Retrieved 27 May 2011 .  
  7. ^ Ronald W. Clark, Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask , London: Faber and Faber (1989), pp. 4, 9.
  8. ^ Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, What Is To Be Done? (1902), Lenin Internet Archive .
  9. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri . Lenin – A New Biography .  
  10. ^ a b c d Lenin entry from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , 1968
  11. ^ a b c d Biography (TV series) - Vladimir Lenin, Voice of Revolution , A&E Network , 2005, ASIN B000AABKX6
  12. ^ Service, Robert . Lenin: A Biography . London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-49139-3 .  
  13. ^ Danilov, Eugene (Moscow, 2007). Lenin: Secrets of Life and Death . Zebra E. p. 181. ISBN 978-5-17-043866-2 .  
  14. ^ J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiy (2007) Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State . Bedford/St Martin's: Boston and New York
  15. ^ Vladimir Iyich Lenin, "New Economic Developments in Peasant Life," contained in Lenin: Collected Works, Volume 1 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1972) pp. 11-73.
  16. ^ See page 11 of Lenin: Collected Works, Volume 1 .
  17. ^ VI Lenin, "On the So-Called Market Question," contained in Lenin: Collected Works, Volume 1 , pp. 75-125.
  18. ^ a b Lenin, Vladimir I. (1899). "The Development of Capitalism in Russia: The Process of the Formation of a Home Market for Large-Scale Industry" . http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1899/devel/index.htm . Retrieved 16 March 2007 .  
  19. ^ Paul Le Blanc (1908) Revolution, Democracy, Socialism, Selected Writings of Lenin . London, Pluto Press p. 9
  20. ^ Rupert Woodfin (2004) Introducing Marxism . Royston: Icon Books: 89–90
  21. ^ Rupert Woodfin (2004) Introducing Marxism . Royston: Icon Books, p. 91
  22. ^ Balaam, David N. and Veseth, Michael (2001). Introduction to International Political Economy (2 ed.). Prentice-Hall. pp. "Lenin developed a perspective on IPE that took Marx's class struggle, based on the mode of production, and used it to explain capitalism's international effects as transmitted through the production and finance structures of rich industrial countries to the poorer developing regions of the world. Lenin's famous summary of his views is Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917)."  
  23. ^ Harding, Neil, Lenin's Political Thought (1986), p. 250.
  24. ^ Clar, Ronald W. Lenin: the Man Behind the Mask (1988) p. 154.
  25. ^ Paul Bowles (2007) Capitalism . Pearson: Harlow: 93
  26. ^ Lenin, VI, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (2000) New Delhi: LeftWord Books p. 34
  27. ^ a b c NK Krupskaya, Reminiscences of Lenin (1933), Krupskaya Internet Archive .
  28. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), p. 384.
  29. ^ Ronald W. Clark, Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask , London: Faber and Faber (1989), pp. 210–1.
  30. ^ a b c Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution (aka The April Theses) (1917), Lenin Internet Archive .
  31. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), p. 388.
  32. ^ AJP Taylor, 'Introduction', in John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World , London: Penguin (1977), xviii.
  33. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), p. 387 n.
  34. ^ Read, Christopher (1996). From Czar to Soviets: The Russian People and Their Revolution, 1917–21 . Oxford University Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-19-521241-X .  
  35. ^ (Russian) Biography of Grigory Aleksinsky, XPOHOC, www.hrono.ru
  36. ^ Trotsky, Leon. "The Month of The Great Slander" . The History of the Russian Revolution; Volume 2,Chapter 27 . http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1930-hrr/ch27.htm .  
  37. ^ Lenin, Vladimir (1917). "The State and Revolution" . http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev/index.htm .  
  38. ^ a b Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press (2008), p. 60.
  39. ^ Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press (2008), pp. 60–1.
  40. ^ VI Lenin, 'The Russian Revolution And Civil War: They Are Trying To Frighten Us With Civil War' , Rabochy Put ('The Workers' Path') No. 12 (29 September 1917), Lenin Internet Archive .
  41. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), pp. 481, 491.
  42. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), pp. 489–90.
  43. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), p. 490.
  44. ^ John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World , London: Penguin (1977), p. 128. (Available online , courtesy of the Marxists Internet Archive .)
  45. ^ John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World , London: Penguin (1977), pp. 129–137. (Available online , courtesy of the Marxists Internet Archive .)
  46. ^ a b John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World , London: Penguin (1977), p. 143. (Available online , courtesy of the Marxists Internet Archive .)
  47. ^ a b Ronald W. Clark, Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask , London: Faber and Faber (1988), p. 279.
  48. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 , London: Pimlico (1996), p. 512.
  49. ^ Lenin "Collected Works", vol. 31, p. 516.
  50. ^ Lenin "Collected Works", vol. 30, p. 335.
  51. ^ LENINE'S MIGRATION A QUEER SCENE , The New York Times , 16 March 1918
  52. ^ "Archive of Lenin's works" . http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/subject/women/index.htm .  
  53. ^ The Impact of Stalin's Leadership in the USSR, 1924–1941 . Nelson Thornes. 2008. pp. 3. ISBN 978-0-7487-8267-3 .  
  54. ^ Leonard Shapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union
  55. ^ Leonard Bertram Schapiro. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970. ISBN 0413279006 p. 183. See also: Lenin and the First Communist Revolutions, V
  56. ^ a b Black Book of Communism , p. 79
  57. ^ Ronald W. Clark, Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask , London: Faber and Faber (1988), ISBN 978-0060158026 , p. 456.
  58. ^ VI Lenin, 'Anti-Jewish Pogroms' (1919), Lenin Internet Archive .
  59. ^ Volkogonov, Dimitri. Lenin – A New Biography . New York: Free Press. pág. 229. ISBN 0-02-933435-7 .  
  60. ^ Pipes, Richard, The Russian Revolution (Vintage Books, 1990) p. 807
  61. ^ Dr. V. Bonch-Bruevich, Lenin's attending physician, Tri Pokusheniia na V. Lenina , 1924.
  62. ^ Krassin, Lubov, Leonid Krassin: His Life and Work, by his wife (1929) Skeffington: London
  63. ^ Clark, Ronald, Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask (1988) p. 373
  64. ^ Red Terror
  65. ^ Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe . Knopf . pp. 57. ISBN 1400040051 .  
  66. ^ Trotskii, Dnevniki i pis'ma , 100-1, cited in Figes, Orlando (1997). A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924 . Penguin Books . pág. 638. ISBN 0198228627 .  
  67. ^ Greg King and Penny Wilson (2003) The Fate of the Romanovs . Hoboken, Wiley: 294
  68. ^ Adrian Blomfield. Russia exonerates Tsar Nicholas II The Telegraph , October 1, 2008.
  69. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri (2006). Lenin: A New Biography . Free Press . pág. 212. ISBN 0-02-933435-7 .  
  70. ^ Orlando Figes . A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. Penguin Books , 1997 ISBN 0198228627 p. 630
  71. ^ Figes, Orlando (1998). A People's Tragedy : The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924 . Penguin. pp. 649. ISBN 0-14-024364-X .  
  72. ^ Volkogonov, Dimitri. Lenin – A New Biography . New York: Free Press. pág. 238. ISBN 0-02-933435-7 .  
  73. ^ Figes, Orlando (1998). A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924 . Penguin. pp. 524–25. ISBN 0-14-024364-X .  
  74. ^ Robert Gellately . Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf , 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 65
  75. ^ Melgunov, Sergei , Red Terror in Russia (1975) Hyperion Pr, ISBN 0-88355-187-X . See: The Record of the Red Terror
  76. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce , Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War (1999) Da Capo Press . pp. 383–385 ISBN 0-306-80909-5
  77. ^ Leggett, George (1987). The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police . Oxford University Press . pp. 197–198. ISBN 0198228627 .  
  78. ^ Orlando Figes . A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. Penguin Books , 1997 ISBN 0198228627 p. 647
  79. ^ Black Book of Communism , p. 80
  80. ^ a b "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls" . http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat1.htm#Russian .  
  81. ^ Black Book of Communism , p. 82
  82. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stephane Courtois, Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression , Harvard University Press , 1999, hardcover, page 106, ISBN 0-674-07608-7 . Chapter 4: The Red Terror Black Book
  83. ^ Pipes, Richard (1996). The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive . Yale University Press. pp. 152–154. ISBN 0-300-06919-7 .  
  84. ^ Figes, Orlando (27 October 1996). "Censored by His Own Regime" . The New York  
  85. ^ Donald Rayfield . Stalin and His Hangmen : The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. Random House , 2004. ISBN 0375506322 p. 85
  86. ^ Pipes, Richard (1994). Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime . Vintage. pp. 141–166. ISBN 0679761845 .  
  87. ^ Lenin, Vladimir (1915). "The Revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination" . http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1915/oct/16.htm .  
  88. ^ "An exchange of letters on the BBC documentary Lenin's Secret Files" . World Socialist Web Site . 6 March 1998. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 16 March 2007 .  
  89. ^ Carr, EH (1966). The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923, Part 2 . pp. 233.   Chase, WJ (1987). Workers, Society and the Soviet State: Labour and Life in Moscow 1918–1929 . pp. 26–27.   Nove, A. (1982). An Economic History of the USSR . pp. 62.   "Flewers, Paul, War Communism in Retrospect" . http://www.whatnextjournal.co.uk/Pages/Back/Wnext5/Warcomm.html .  
  90. ^ Black Book of Communism pp. 92–97, 116–121.
  91. ^ "Lenin and the First Communist Revolutions, VII" . http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/his1g.htm .  
  92. ^ EH Carr (1979) The Russian Revolution From Lenin to Stalin 1917–1929 . London, Macmillan: 14
  93. ^ EH Carr (1979) The Russian Revolution From Lenin to Stalin 1917–1929 . London, Macmillan: 14, 16–17, 46–8
  94. ^ Lenin, quoted in Prabhat Patnaik "Introduction" to Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Revolution . New Delhi, Leftward Books, p. 8
  95. ^ Robert Payne (2008). Mao Tse-Tung Ruler of Red China (reprint ed.). Brownell Press. pág. 22. ISBN 1443725218 . http://books.google.com/books?id=I2cSSVPogpoC&pg=PA22 . Retrieved 2010-06-28 .  
  96. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia . 1980. pág. 237 . http://books.google.com/books?id=vnOFYI3g-N4C . Retrieved 2010-06-28 .  
  97. ^ Aleksandr Mikha?lovich Prokhorov, ed. (1982). Great Soviet encyclopedia, Volume 25 . Macmillan . http://books.google.com/books?id=mF0NAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA237 . Retrieved 2010-06-28 .   (Original from the University of Michigan)
  98. ^ Bernice A Verbyla (2010). Aunt Mae's China . Xulon Press. pág. 170. ISBN 1609574567 . http://books.google.com/books?id=lSVK8qxOsG8C&pg=PA170 . Retrieved 2010-06-28 .  
  99. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost (illustrated ed.). Carroll & Graf Publishers. pág. 504. ISBN 0786714840 . http://books.google.com/books?id=GTgEPrlfvG4C&pg=PA337 . Retrieved 2010-06-28 .  
  100. ^ New York Times
  101. ^ ?????? ? ???????? – ?. ?. ??????: ???????????? ???????. (Triumph and Tragedy – IV Stalin : A Political Portrait) ??????? ?????????? (Dmitriy Volkogonov). Book 1, Part 1, pp. 114. ??????? Publications. Moscow. 1989.
  102. ^ ?????? ? ???????? – ?. ?. ??????: ???????????? ???????. (Triumph and Tragedy – IV Stalin : A Political Portrait) ??????? ?????????? (Dmitriy Volkogonov). Book 1, Part 1, pp. 111. ??????? Publications. Moscow. 1989.
  103. ^ Trotsky, LD, "Concerning Eastman's Book Since Lenin Died", Bolshevik 16; 1 September 1925; p. 68. Concerning Eastman's Book Since Lenin Died minimising its significance. "In several parts of his book, Eastman says that the Central Committee concealed from the Party a number of exceptionally important documents written by Lenin in the last period of his life (it is a matter of letters on the national question, the so-called 'will', and others); there can be no other name for this, than slander against the Central Committee of our Party. . . . Vladimir Ilyich did not leave any 'will', and the very character of his attitude towards the Party, as well as the character of the Party, itself, precluded any possibility of such a 'will'. What is usually referred to as a 'will' in the émigré and foreign bourgeois and Menshevik press (in a manner garbled beyond recognition) is one of Vladimir Ilyich's letters containing advice on organisational matters. The 13th Congress of the Party paid the closest attention to that letter, as to all of the others, and drew from it the conclusions appropriate to the conditions and circumstances of the time. All talk about concealing or violating a 'will' is a malicious invention."
  104. ^ Trotsky, Leon. My Life (1930) The Marxists Internet Archive
  105. ^ Trotsky, Leon (1932). On the Suppressed Testament of Lenin . The Marxists Internet Archive . http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1932/12/lenin.htm . Retrieved 16 March 2007 .  
  106. ^ Gorin, Vadim, Lenin: A Biography (1983) Progress Publishers, pp. 469–70
  107. ^ Mauchline Roberts, Elizabeth, Lenin and the Downfall of Tsarist Russia (1966) p. 92.
  108. ^ See the article: ?.?. ? ?.?. ???????? «?????? ???? ?????», in the book ???????? ?.?. ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????. St. Petersburg: Azbuka, 2003. p. 433.
  109. ^ V. Lerner, Y. Finkelstein and E. Witztum, "The enigma of Lenin's (1870–1924) malady". European Journal of Neurology , 2004, 11: 371–376
  110. ^ En finir avec la momie de Lénine
  111. ^ ??????????? ?? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????
  112. ^ Leon Trotsky (1939) "Lenin" in The Encyclopædia Britannica (Fourteenth Edition): 911–914
  113. ^ Paul Le Blanc (2008) Revolution, Democracy, Socialism – Selected Writings of Lenin . London, Pluto Press: 24–5
  114. ^ ?????? ? ???????? – ?. ?. ??????: ???????????? ???????. (Triumph and Tragedy – IV Stalin : A Political Portrait) ??????? ?????????? ( Dmitri Volkogonov ). Book 1, Part 1, pp. 110. ??????? Publications. Moscow. 1989.
  115. ^ http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/cw/index.htm%7CLenin's Works
  116. ^ Trotsky, Leon (1930). Volume Three: The Triumph of the Soviets; Appendix No. 1 .  
  117. ^ Figes, Orlando (27 October 1996). "Censored by His Own Regime" . The New York Times . http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E1DB1230F934A15753C1A960958260 .  
  118. ^ Pipes, Richard (1999). The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive . Yale University Press. pp. 2-3. ISBN 9780300076622 . "It has long been known to scholars that the fifth, the "complete" edition was in fact far from complete. The two-volume Trotsky Papers , based on the Trotsky Archive at the Harvard Houghton Library, brought to light a number of previously unpublished documents by Lenin. It was also apparent to Western scholars that in addition to omitting entire documents, the editors of the fifth edition had occasionally tampered with Lenin's texts, censoring passages which for one reason or another they judged unfit of republic consumption. But just how incomplete the fifth edition was did not become known until the breakup of the Soviet Union in late 1991, when President Boris Yeltsin ordered Russian archives to be removed from the control of the Communist Party and placed under the authority of state organs. It then transpired that the Central Party Archive, now renamed the Russian Center for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Recent History, or RTsKhIDNI, held no fewer than 6,7724 unpublished Lenin manuscripts—that is, twice the number included in the so-called complete collection!"  
  119. ^ TIME 100: Vladimir Lenin by David Remnick, April 13, 1998.
  120. ^ Top 25 Political Icons: Lenin by Feifei Sun, Time , February 4, 2011
  121. ^ Pipes, Richard (May/June 2004). "Flight From Freedom: What Russians Think and Want" . Foreign  
  122. ^ Resis, Albert. "Vladimir lenin" . Encyclopædia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/335881/Vladimir-Ilich-Lenin . Retrieved August 11, 2011 .  
  123. ^ Maryland Government , St Petersburg/Leningrad Oblast
  124. ^ David Robinson (1981) World Cinema 1895–1980 . London, Methuen: 223

Further reading

External links


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